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Encyclopedia > Swan River Colony
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Swan River Colony was a British settlement established at the Swan River on the west coast of Australia in 1829. Strictly speaking, the Swan River Colony existed only from 1829 until 1832, and encompassed only the lands around and to the south of the Swan River. When the colony's Lieutenant-Governor, Captain (later Admiral Sir) James Stirling, belatedly received his commission in early 1832, the colony was officially referred to by the name Western Australia, and its lands were extended to include the entire western third of Australia. However the name "Swan River Colony" continued to be used informally for many years. Image File history File links Flag_of_Australia. ... The history of Australia began when people first migrated to the Australian continent from the north, at least 40,000-45,000 years ago. ... Adelaide is the capital city of the Australian state of South Australia. ... Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, is named for Sir Thomas Brisbane (1773–1860), British soldier and colonial administrator born in Ayrshire, Scotland. ... The History of Canberra details the development of the city of Canberra from the time before white settlement to Canberras planning by the Chicago architect Walter Burley Griffin and subsequent development to the present day. ... The first settlement in Hobart was started in 1803 as a penal colony at Risdon Cove on the eastern shores of the Derwent River, amid British concerns over the presence of French explorers. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article details the History of Perth from the first human activity in the region to the 20th century. ... History of Sydney stretches back to prehistoric times. ... The first detailed map of the Swan River, drawn by François-Antoine Boniface Heirisson in 1801 Black swan and family The Swan River estuary flows through the city of Perth, in the south west of Western Australia. ... Flag of the Governor of Western Australia The Governor of Western Australia is the representative in Western Australia of Australias head of state, Queen Elizabeth II. The Governor performs important constitutional, ceremonial and community functions, including: presiding over the Executive Council; proroguing and dissolving the Legislative Assembly and the... Admiral Sir James Stirling Admiral Sir James Stirling (January 28, 1791–April 23, 1865) was a British marine officer and colonial administrator. ... Capital Perth Government Const. ...

Contents

European Exploration

The first recorded Europeans to sight land where Perth is now located were Dutch sailors. The Perth skyline veiwed from the Swan River This article is about the urban area of Perth, Western Australia. ...


Most likely the first visitor to the Swan River area was Frederick de Houtman on 19 July 1619, travelling on the ships Dordrecht and Amsterdam. His records indicate he first reached the Western Australian coast at latitude 32°20' which would equate to Rottnest or just south of there. He did not land because of heavy surf, and so proceeded northwards without much investigation. (Appleyard & Manford, 1979) The first detailed map of the Swan River, drawn by François-Antoine Boniface Heirisson in 1801 Black swan and family The Swan River estuary flows through the city of Perth, in the south west of Western Australia. ... Frederick de Houtman (1571—1627) was a Dutch explorer who sailed along the Western coast of Australia (see History of Western Australia) en route to Batavia. ... July 19 is the 200th day (201st in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 165 days remaining. ... Events May 13 - Dutch statesman Johan van Oldenbarnevelt is executed in The Hague after having been accused of treason. ... Latitude, usually denoted symbolically by the Greek letter phi, , gives the location of a place on Earth north or south of the equator. ... Rottnest Island, a popular weekend getaway for both locals and visitors, is located 17 kilometres off the Western Australian coast near Fremantle. ...


On 28 April 1656, the Vergulde Draeck (Gilt Dragon) en route to Batavia (now Jakarta) was shipwrecked only 107 km north of the Swan River near Ledge Point. Of the 193 on board, only 75 made it to shore. A small boat that survived the wreckage then sailed to Batavia for help, but a subsequent search party found none of the survivors. The wreck was rediscovered in 1963. [1] April 28 is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 247 days remaining. ... // Events Mehmed Köprülü becomes Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire. ... // Historical This site is significant in the early European exploration of Australia and parts of the Western Australian coast. ... Jakarta (also Djakarta or DKI Jakarta), formerly known as Sunda Kelapa, Jayakarta and Batavia is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ... The first detailed map of the Swan River, drawn by François-Antoine Boniface Heirisson in 1801 Black swan and family The Swan River estuary flows through the city of Perth, in the south west of Western Australia. ...


