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Encyclopedia > Sustainability
The Earth Day flag includes a NASA photo of the Earth.
The Earth Day flag includes a NASA photo of the Earth.

Sustainability is a characteristic of a process or state that can be maintained at a certain level indefinitely. The term, in its environmental usage, refers to the potential longevity of vital human ecological support systems, such as the planet's climatic system, systems of agriculture, industry, forestry, fisheries, and the systems on which they depend. In recent years, public discourse has led to a use of "sustainability" in reference to how long human ecological systems can be expected to be usefully productive. In the past, complex human societies have died out, sometimes as a result of their own growth-associated impacts on ecological support systems. The implication is that modern industrial society, which continues to grow in scale and complexity, will also collapse. Download high resolution version (1085x724, 102 KB)Earth flag created solely from public domain sources and released into the public domain by Derrick Coetzee. ... Download high resolution version (1085x724, 102 KB)Earth flag created solely from public domain sources and released into the public domain by Derrick Coetzee. ... Unofficial Earth Day flag, by John McConnell, including a NASA photo. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... Original caption: View of the Earth as seen by the Apollo 17 crew traveling toward the moon. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... This article is about the natural environment. ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... For other uses, see Climate (disambiguation). ... A decidous beech forest in Slovenia. ... A fishery (plural: fisheries) is an organized effort by humans to catch fish or other aquatic species, an activity known as fishing. ... Young people interacting within an ethnically diverse society. ... For a related concept in sociology, see Social disintegration. ...


The implied preference would be for systems to be productive indefinitely, or be "sustainable." For example, "sustainable agriculture" would develop agricultural systems to last indefinitely; "sustainable development" can be a development of economic systems that last indefinitely, etc. A side discourse relates the term sustainability to longevity of natural ecosystems and reserves (set aside for other-than-human species), but the challenging emphasis has been on human systems and anthropogenic problems, such as anthropogenic climate change, or the depletion of fossil fuel reserves. It has been suggested that Small-scale agriculture be merged into this article or section. ... Sustainable development is a pattern of resource use that aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment so that these needs can be met not only in the present, but in the indefinite future. ... Look up anthropogenic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are fossil source fuels, that is, hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the earth’s crust. ...

Contents

Definitions

Though relatively new, the term "sustainability" has already proved useful. Sustainability discourse is discussion of how to make human economic systems last longer and have less impact on ecological systems, and particularly relates to concern over major global problems relating to climate change and oil depletion. More useful than discussion, however, is to find ways to make some unit of economic production — a business firm, a family household, a farm — more sustainable. To assist in this, it is meaningful and pragmatic to speak of some practices being "more sustainable" or "less sustainable." Thus, energy-saving compact fluorescent light bulbs might be considered more sustainable than incandescent ones, and so on. Given the science, it is more apt to talk of moving "towards sustainability," or away from it. Sustainability advocates would argue that this kind of discourse helps inform debate about human impacts on planet Earth. An economic system is a mechanism which deals with the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services in a particular society. ... Ecological systems- A variety of systems that influence human behavior and emotion. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... Oil depletion is the inescapable result of extracting and consuming oil faster than it can be replaced with artificial equivalents, due to the fact that the formation of new natural petroleum is a continuous geologic process which takes millions of years. ...


One reason many commentators consider sustainability hard to define is the sheer number of meanings of sustainability that abound. The popularity of the term, and the many isolated attempts on the part of governments and other agents to begin sustainability programs, have led to these competing definitions, and much confusion. The often-uttered statement that there "is no agreed-upon definition of sustainability" results from this confusion.


One of the first and most oft-cited definitions of sustainability, and almost certainly the one that will survive for posterity, is the one created by the Brundtland Commission, led by the former Norwegian Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland. The Commission defined sustainable development as development that "meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs."[1] The Brundtland definition thus implicitly argues for the rights of future generations to raw materials and vital ecosystem services to be taken into account in decision making. The Brundtland Commission - formally the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), known by the name of its Chair Gro Harlem Brundtland, was convened by the United Nations in response to the 1983 General Assembly Resolution A/38/161 - Process of preparation of the Environmental Perspective to the Year 2000... Gro Harlem Brundtland [IPA: gro hɑɭɛm brʉntlɑnd] (born April 20, 1939) is a Norwegian politician, diplomat, and physician, and an international leader in sustainable development and public health. ... Sustainable development is a pattern of resource use that aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment so that these needs can be met not only in the present, but in the indefinite future. ...


