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Encyclopedia > Swan
Swans
Mute Swans (Cygnus olor)
Mute Swans (Cygnus olor)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Anseriformes
Family: Anatidae
Subfamily: Anserinae
Genus: Cygnus
Bechstein, 1803
Species

6-7 living, see text. Look up swan in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1430x1073, 855 KB) Beskrivelse Copied from the English Wiki: Source: en:Image:Swans. ... Binomial name (Gmelin, 1789) Synonyms Anas olor Gmelin, 1789 Cygnus olor immutabilis var. ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... Families Anhimidae Anseranatidae Anatidae †Dromornithidae †Presbyornithidae The order Anseriformes contains about 150 species of birds in three families: the Anhimidae (the screamers), Anseranatidae (the Magpie-goose), and the Anatidae, which includes over 140 species of waterfowl, among them the ducks, geese, and swans. ... Subfamilies Dendrocygninae Thalassorninae Anserinae Stictonettinae Plectropterinae Tadorninae Anatinae Aythyinae Merginae Oxyurinae and see text Anatidae is the biological family that includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swan. ... Genera Cygnus Coscoroba Anser (including Chen) Branta Cereopsis The Anserinae is a subfamily of the waterfowl family Anatidae. ... Johann Matthäus Bechstein (July 11, 1757 - February 23, 1822) was a German naturalist, forester, and ornithologist. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ...

Synonyms

Cygnanser Kretzoi, 1957 In scientific nomenclature, synonyms are different scientific names used for a single taxon. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ...

Swans are birds of the family Anatidae, which also includes geese and ducks. Swans are grouped with the closely related geese in the subfamily Anserinae where they form the tribe Cygnini. Sometimes, they are considered a distinct subfamily, Cygninae. Swans usually mate for life, though 'divorce' does sometimes occur, particularly following nesting failure. The number of eggs in each clutch ranges from three to eight. For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ... Subfamilies Dendrocygninae Thalassorninae Anserinae Stictonettinae Plectropterinae Tadorninae Anatinae Aythyinae Merginae Oxyurinae and see text Anatidae is the biological family that includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swan. ... Geese redirects here. ... Subfamilies Dendrocygninae Oxyurinae Anatinae Aythyinae Merginae Duck is the common name for a number of species in the Anatidae family of birds. ... ... Genera Cygnus Coscoroba Anser (including Chen) Branta Cereopsis The Anserinae is a subfamily of the waterfowl family Anatidae. ... In biology, a tribe is a taxonomic classification in between family and genus. ...

Contents

Etymology and terminology

The word "swan" is derived from Old English swan, akin to the German Schwan and Dutch zwaan, in turn derived from Indo-European root *swen (to sound, to sing), whence Latin derives sonus (sound). (Webster's New World Dictionary) Young swans are known as cygnets, from the Latin word for swan, cygnus. An adult male is a cob, from Middle English cobbe (leader of a group); an adult female is a pen (origin unknown).


Colouration

The Northern Hemisphere species of swan have pure white plumage but the Southern Hemisphere species are mixed black and white. The Australian Black Swan (Cygnus atratus) is completely black except for the white flight feathers on its wings, and the South American Black-necked Swan has a black neck. Northern hemisphere highlighted in yellow. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... southern hemisphere highlighted in yellow (Antarctica not depicted). ... Binomial name Cygnus atratus Latham, 1790 Subspecies Black Swan New Zealand Swan (extinct) Synonyms Anas atrata Latham, 1790 Chenopis atratus The Black Swan, Cygnus atratus is a large non-migratory waterbird which breeds mainly in the southeast and southwest of Australia. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Binomial name Cygnus melanocoryphus (Molina, 1782) The Black_necked Swan (Cygnus melanocoryphus) is a member of the duck, goose and swan family Anatidae. ...


The legs of swans are dark blackish grey, except for the two South American species, which have pink legs. Bill colour varies: the four subarctic species have black bills with varying amounts of yellow, and all the others are patterned red and black. The Mute Swan and Black-necked Swan have a lump at the base of the bill on the upper mandible. The subarctic is a region in the Northern Hemisphere immediately south of the true Arctic and covering much of Canada and Siberia, the north of Scandinavia, northern Mongolia and the Chinese province of Heilongjiang. ...


