Fyodorov was born in Proskurov (now Khmelnytskyy, Ukraine), graduated from Rostov Medical Institute, then worked as a practicing ophthalmologist in a small town in Rostov Oblast. In 1960 he performed the first in the Soviet Unionintraocular lens replacement operation. In 1980 he became a head of Moscow Research Institute of Eye Microsurgery.
Fyodorov was a member of Congress of People's Deputies in 1989-1991. He was elected to the lower house of the Russian parlament Duma in 1993. He ran for president in 1996.
Svyatoslav Nikolayevich Fyodorov (Russian: Святослав Николаевич Фёдоров; born August 8, 1927 – June 2, 2000) was a Russian ophthalmologist, eye microsurgeon, creator of radial keratotomy, professor, full member of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Russian Academy of Medical Sciences and politician.
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