Sustainability can be defined both qualitatively in words, as an ethical/ecological proposition such as the Brundtland definition above, and quantitatively in terms of system life expectancy and the trajectory of certain factors or terms in the system. Operationalization of the term obviously raises the question of a quantitative definition; in order to set sustainability goals and achieve them, communities have to know whether their efforts are successful or not, so they have to know what to measure. Most recently, the leading attempts at operationalization have given metrics of climate emissions, and their reduction, some level of priority above other metrics. Since the factor of fossil fuel use is necessarily embedded in any meaningful climate emissions metric, climate neutrality (or the state of being climate neutral) is not an unreasonable partial proxy metric for overall sustainability, and is also relatively easy to measure. Many institutional sustainability programs have placed becoming climate neutral at the top of their list of sustainability goals, although the social and deliberative processes by which this prioritization took place is generally unexamined, or only partially examined a priori. Climate Neutral is the concept of reducing or offsetting any greenhouse gases produced by any entity (individual, business, country, etc. ... Climate Neutral is the concept of reducing or offsetting any greenhouse gases produced by any entity (individual, business, country, etc. ...


Other sustainability concerns might be harder to account for because of the complexity of their cycles and systems. Quantitative analysis in sustainability thinking typically uses system dynamics modeling, because systems are often non-linear and so-called feedback loops are key factors. So, for instance, important human ecological sub-systems that could be analyzed or modeled in this way might include the nitrogen cycle, and cycles of other important nutrients, in sustainable agriculture, or the depletion of oil reserves and other fossil energy reserves. One of the key problems in communicating the quantitative impacts of many sustainability issues, such as climate change, oil depletion, or population growth, is that feedback effects often create exponential change. Because the mathematics of exponentiality is not well-understood by ordinary people, and since human nature seems to be to expect linear change, if any, people are often surprised by the speed and rate of change of sustainability phenomena. This has led to recommendations that understanding feedback in dynamic systems be a primary goal of basic environmental education. System dynamics is an approach to understanding the behaviour of complex systems over time. ... For other uses, including Audio feedback, see Feedback (disambiguation) In cybernetics and control theory, feedback is a process whereby some proportion or in general, function, of the output signal of a system is passed (fed back) to the input. ... Schematic representation of the flow of Nitrogen through the environment. ... It has been suggested that Small-scale agriculture be merged into this article or section. ...


According to Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), it stated that in 1980, the term sustainable development was introduced, and it popularised in the 1987 report of the World Commission on Environment and Development (the Brundtland Commission).[2] In the Brundtland Commission, sustainable development was defined as “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”.[3] From this definition, it has been noted by the Commission that it contained two key concepts which are ‘needs’ and ‘limitations’. These can be described as following:


needs, meaning “in particular the essential needs of the world’s poor,” and limitations, meaning “limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organization on the environment’s ability to meet present and future needs”[4]


Conceptual issues in sustainability thinking

Values, purpose, the focus on outcomes

For what purpose are we conserving natural capital? Is the society supported by this capital just and decent, worthy of preservation? Obviously, the work of sustaining a society raises the question of the moral worth of that society. This is clearly a question of ethics or values.


Values vary greatly in detail within and between cultures, as well as between academic disciplines (e.g., between economists and ecologists). [5] The introduction of social values to sustainability goals implies a much more complex and contentious debate, and those focused on ecological impacts tend to strongly resist non-ecological interpretations.