Systematics and evolution

All evidence suggests that the genus Cygnus evolved in Europe or western Eurasia during the Miocene, spreading all over the Northern Hemisphere until the Pliocene. When the southern species branched off is not known. The Mute Swan apparently is closest to the Southern Hemisphere Cygnus; its habits of carrying the neck curved (not straight) and the wings fluffed (not flush) as well as its bill color and knob indicate that its closest living relative is actually the Black Swan. Given the biogeography and appearance of the subgenus Olor it seems likely that these are of a more recent origin, as evidence shows by their modern ranges (which were mostly uninhabitable during the last ice age) and great similarity between the taxa. The Miocene Epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23. ... The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5. ... Biogeography is the science which deals with patterns of species distribution and the processes that result in such patterns. ... In biology, a subgenus is a taxonomic grade intermediate between genus and species. ... This article or section should be merged with Wisconsinan glaciation The Wisconsin (in North America), Weichsel (in Scandinavia), Devensian (in the British Isles) or Würm glaciation (in the Alps) is the most recent period of the Ice Age, and ended some 10,000 Before Present (BP). ...


Genus Cygnus

  • Subgenus Cygnus
    • Mute Swan, Cygnus olor, is a circumboreal species that flies with Cygnus Cygnus, the Whooper Swan; Cygnus Bewickii and Cygnus Columbianus (now co-mingled as Tundra Swan) across northern Europe into Russia/Siberia and the Russian Maritimes. It has been documented (The Trumpeter Swan Society) as migrating from Russia onto the American continent, as have both Tundra species and the Whooper. Recent fossil records, according to the British Ornithological Union, show Cygnus olor is among the oldest bird species still extant and it has been upgraded to "native" species in several European countries, since this bird has been found in fossil and bog specimens dating back thousands of years. Common temperate Eurasian species, often semi-domesticated; descendants of domestic flocks are naturalized in the United States and elsewhere.
Cygnus atratus and cygnet.
Cygnus atratus and cygnet.

The fossil record of the genus Cygnus is quite impressive, although allocation to the subgenera is often tentative; as indicated above, at least the early forms probably belong to the C. olor - Southern Hemisphere lineage, whereas the Pleistocene taxa from North America would be placed in Olor. A number of prehistoric species have been described, mostly from the Northern Hemisphere. Among them was the giant Siculo-Maltese C. falconeri which was taller (though not heavier) than the contemporary local dwarf elephants (Elephas falconeri). Binomial name (Gmelin, 1789) Synonyms Anas olor Gmelin, 1789 Cygnus olor immutabilis var. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1170x841, 681 KB) Black Swan (Cygnus atratus) and cygnet. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1170x841, 681 KB) Black Swan (Cygnus atratus) and cygnet. ... Binomial name Cygnus atratus Latham, 1790 Subspecies Black Swan New Zealand Swan (extinct) Synonyms Anas atrata Latham, 1790 Chenopis atratus The Black Swan, Cygnus atratus is a large non-migratory waterbird which breeds mainly in the southeast and southwest of Australia. ... Binomial name Cygnus sumnerensis (Forbes, 1890) The New Zealand Swan (Cygnus sumnerensis) is an extinct bird from the Chatham Islands and the South Island of New Zealand. ... In biology and ecology, extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of species. ... This article is about the zoological term. ... The Chatham Islands from space. ... Binomial name Cygnus melanocoryphus (Molina, 1782) The Black_necked Swan (Cygnus melanocoryphus) is a member of the duck, goose and swan family Anatidae. ... Binomial name Cygnus cygnus (Linnaeus, 1758) Whooper Swan (Cygnus cygnus) is a large Northern Hemisphere swan. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Cygnus buccinator Richardson, 1832 The Trumpeter Swan (Cygnus buccinator) is the largest native North American swan. ... North American redirects here. ... For other uses, see Extinction (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Cygnus columbianus (Ord, 1815) The Tundra Swan (Cygnus columbianus) is a small Northern Hemisphere swan. ... North American redirects here. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Binomial name Cygnus bewickii (Yarrell, 1830) Synonyms Cygnus columbianus bewickii Bewicks Swan (Cygnus bewickii) is a small European swan. ... Binomial name Cygnus columbianus (Ord, 1815) The Tundra Swan (Cygnus columbianus) is a small Northern Hemisphere swan. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Fossil. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Binomial name Parker, 1865[1] Cygnus falconeri, the Giant Swan, was a very large Siculo-Maltese swan known from the Middle Pleistocene. ... Binomial name Elephas falconeri Busk, 1867 Elephas falconeri is an extinct Siculo-Maltese species of elephant closely related to the modern Asian elephant. ...