In 1658, three ships, also partially searching for the Vergulde Draeck visited the area. The Waekende Boey under Captain S. Volckertszoon, the Elburg under Captain J. Peereboom and the Emeloort under Captain A. Joncke sighted Rottnest but did not proceed any closer to the mainland because of the many reefs. They then travelled north and subsequently found the wreck of the Vergulde Draeck (but still no survivors). They gave an unfavourable opinion of the area partly due to the dangerous reefs. (Appleyard & Manford, 1979) Events January 13 - Edward Sexby, who had plotted against Oliver Cromwell, dies in Tower of London February 6 - Swedish troops of Charles X Gustav of Sweden cross The Great Belt (Storebælt) in Denmark over frozen sea May 1 - Publication of Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial and The Garden of Cyrus by... Rottnest Island, a popular weekend getaway for both locals and visitors, is located 17 kilometres off the Western Australian coast near Fremantle. ...

The first detailed map of the Swan River, drawn by the French in 1801
The first detailed map of the Swan River, drawn by the French in 1801

The Flemish captain Willem de Vlamingh was the next European in the area. Commanding three ships, the Geelvink, Nyptangh and the Wezeltje, he arrived at and named Rottnest on 29 December 1696, and on 10 January 1697 discovered and named the Swan River. His ships couldn't sail up the river because of a sand bar at its mouth, so he sent out a sloop which even then required some dragging over the sand bar. They sailed until reaching mud flats probably near Heirisson Island. They saw some Aboriginals but were not able to meet any close up. Vlamingh was also not impressed with the area, and this was probably the reason for a lack of Dutch exploration from then on. (Appleyard & Manford, 1979) Image File history File links Battye_freycinet_swanriver_lg. ... Image File history File links Battye_freycinet_swanriver_lg. ... Flanders (Dutch: ) has several main meanings: the social, cultural and linguistical, scientific and educational, economical and political community of the Flemings; some prefer to call this the Flemish community (others refer to this as the Flemish nation) which is, with over 6 million inhabitants, the majority of all Belgians; a... Willem de Vlamingh (born 28 November 1640, died ?) was a Dutch sailor who explored the southwest coast of Australia (then New Holland) in the late 17th Century. ... December 29 is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 2 days remaining. ... The year 1696 had the earliest equinoxes and solstices for 400 years in the Gregorian calendar, because this year is a leap year and the Gregorian calendar would have behaved like the Julian calendar since March 1500 had it have been in use that long. ... January 10 is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events September 11 - Battle of Zenta, Prince Eugene of Savoy crushed Ottoman army of Mustafa II September 20 - The Treaty of Ryswick December 2 – St Pauls Cathedral opened in London Peter the Great travels in Europe officially incognito as artilleryman Pjotr Mikhailov Use of palanquins increases in Europe Christopher... Heirisson Island is named after Midshipman Francois Boniface Heirisson, who discovered it in June 1801. ... Australian Aborigines are the main indigenous people of Australia. ...


In 1801, the French ships Geographe captained by Nicolas Baudin and Naturaliste captained by Emmanuel Hamelin visited the area from the south. While the Geographe continued northwards, the Naturaliste remained for a few weeks. A small expedition dragged longboats over the sand bar and explored the Swan River. They also gave unfavourable descriptions regarding any potential settlement due to many mud flats upstream and the sand bar (the sand bar wasn't removed until the 1890s when C. Y. O'Connor built Fremantle harbour). The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Nicolas Baudin Nicolas-Thomas Baudin (February 17, 1754 - September 16, 1803) was a French explorer. ... Baron Jacques Félix Emmanuel Hamelin (October 13, 1768 in Honfleur, Calvados, France - April 23, 1839 in Paris) was a rear admiral of the French navy and later a Baron. ... C. Y. OConnor Charles Yelverton OConnor (11 January 1843–March 10, 1902) was an Irish engineer, who is best-known for his work in Australia, especially the Goldfields Water Supply Scheme. ...