Others see at the heart of the concept of sustainability a fundamental, immutable value set that is best stated as 'parallel care and respect for the ecosystem and for the people within'. From this value set emerges the goal of sustainability: to achieve human and ecosystem longevity and well-being together. Seen in this way, the concept of sustainability is much more than environmental protection in another guise. It is a positive concept that has as much to do with achieving well-being for people and ecosystems as it has to do with reducing ecological stress or environmental impacts. This kind of vision is of course much more debatable or subjective than the simpler definitions such as the Brundtland Definition or the "Daly Rules." The well-being or quality of life of a population is an important concern in economics and political science. ...


At its least, sustainability implies paying attention to comprehensive outcomes of events and actions insofar as they can be anticipated at present. This is known as full cost accounting, or Environmental accounting. This kind of accounting assumes that all aspects of a system can be measured and audited (Environmental audits). In economics, a comprehensive outcome is the entire result of an event or process. ... Full cost accounting (FCA) generally refers to the process of collecting and presenting information (costs as well as advantages) for each proposed alternative when a decision is necessary. ... Environmental accounting can be considered either a subset or superset of accounting proper, because it aims to incorporate both economic and environmental information. ... Environmental audits are intended to quantify environmental performance and environmental position. ...


Environmental accounting can be a limited biological interpretation as in ecological footprint analysis, or may include social factors as in the ICLEITriple Bottom Line standards for urban and community accounts. Obviously, sustainability definitions and metrics that focus on accounting are often less prescriptive of economic systems or of political, philosophical, or religious values. ICLEI - Local Governments for Sustainability is an international association of local governments and national and regional local government organizations that have made a commitment to sustainable development. ... The triple bottom line, measuring organizational (and societal) success; economic, environmental and social. ...


At most, sustainability is clearly intended by some advocates as a means of configuring civilization and human activity so that society, its members and its economies are able to meet their needs and express their greatest potential in the present, while preserving biodiversity and natural ecosystems, and planning and acting for the ability to maintain these ideals in a very long term. It can easily be seen that the definitions and metrices that might result are prescriptive of political, philosophical or religious values. Social engineering is a concept in political science that refers to efforts to systematically manage popular attitudes and social behavior on a large scale, whether by governments or private groups. ... Central New York City. ... Young people interacting within an ethnically diverse society. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ...


The evolution of the concept of Sustainability in engineering design is modern, where it is a fundamental change in philosophy, it is a non linear process driven by internal values instead of compliance in response to imposed requirements. This requires a multi-disciplinary approach to decision making, consideration of long term sustainability over short-term benefits (Hasna, 2007)


Common principles

Despite differences, a number of common principles are embedded in most charters or action programmes to achieve sustainable development, sustainability or sustainable prosperity. These include (Hargroves & Smith 2005, see bibliography):

  • Recognizing the global integration of localities.
  • The need for good governance.

Irreversibility is that property of an event which makes reverting back to the state before the occurrence of the event impossible. ... Restoration ecology is the study of returning degraded ecosystems and landscapes to a reference state where ecological communities and processes are re-established. ... Participation in social science is an umbrella term including different means for the public to directly participate in political, economic, management or other social decisions. ... Sustainable communities are communities planned, built, or modified to promote sustainable living. ... Conservation biology, or conservation ecology, is the science of analyzing and protecting Earths biological diversity. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... Ecological health or ecological integrity or ecological damage is used to refer to symptoms of an ecosystems pending loss of carrying capacity, ability to perform natures services, or pending ecocide due to cumulative causes such as pollution. ... Best Practice is a management idea which asserts that there is a technique, method, process, activity, incentive or reward that is more effective at delivering a particular outcome than any other technique, method, process, etc. ... Human capital refers to the stock of productive skills and technical knowledge embodied in labor. ... Natural capital, as described in the book Natural Capitalism, is a metaphor for the mineral, plant, and animal formations of the Earths biosphere when viewed as a means of production of oxygen, water filter, erosion preventer, or provider of other ecosystem services. ... Continuous improvement is a phrase suggesting that a process or product should always get better as knowledge about it and experience with it accumulates over time. ...