Mute Swan (Cygnus olor) with nine cygnets
Mute Swan (Cygnus olor) with nine cygnets
Swan eating grass
Swan eating grass
Swan grooming itself
Swan grooming itself

Fossil Swans Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 359 pixelsFull resolution‎ (3,069 × 1,378 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 359 pixelsFull resolution‎ (3,069 × 1,378 pixels, file size: 1. ... Binomial name (Gmelin, 1789) Synonyms Anas olor Gmelin, 1789 Cygnus olor immutabilis var. ...

  • Cygnus csakvarensis (Late Miocene of Hungary) - formerly Cygnanser
  • Cygnus mariae (Early Pliocene of Wickieup, USA)
  • Cygnus verae (Early Pliocene of Sofia, Bulgaria)
  • Cygnus liskunae (Middle Pliocene of W Mongolia)
  • Cygnus hibbardi (?Early Pleistocene of Idaho, USA)
  • Cygnus sp. (Early Pleistocene of Dursunlu, Turkey: Louchart et al. 1998)
  • Giant Swan, Cygnus falconeri (Middle Pleistocene of Malta and Sicily, Mediterranean)
  • Cygnus paloregonus (Middle Pleistocene of WC USA) - includes "Anser" condoni and C. matthewi
  • Cygnus equitum (Middle - Late Pleistocene of Malta and Sicily, Mediterranean)
  • Cygnus lacustris (Late Pleistocene of Lake Eyre region, Australia) - formerly Archaeocygnus
  • Cygnus sp. (Pleistocene of Australia)[citation needed][verification needed]

The supposed fossil swans "Cygnus" bilinicus and "Cygnus" herrenthalsi were, respectively, a stork and some large bird of unknown affinity (due to the bad state of preservation of the referred material). Anser atavus is sometimes placed in Cygnus. Binomial name Cygnus falconeri Parker, 1865[1] Cygnus falconeri, the Giant Swan, was a very large Siculo-Maltese swan known from the Middle Pleistocene. ... For other uses, see Stork (disambiguation). ...


The Coscoroba Swan (Coscoroba coscoroba) from South America, the only species of its genus, is apparently not a true swan. Its phylogenetic position is not fully resolved; it is in some aspects more similar to geese and shelducks. Binomial name Coscoroba coscoroba (Molina, 1782) The Coscoroba Swan (Coscoroba coscoroba) is the smallest species of swan. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Other uses: Goose (disambiguation) Genera Anser Branta Chen Cereopsis † see also: Swan, Duck Anatidae Goose (plural geese) is the general English name for a considerable number of birds, belonging to the family Anatidae. ... Species Synonyms see text Look up shelduck in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

The Trumpeter Swan (Cygnus buccinator) is the largest bird of North America
The Trumpeter Swan (Cygnus buccinator) is the largest bird of North America

North American redirects here. ...

Role in culture

See also: Black Swan emblems and popular culture
The swan figures prominently in the cosmogony of many ancient peoples. This felt artifact was produced by the Scythians some 2,500 years ago (a find from Pazyryk).
A swan depicted on an Irish commemorative coin in celebration of the EU Ascension.
A swan depicted on an Irish commemorative coin in celebration of the EU Ascension.