Later in March 1803, the Geographe with another ship Casuarina passed by Rottnest on their way eventually back to France, but did not stop longer than a day or two.[2][3] 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


The next visit to the area was the first Australian-born maritime explorer, Philip Parker King in 1822 on the Bathurst. King was also the son of former Governor Philip Gidley King of New South Wales. However, King also was not impressed with the area. (Appleyard & Manford, 1979) Admiral Phillip Parker King, R.N. F.R.S. (13 December 1793-1856) was an early explorer of the Australian coast. ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Philip Gidley King Naval pioneer and colonial governor Captain Philip Gidley King RN (23 April 1758 – 3 September 1808) was an English naval officer and colonial administrator. ... Capital Sydney Government Const. ...


So, of all the early visitors to the Swan River Colony area, none had a favourable opinion.


Background to the Settlement

The founding father of modern Western Australia was Captain James Stirling who, in 1827, explored the Swan River area in HMS Success which first anchored off Rottnest, and later in Cockburn Sound. He was accompanied by Charles Fraser, the New South Wales botanist. The first detailed map of the Swan River, drawn by François-Antoine Boniface Heirisson in 1801 Black swan and family The Swan River estuary flows through the city of Perth, in the south west of Western Australia. ... Rottnest Island from space The Basin and Bathurst Lighthouse Rottnest Island ( ) is located 19 km off the coast of Western Australia, near Fremantle. ... Charles Fraser or Frazer (1788–22 December 1831) was Colonial Botanist of New South Wales from 1821 to 1831. ... Capital Sydney Government Const. ...

Admiral Sir James Stirling
Admiral Sir James Stirling

Their initial exploration began on the 8 March in a cutter and gig with parties continuing on foot from the 13 March. In late March, the HMS Success moved to Sydney, arriving there on 15 April. Stirling arrived back in England in July 1828, promoting in glowing terms the agricultural potential of the area. His lobbying was for the establishment of a "free" (unlike the now well established penal settlements at New South Wales, Port Arthur and Norfolk Island) colony in the Swan River area with himself as its governor. As a result of these reports, and a rumour in London that the French were about to establish a penal colony in the western part of Australia, possibly at Shark Bay, the Colonial Office assented to the proposal in mid-October 1828. Image File history File links James Stirling Image downloaded from Constutional Centre of Western Australia website File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links James Stirling Image downloaded from Constutional Centre of Western Australia website File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... March 8 is the 67th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (68th in leap years). ... March 13 is the 72nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (73rd in leap years). ... The Sydney Opera House on Sydney Harbour Sydney (pronounced ) is the most populous city in Australia with a metropolitan area population of over 4. ... April 15 is the 105th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (106th in leap years). ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... Capital Sydney Government Const. ... Inside the separate prison, Port Arthur, Tasmania Port Arthur is a town and former convict settlement on the Tasman Peninsula, in Tasmania, Australia. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... DIE!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Italic text ...


A set of regulations were worked out for distributing land to settlers on the basis of land grants. Negotiations for a privately run settlement were also started with a consortium of four gentlemen headed by Potter McQueen, a member of Parliament who had already acquired a large tract of land in New South Wales. The consortium withdrew after the Colonial Office refused to give it preference over independent settlers in selecting land, but one member, Thomas Peel, accepted the terms and proceeded alone. Peel was allocated 500,000 acres (2,000 km²), conditional on his arrival at the colony before November 1, 1829 with 400 settlers. Peel arrived after this date with only 300 settlers, but was still granted 250,000 acres (1000 km²). In no case, no arrangements were made for recompense to Aboriginal peoples for the seizure and expropriation of their land, in violation of British common law principles. The Swan River Colony, established in June 1829, was the only British colony in Australia established on the basis of land grants to settlers. ... Capital Sydney Government Const. ... Thomas Peel (1795-1864) was one of the very early settlers of Western Australia. ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1829 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ...