Weak versus strong sustainability

However, a distinction between different 'degrees' of sustainability should be made. The debate currently focuses on the sustainability between economy and the environment which can in other words be considered as between 'natural capital' and 'manufactured/man-made capital'. This is also captured in the 'weak' versus 'strong' sustainability discussions, which began as a debate between conservative British economist Wilfred Beckerman and sustainability founder Herman E. Daly. Natural capital, as described in the book Natural Capitalism, is a metaphor for the mineral, plant, and animal formations of the Earths biosphere when viewed as a means of production of oxygen, water filter, erosion preventer, or provider of other ecosystem services. ... Herman Daly (1938) is an American ecological economist and professor at the School of Public Policy of University of Maryland, College Park in the United States. ...


Weak sustainability is advocated by the Hartwick's Rule, which states that as long as TOTAL capital stays constant, sustainable development can be achieved. As long as the diminishing natural capital stocks are being replaced by gains in the man-made stock, total capital will stay constant and the current level of consumption can continue. The proponents believe that economic growth is beneficial as increased levels of income lead to increased levels of environmental protectionism. This is also known as the 'substitutability paradigm'. There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Income, refers to consumption opportunity gained by an entity within a specified time frame, which is generally expressed in monetary terms. ...


Conversely, strong sustainability, as supported by Herman Daly, holds the view that natural capital and man-made capital are only complementary at best. In order for sustainable development to be achieved, natural capital has to be kept constant independently from man-made capital. This is known as the 'non-substitutability paradigm'. Advocates of weak sustainability thus make a categorical error. So, for instance, and according to Daly, it makes no sense to substitute man-made capital, in the form of fishing boats, for natural capital, in the form of fish stocks, and the attempt to do so usually ends in ecological disaster. Herman Daly is an ecological economist and professor at the School of Public Policy of University of Maryland, College Park in the United States. ...


Population growth and consumption

One of the critical issues in sustainability is that of human overpopulation combined with current lifestyle patterns. Some studies have suggested that the current world population nearly seven billion, is too great to support sustainably,[6] others, such as the book The Improving State of the World, argues that this is sustainable. At current material consumption levels, this challenge for sustainability is distributed unevenly. According to calculations of the ecological footprint, the ecological pressure of a US resident is 12 times that of a resident of India and 24 times that of a Somali resident.[7] Obviously, were the total human population to be reduced, it would be easier to achieve sustainability in most human systems. Equally, reduction of levels of consumption by those nations with large per-capita footprints could have an equal or greater impact. The inclusion of discussion of the factor of population in the overall sustainability debate has led to the accusation, typically from conservative or libertarian economists such as Julian Simon, that sustainability advocates are neo-malthusians. Map of countries by population density (See List of countries by population density. ... Map of countries by population — China and India, the only two countries to have a population greater than one billion, together possess more than a third of the worlds population. ... The Improving State of the World: Why Were Living Longer, Healthier, More Comfortable Lives On a Cleaner Planet is a 2007 book by Indur M. Goklany. ... Julian Lincoln Simon (February 12, 1932–February 8, 1998) was professor of business administration at the University of Maryland and a Senior Fellow at the Cato Institute. ... Neo-malthusianism is a set of doctrines derived from Thomas Malthuss theory that limited resources keep populations in check and reduce economic growth. ...


With the world population continuing to grow, there is increasing pressure on arable land, water, energy, and biological resources to provide enough food while supporting viable ecosystems. World Bank and United Nations studies show that there are over 854 million people who are undernourished. This is due to a combination of lack of food, low incomes, and poor food distribution.[8] According to the UN, world population is projected to grow from the current 6.7 billion to 9.2 billion in 2050 due to the demographic transition. In ecology, an ecosystem is a community of organisms (plant, animal and other living organisms - also referred as biocenose) together with their environment (or biotope), functioning as a unit. ... Demographic transition occurs in societies that transition from high birth rates and high death rates to low birth rates and low death rates as part of the economic development of a country from a pre-industrial to an industrialized economy. ...


With expanding population, the food problem will worsen.[9]


Critics of efforts to reduce population rather than consumption fear that efforts to reduce population growth may lead to human rights violations such as involuntary sterilization and the abandoning of infants to die. Some human-rights watchers report that this is already taking place in China, as a result of its one child per family policy. Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Compulsory sterilization programs are government policies which attempt to force people to undergo surgical sterilization. ... In sociology and biology, infanticide is the practice of intentionally causing the death of an infant of a given species, by members of the same species - often by the mother. ...