Many of the cultural aspects refer to the Mute Swan of Europe. Perhaps the best known story about a swan is The Ugly Duckling fable. The story centers around a duckling who is mistreated until it becomes evident he is a swan and is accepted into the habitat. He was mistreated because real ducklings are, according to many, more attractive than a cygnet, yet cygnets become swans, which are very attractive creatures. Swans are often a symbol of love or fidelity because of their long-lasting monogamous relationships. See the famous swan-related operas Lohengrin and Parsifal. In the Irish legend The Wooing of Etain, the king of the Sidhe (subterranean-dwelling, supernatural beings) transforms himself and the most beautiful woman in Ireland, Etain, into swans to escape from the king of Ireland and Ireland's armies. Black Swan emblems and popular culture deals with the uses which have been made of the image of the Black Swan such as emblems, coins, logos, mascots and in the naming of sports teams. ... Image File history File links Hermitageswan. ... Image File history File links Hermitageswan. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Scythians (, also ) or Scyths ([1]; from Greek ), a nation of horse-riding nomadic pastoralists who spoke an Iranian language[2], dominated the Pontic steppe throughout Classical Antiquity. ... Horseman, Pazyryk felt artifact, c. ... For other uses, see The Ugly Duckling (disambiguation). ... Lohengrin is a romantic opera (or music drama) in three acts by Richard Wagner. ... Parsifal is an opera, or music drama, in three acts by Richard Wagner. ... Tochmarc Étaíne (Irish for The Wooing of Étaín) is an Early Irish story in the Mythological Cycle of Early Irish literature, preserved in the Yellow Book of Lecan, Lebor na hUidre, and other manuscripts. ...


In England swans are protected from poaching by law since they are considered property of the Crown.


Swan maidens, shapeshifters who are able to transform from human to swan and vice versa, are a worldwide motif in folklore. The typical tale is of a swan maiden who is temporarily robbed of her powers and forced to marry a human man. The Swan May or Swan Maiden is a legend in which a young, unmarried man steals a magic robe made of swan feathers from a swan maiden so that she will not fly away and winds up marrying her. ... For other uses, see Shapeshifting (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Swans feature strongly in mythology. In Greek mythology, the story of Leda and the Swan recounts that Helen of Troy was conceived in a union of Zeus disguised as a swan and Leda, Queen of Sparta. Other references in classical literature include the belief that upon death the otherwise silent Mute Swan would sing beautifully - hence the phrase swan song; as well as Juvenal's sarcastic reference to a good woman being a "rare bird, as rare on earth as a black swan," from which we get the Latin phrase rara avis, rare bird. For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... Leda and the Swan is a motif from Greek mythology, in which Zeus came to Leda in the form of a swan. ... Helen was the wife of Menelaus and reputed to be the most beautiful woman in the world, and her abduction by Paris brought about the Trojan War. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... Leda and the Swan, 16th-century copy after the lost painting by Michelangelo Leda with the Swan, by Correggio In Greek mythology, Leda (Λήδα) was daughter of the Aetolian king Thestius, and wife of the king Tyndareus, of Sparta. ... For modern day Sparta, see Sparti (municipality). ... For other uses, see Swan Song. ... Woodcut of Juvenal from the Nuremberg Chronicle Decimus Iunius Iuvenalis, Anglicized as Juvenal, was a Roman satiric poet of the late 1st century and early 2nd century. ...


The Irish legend of the Children of Lir is about a stepmother transforming her children into swans for 900 years.
The swan has recently been depicted on an Irish commemorative coin. The Children of Lir (or Children of Lear) is an Irish legend. ...


In Norse mythology, there are two swans that drink from the sacred Well of Urd in the realm of Asgard, home of the gods. According to the Prose Edda, the water of this well is so pure and holy that all things that touch it turn white, including this original pair of swans and all others descended from them. The poem Volundarkvida, or the Lay of Volund, part of the Poetic Edda, also features swan maidens. Norse, Viking or Scandinavian mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian peoples, including those who settled on Iceland, where most of the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ... The Well of Urd (ON: Urðarbrunnr) is from Norse Mythology as the well in Asgard which fed one of the roots of the Yggdrasil. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Aesir (Old Norse Æsir, singular Áss, feminine Ásynja, feminine plural Ásynjur) are the principal pantheon of gods in Norse mythology. ... The Younger Edda, known also as the Prose Edda or Snorris Edda is an Icelandic manual of poetics which also contains many mythological stories. ... Völundr and his brothers marry valkyries who dress in swan skins. ... The Poetic Edda is a collection of Old Norse poems primarily preserved in the Icelandic mediaeval manuscript Codex Regius. ...