The events of the settlement

Swan River Colony
ship arrivals in 1829
April 25 HMS Challenger
(Fremantle)
May 31 Parmelia
(Stirling)
June 6 HMS Sulphur
August 5 Calista
August 6 Saint Leonard
August 23 Marquis of Anglesea
September 19 Thompson
September 21 Amity
October 5 Georgiana
October 9 Ephemina
October 12 Orelia
October 12 Cumberland
October 12 Caroline
October 17 Governor Phillip
October 19 Atwick
October 23 Lotus
October 31 Admiral Gifford
November 11 Lion (Lyon)
November 14 Dragon
November 28 HMS Success
December 15 Gilmore
(Peel)
Source: [4]

The first ship to reach the Swan River was the HMS Challenger. After anchoring off Garden Island on April 25, 1829, its Captain Charles Fremantle declared the Swan River Colony for Britain on 2 May 1829. April 25 is the 115th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (116th in leap years). ... Eight ships of the British Royal Navy have been named HMS Challenger, most famously the survey vessel Challenger that carried the Challenger expedition from 1872 to 1876. ... Admiral Sir Charles Howe Fremantle (June 1, 1800 _ May 25, 1869) was a Captain of the British Royal Navy. ... May 31 is the 151st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (152nd in leap years), with 214 days remaining. ... The Parmelia was a barque that was used to transport the first civilian officials and settlers of the Swan River Colony to Western Australia in 1829. ... Admiral Sir James Stirling Admiral Sir James Stirling (January 28, 1791–April 23, 1865) was a British marine officer and colonial administrator. ... June 6 is the 157th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (158th in leap years), with 208 days remaining // 1508 - Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, is defeated in Friulia by Venetian forces; he is forced to sign a three-year truce and cede several territories to Venice 1513... HMS Sulphur was a Royal Navy bomb vessel in which Edward Belcher explored the Pacific coast of South America. ... August 5 is the 217th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (218th in leap years), with 148 days remaining. ... August 6 is the 218th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (219th in leap years), with 147 days remaining. ... August 23 is the 235th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (236th in leap years), with 130 days remaining. ... September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ... September 21 is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years). ... October 5 is the 278th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (279th in Leap years). ... October 9 is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... October 12 is the 285th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (286th in leap years). ... October 12 is the 285th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (286th in leap years). ... October 12 is the 285th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (286th in leap years). ... October 17 is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... October 19 is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... October 23 is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... October 31 is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 61 days remaining. ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... November 14 is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 47 days remaining until the end of the year. ... November 28 is the 332nd day (333rd on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... December 15 is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Thomas Peel (1795-1864) was one of the very early settlers of Western Australia. ... Eight ships of the British Royal Navy have been named HMS Challenger, most famously the survey vessel Challenger that carried the Challenger expedition from 1872 to 1876. ... Garden Island is a slender island about 10 km long and 1. ... April 25 is the 115th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (116th in leap years). ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1829 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Admiral Sir Charles Howe Fremantle (June 1, 1800 _ May 25, 1869) was a Captain of the British Royal Navy. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1829 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


The Parmelia arrived on June 1, HMS Sulphur on June 8. Three merchant ships arrived shortly after: the Calista on August 5, the St Leonard on August 6 and the Marquis of Anglesey on August 23. June 1 is the 152nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (153rd in leap years), with 213 days remaining. ... June 8 is the 159th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (160th in leap years), with 206 days remaining. ... August 5 is the 217th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (218th in leap years), with 148 days remaining. ... August 6 is the 218th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (219th in leap years), with 147 days remaining. ... August 23 is the 235th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (236th in leap years), with 130 days remaining. ...

Map of the 'New Settlement on Swan River'
Map of the 'New Settlement on Swan River'

A series of accidents followed the arrivals which probably nearly caused the abandonment of the expedition. The Challenger and Sulphur both struck rocks while entering Cockburn Sound and were fortunate to escape with only minor damage. The Parmelia however, under Stirlings "over confident pilotage", also ran aground, lost her rudder and damaged her keel, which necessitated extensive repairs. With winter now set in, the settlers were obliged to land on Garden Island. Bad weather and the required repairs to Parmelia meant that the settlers did not manage to move to the mainland until early August. In early September a major disaster occurred: the Marquis of Anglesea was driven ashore during a gale and wrecked beyond repair. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (712x935, 128 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: History of Western Australia Swan River Colony ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (712x935, 128 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: History of Western Australia Swan River Colony ... Cockburn Sound is an inlet of the Indian Ocean on the coast of Western Australia. ... Garden Island is a slender island about 10 km long and 1. ...