It appears inevitable to some commentators[citation needed] that human population numbers will be constrained and brought into some form of equilibrium by the Malthusian limit and in accordance with the Logistic function. In his book Collapse, author Jared Diamond presents several societies where population growth mixed with unsustainable consumption levels have led to collapses in population numbers. A Malthusian catastrophe (sometimes called a Malthusian check, Malthusian crisis, Malthusian dilemma, Malthusian disaster, Malthusian trap, Malthusian controls or Malthusian limit) is a return to subsistence-level conditions as a result of population growth outpacing agricultural production. ... The logistic function or logistic curve is defined by the mathematical formula: for real parameters a, m, n, and . ... Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed cover Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed is a 2005 English-language book by University of California, Los Angeles geography professor Jared M. Diamond. ... Jared Mason Diamond (b. ...


The phenomenon of change resistance

The above concepts focus primarily on the proper practices required to live sustainably. However, there is also the need to consider why there is such strong resistance to adopting sustainable practices.


Barriers to achieving ecological sustainability

There has been long-standing and widespread public awareness of the seriousness of the consequence of overpopulation (e.g., Nelson, 1986; Yankelovitch, et al., 1983; Diamond, Jared (2005) ). Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed cover Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed is a 2005 English-language book by University of California, Los Angeles geography professor Jared M. Diamond. ...


Unruh (2000, 2002) has argued that numerous barriers to sustainability arise because today's technological systems and governing institutions were designed and built for permanence and reliability, not change. In the case of fossil fuel-based systems this is termed "carbon lock-in" and inhibits many change efforts.


Others, particularly Thwink.org, argue that if enough members of the environmental movement adopted a problem solving process that fit the problem, the movement would make the astonishing discovery that the crux of the problem is not what it thought it was. It is not the proper practices or technical side of the problem after all. Any number of these practices would be adequate. Instead the real issue is why is it so difficult to persuade social agents (such as people, corporations, and nations) to adopt the proper practices needed to live sustainably? Thus the heart of the matter is the change resistance or social side of the problem. The environmental movement (a term that sometimes includes the conservation and green movements) is a diverse scientific, social, and political movement. ...


This is generally attributed to “change resistance” (see, e.g., Thwink.org), viewed as involving change in individual values, whether at personal, corporate, or collective levels (see e.g., Stafford Beer). Unfortunately, it has been frequently demonstrated, e.g., in the studies cited, that people’s values are, in general, in the right place. The problem is to enact them. This has led to the preparation of numerous “wish lists”—such as that compiled by Shah, H., & Marks, N. (2004)—drawing together many recommendations for government action. Anthony Stafford Beer (September 25, 1926 - August 23, 2002) was a theorist in operational research and management cybernetics. ...


Government and individual failure to act on the available information is widely attributed to personal greed (deemed to be inherent in human nature) especially on the part of international capitalists. But even Karl Marx did not suggest this, instead highlighting sociological processes which have been in operation for thousands of years.[citation needed] Murray Bookchin likewise documents this process over millennia, describing, in detail, the factors that were operational at each transition point.[citation needed] If fault is to be found with Marx's work it can be argued that it lies elsewhere. Because he believed that the collapse of capitalism was imminent, he never discussed how to run society in an innovative way in the long term public interest. Strangely, Bookchin, in the end, does not suggest how to intervene in and harness the sociocybernetic processes he has identified but contents himself with an account of requisite features of a sustainable society derived from his analysis of organic (primordial) societies.[citation needed] Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Murray Bookchin[1] (born January 14, 1921) is an American libertarian socialist speaker and writer, and founder of the Social Ecology school of anarchist and ecological thought. ...


Two things seem to follow from this brief discussion.

  1. It is vital to follow up the study of the sociocybernetic, or systems (see also systems theory), processes which, it seems, primarily control what happens in society.
  2. We should use the social-science-based insights already available to evolve forms of Public management that will act on information in an innovative way in the long term public interest.[citation needed]

Public administration includes many routine concerns that are only distinct from private management in the goals advanced, the types of infrastructure used, and the scale. ...