In the Russian fable, „Гуси — лебеди“, the swan is a servant of an evil witch who helps her by bringing her children.


In the Finnish epic Kalevala, a swan lives in the Tuoni river located in Tuonela, the underworld realm of the dead. According to the story, whoever killed a swan would perish as well. Jean Sibelius composed the Lemminkäinen Suite based on Kalevala, with the second piece entitled Swan of Tuonela (Tuonelan joutsen). Today, five flying swans are the symbol of the Nordic Countries and the whooper swan (Cygnus cygnus) is the national bird of Finland. The Kalevala is an epic poem which the Finn Elias Lönnrot compiled from Finnish and Karelian folklore in the 19th century. ... Lemminkäisen äiti by Akseli Gallen-Kallela. ... Johan Julius Christian Jean / Janne Sibelius ( ; December 8, 1865 – September 20, 1957) was a Finnish composer of classical music and one of the most notable composers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... The Lemminkäinen Suite is a work written by the Finnish composer Jean Sibelius in the early 1890s. ... The Swan of Tuonela (Tuonelan joutsen) is an 1895 tone poem by the Finland-Swedish composer Jean Sibelius. ... Political map of the Nordic countries and associated territories. ...


In Latin American literature, the Nicaraguan poet Ruben Darío (1867-1916) consecrated the swan as a symbol of artistic inspiration by drawing attention to the constancy of swan imagery in Western culture, beginning with the rape of Leda and ending with Wagner's Lohengrin. Darío's most famous poem in this regard is Blasón - "Coat of Arms" (1896), and his use of the swan made it a symbol for the Modernismo poetic movement that dominated Spanish language poetry from the 1880s until the First World War. Such was the dominance of Modernismo in Spanish language poetry that the Mexican poet Enrique González Martínez attempted to announce the end of Modernismo with a sonnet provocatively entitled, Tuércele el cuello al cisne - "Wring the Swan's Neck" (1910). Latin American literature rose to particular prominence during the second half of the 20th century, largely thanks to the international success of the style known as magical realism. ... Rubén Darío Félix Rubén García Sarmiento (January 18, 1867 – February 6, 1916) was a Nicaraguan poet who wrote under the pseudonym of Rubén Darío. ... For this articles equivalent regarding the East, see Eastern culture. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ... Modernismo is Spanish for modernism, however the term Modernismo indicates a more specific art movement: Modernismo, also known by its Catalan name Modernisme, as term in architecture generally refers to the pre-Art Nouveau style existing; e. ... This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Enrique González Martínez (b. ... The term sonnet derives from the Provençal word sonet and the Italian word sonetto, both meaning little song. ...


Swans are revered in many religions and cultures, especially Hinduism. The Sanskrit word for swan is hamsa or hansa, and it is the vehicle of many deities like the goddess Saraswati. It is mentioned several times in the Vedic literature, and persons who have attained great spiritual capabilities are sometimes called Paramahamsa ("Great Swan") on account of their spiritual grace and ability to travel between various spiritual worlds. In the Vedas, swans are said to reside in the summer on Lake Manasarovar and migrate to Indian lakes for the winter, eat pearls, and separate milk from water in a mixture of both. Hindu iconography typically shows the Mute Swan. It is wrongly supposed by many historians that the word hamsa only refers to a goose, since today swans are no longer found in India, not even in most zoos. However, ornithological checklists clearly classify several species of swans as vagrant birds in India. Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... For the Vedic river, see Saraswati River. ... Veda redirects here. ... Paramahamsa (also paramahansa and paramhansa) -- This is a religio/theological title associated with particular Hindu saints, by their devotees; one thus sees these religious figures referred to as -- Ramakrishna Paramahamsa and Paramahansa Yogananda. Hamsa is only an allegory. ... In Christianity, divine grace refers to the sovereign favour of God for humankind — especially in regard to salvation — irrespective of actions (deeds), earned worth, or proven goodness. ... Lake Manasarovar or Lake Manasa Sarovar (Sanskrit: मानसरोवर; Tibetan: མ་ཕམ་གཡུ་མཚོ།, Mapham Yutso) is a fresh-water lake in Tibet 2000 km from Lhasa. ... Look up Iconography in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the field of zoology. ... Vagrancy is a phenomenon in biology whereby individual animals appear well outside their normal range; individual animals which exhibit vagrancy are known as vagrants. ...