The first reports of the new colony arrived back in England in late January 1830. They described the poor conditions and the land as being totally unfit for agriculture. They went on to say that the settlers were in a state of near starvation and (incorrectly) said that the colony had been abandoned. As a result of these reports, many people cancelled their migration plans or diverted to Cape Town or New South Wales. Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... City motto: Spes Bona (Latin: Good Hope) Location of the City of Cape Town in Western Cape Province Province Western Cape Mayor Helen Zille Area  - % water 2,499 km² N/A Population  - Total (2004)  - Density Not ranked 2,893,251 1,158/km² Established 1652 Time zone SAST (UTC+2... Capital Sydney Government Const. ...


Nevertheless a few settlers arrived and additional stores were despatched. By 1832 the settler population of the colony had reached about 1,500 (Aboriginal people were not counted but in the south west have been estimated to number 15,000), but the difficulty of clearing land to grow crops were so great that by 1850 the population had only increased to 5,886. This population had settled mainly around the southwestern coastline at Bunbury, Augusta and Albany. Location of Bunbury, Western Australia The port of Bunbury (, ) is the largest city in Regional Western Australia outside the metropolitan area, and is situated 175 kilometres south of Perth, the state capital. ... Augusta is a town on the south-west coast of Western Australia, where the [Blackwood River] emerges into Flinders Bay. ... Albany, (IPA: ; ; post code: 6330), is a city on the south coast of Western Australia, 408 kilometres south-southeast of Perth. ...


Consequences for Indigenous people

The basic injustice of the settlement, and its violation of common ethical standards of the day was noted by some prominent local people. Lawyer William Naire Clarke in the Inquirer of 1842 stated:

The British Government in colonising Western Australia, incurred a FEARFUL RESPONSIBILITY - a responsibility which no ingenuity can shake off.... the jealousy of a foreign power induced the British Government to take possession and distribut land to the settlers, as conquerors usually do, without obtaining the consent of the natives, who although savages were still the rightful lords of the soil. Great Britain is therefore bound by every principle of honoiur and justice to protect the white population, and is equally bound by humanity to protect the black population, but one glaring error has already been committed; in wresting their possessions from them without any recompense...

An anonymous letter writer to the Perth Gazette in 1833 wrote:

Let us look at that act in which we are all parties concerned: namely the Settlement of the Swan River... Which of us can say he made a rational calculation of the rights of the owners of the soil (when we dispossed them of their country), of the contemplated violation of those rights, of the probable consequences..., of the justification of such an act? Did it never occur to us that in thus extending the domination of Great Britain, in thus acquiring a territory whilst seeking a fortune for ourselves, we were about to perpetuate a monstrous piece of injustice, to dispossess unceremoniously the rightful owners of the soil?... If perchance the murmurings of our conscious made themselves heard, were not its faint whisperings ... drowned ... in acquiring a territory for our country whilst seeking a fortune for ourselves. (27th July 1831)

He went on to say that the first question asked by colonists on arrival was: "'How much land will you give us?' when a more serious question 'What right have you to give us land? What consideration have you given for that right?' But no, the boon was a gift which we were eager to accept; we looked not too scrupulously to the title of the donor." He warned:

We mount this gift horse at the hazard of being challenged for the theft... We owe the Aboriginal inhabitants of this country a debt which as honest, conscientious men we are bound to discharge.

Amongst those who viewed as unethical the taking of land already occupied was a farmer from Scotland, Robert Menli Lyon. He called for the recognition of prior Aboriginal rights to be considered, and considered the new colony had an immense opportunity to act justly. In the Perth Gazette of 1833 he wrote: Robert Menli Lyon (born 1789, date of death unknown) was an early Western Australian settler who became one of the first outspoken advocates of Australian Aboriginal rights and welfare in the colony. ...

How often in the history of human affairs, is the favourable opportunity for the attainment of a great object allowed to pass unimproved and how vain afterwards the tears, or the regrets of the historian ... Man is a moral agent, and can be influenced only by moral considerations.

But Lyon was vilified by the settlers and eventually hounded out of the colony.


The settlement resulted in the seizure of the best lands available to the traditional Aboriginal people, the Whadjuk Noongars who had initially welcomed settlers and given assistance at times of need. Within two years of settlement, Aboriginal peoples suffered their first famine, caused by indiscriminate white hunting of kangaroo and the export of kangaroo skins. 1830 saw the first major measles epidemic strike the Noongar population, killing the young and vulnerable. Unable to explain the deaths except by sorcery, "pay back" reprisal killings within the Aboriginal community also occurred accelerating mortality to levels never seen by the Aboriginal people in pre-contact times. Whadjuk, also called Wadjuk, Whajook and Wadjug, is the name according to Norman Tindale for the Aboriginal group inhabiting the Western Australian region of the Perth bioregion. ... The Noongar (alternate spellings: Nyungar / Nyoongar/Nyoongah)[1], are an indigenous Australian people who live in the southwest corner of Western Australia from Geraldton on the west coast to Esperance on the south coast. ... In epidemiology, an epidemic (from Greek epi- upon + demos people) is a disease that appears as new cases in a given human population, during a given period, at a rate that substantially exceeds what is expected, based on recent experience (the number of new cases in the population during a...


See also

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Category:Swan River Colony

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... The human history of Western Australia spans between the first inhabitants arriving on the northwest coast about 55,000 years ago to events in the twentieth century. ... The Swan River Colony, established in June 1829, was the only British colony in Australia established on the basis of land grants to settlers. ... The Noongar (alternate spellings: Nyungar/Nyoongar/Nyoongah),[1] are an indigenous Australian people who live in the southwest corner of Western Australia from Geraldton on the west coast to Esperance on the south coast. ... Whadjuk, also called Wadjuk, Whajook and Wadjug, is the name according to Norman Tindale for the Aboriginal group inhabiting the Western Australian region of the Perth bioregion. ... The Pindjarup or Pinjareb is the name of the Indigenous Australian group of Nyungar speakers, living in the region of South West Western Australia between Port Kennedy on the coast, north of Mandurah to Australind on the Leschenault Inlet, and between a point between Byford and Armadale on the Darling...

References

  • Appleyard, R. T. and Manford, Toby (1979). The Beginning: European Discovery and Early Settlement of Swan River Western Australia, University of Western Australia Press. ISBN 0-85564-146-0.
  • Fornasiero, Jean; Monteath, Peter and West-Sooby, John. Encountering Terra Australis: the Australian voyages of Nicholas Baudin and Matthew Flinders, Kent Town, South Australia,Wakefield Press,2004. ISBN 1-86254-625-8
  • Marchant, Leslie R. France Australe : the French search for the Southland and subsequent explorations and plans to found a penal colony and strategic base in south western Australia 1503-1826 Perth : Scott Four Colour Print, c1998. ISBN 0958848718
  • Marchant, Leslie R. French Napoleonic Placenames of the South West Coast, Greenwood, WA. R.I.C. Publications, 2004. ISBN 1-74126-094-9
  • Toft, Klaus The Navigators - Flinders vs Baudin, Sydney, Duffy and Snellgrove, 2002. ISBN 1-876631-60-0

  Results from FactBites:
 
Fremantle (568 words)
Fremantle is located on Australia's western coast, at the mouth of the Swan River, 19 kilometres south from Perth.
It was established by British settlers as part of the Swan River Colony in 1829.
Fremantle is considered to be one of Perth's cultural centres, with convict-built colonial era buildings, the old jetty and port, the maritime museum[?], and many other buildings of general historical interest.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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