One Chinese idiom about swans is how "a toad wants to eat swan flesh!". This idiom is used derisively on men who desire women who are beyond their station in terms of wealth, social class or beauty. Four-character idioms, or chéng yǔ (成語, literally to become (part of) the language) are widely used in 文言 wényán. ...


The Black Swan is the faunal emblem of the Australian state of Western Australia and swans are featured on the coat of arms of Canberra, the Australian capital. Slogan or Nickname: Wildflower State or the Golden State Other Australian states and territories Capital Perth Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Ken Michael Premier Alan Carpenter (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 15  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2005-06)  - Product ($m)  $107,910 (4th)  - Product per capita  $53,134/person... Image:Canberra coat of arms. ...


Swans play a role in LucasArts' graphic adventure computer game Loom. In the game, swans are shown to be what becomes of members of the Guild of Weavers who are either banished or die. They transcend to a higher plane of existence and become swans. The main character Bobbin's mother was also named Cygna, which is a variation of the word cygnus. LucasArts is an American video game developer and publisher. ... Adventure is a genre of video game typified by exploration, puzzle-solving, interaction with game characters, and a focus on narrative rather than reflex-based challenges. ... Loom is a graphical adventure game originally released in 1990. ...


Today swans are used symbolically or as brands. The Sydney Swans AFL Team uses a swan as its club emblem/mascot, and Swansea City A.F.C.'s mascot is a swan called Cyril the Swan. Swan is also the name of a character in the film "The Warriors." Sydney Swans is an Australian Football League (AFL) club based in Sydney, New South Wales. ... This article is about the national league in Australian rules football. ... Swansea City AFC (Welsh: Clwb Pêl-droed Dinas Abertawe) is a Welsh football team currently playing in the Football League League One. ... Cyril the Swan, photo by Alexander Ridler Cyril the Swan is a fictional giant swan, the official mascot of Swansea City Association Football Club. ...



"The Bonny Swans" is a song from Loreena McKennitt's 1994 album The Mask and Mirror. The Bonny Swans is a track from Canadian musican Loreena McKennitts 1994 album, The Mask and Mirror. ... Loreena McKennitt live on stage Loreena McKennitt, C.M. (b. ... The Mask and Mirror is an album by Loreena McKennitt released in 1994. ...


In the philosophy of science, the discovery of the black swan after centuries of only observing white swans, is often used as an example of the problem of induction. Philosophy of science is the study of assumptions, foundations, and implications of science, especially in the natural sciences and social sciences. ... The problem of induction is the philosophical issue involved in deciding the place of induction in determining empirical truth. ...


References

  • Louchart, Antoine; Mourer-Chauviré, Cécile; Guleç, Erksin; Howell, Francis Clark & White, Tim D. (1998): L'avifaune de Dursunlu, Turquie, Pléistocène inférieur: climat, environnement et biogéographie. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris IIA 327(5): 341-346. [French with English abridged version] doi:10.1016/S1251-8050(98)80053-0  (HTML abstract)

Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Comptes rendus de lAcadémie des Sciences, or simply Comptes rendus, is a French scientific journal which has been published since 1835. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Cygnus
  • Swan videos on the Internet Bird Collection
  • The Swan Sanctuary Shepperton,England
  • Swan photos

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