Precautionary principle

The precautionary principle states that if there is a risk that an action could cause harm, and there is a lack of scientific consensus on the matter, the burden of proof is on those who would support taking the action. The precautionary principle is a moral and political principle which states that if an action or policy might cause severe or irreversible harm to the public, in the absence of a scientific consensus that harm would not ensue, the burden of proof falls on those who would advocate taking the...

When competing "experts" recommend diametrically opposing paths of action regarding resources, carrying capacity, sustainability, and the future, we serve the cause of sustainability by choosing the conservative path, which is defined as the path that would leave society in the less precarious position if the chosen path turns out to be the wrong path.[10]

Cleaner Production aims at applying the precautionary principle to industrial processes. The objective is to minimize waste, emissions, energy consumption by optimizing the organization and technology of production, and increasing the use of renewable resources. This article or section needs to be wikified. ...


See also

Sustainable development portal

Image File history File links Sustainable_development. ... Agenda 21 is a programme run by the United Nations (UN) related to sustainable development. ... Appropriate technology is technology that is appropriate to the environmental, cultural and economic situation it is intended for. ... Bioregionalism is a term used to describe an approach to political, cultural, and environmental issues based on naturally-defined regional areas, consistent with the concept of bioregions, or ecoregions. ... This article is about the environmentalist movement. ... This article or section needs to be wikified. ... Corporate Sustainability Corporate Sustainability is an evolution on more traditional phrases describing ethical corporate practice. ... Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things ( ISBN 0865475873 ) is a 2002 book by German chemist Michael Braungart and architect William McDonough. ... The Earth Charter is a declaration of fundamental values and principles for building a just, sustainable, and peaceful global society in the 21st century. ... Ecological economics is a transdisciplinary field of academic research that addresses the dynamic and spatial interdependence between human economies and natural ecosystems. ... Ecosharing is an environmental ethic for people to live by: that their own impact on the Earth’s biosphere be limited to no more than their own fair ecoshare. ... Futures studies researches the medium-term to long-term future of societies and of the physical world, mechanisms of change, and the driving forces of change. ... Oral contraceptives. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Green design (also referred to as sustainable design, eco-design, or design for environment) is the catch-all term for a growing trend within the fields of architecture, landscape architecture, engineering, industrial design and interior design. ... The Hannover Principles should be seen as a living document committed to the transformation and growth in the understanding of our interdependence with nature, so that they may adapt as our knowledge of the world evolves. ... Industrial ecology is the shifting of industrial process from open loop systems, in which resource and capital investments move through the system to become waste, to a closed loop system where wastes become inputs for new processes. ... Material efficiency is a description or metric which expresses the degree to which a construction project or physical process is carried out in a manner which consumes, incorporates, or wastes more or less of a given material compared to some standard. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Map of countries by population density (See List of countries by population density. ... For other uses, see Peak oil (disambiguation). ... Permaculture Mandala summarising the ethics and principles of permaculture design. ... A product service system (PSS) is a method of economic consumption for obtaining access to goods, as an alternative to personal product ownership. ... The second law of thermodynamics is an expression of the universal law of increasing entropy. ... Simple living (or voluntary simplicity) is a lifestyle individuals choose to minimize the more-is-better pursuit of wealth and consumption. ... The soft energy path is an energy use and development strategy delineated and promoted by some energy experts and activists, such as Amory Lovins and Tom Bender; in Canada, David Suzuki has been a very prominent (if less specialized) proponent. ... The steady-state is a condition of the economy in which output per worker and capital per worker do not change over time. ... The triple bottom line, measuring organizational (and societal) success; economic, environmental and social. ...

Other sustainability articles

In 2003, Maine brought attention to the qualitative nature of sustainability discourses and suggested that they needed to become more quantitative, with an associated sustainability metric and indicators or index. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Sustainable Advertising addresses the carbon footprint associated with the production & distribution of print advertising in the media as a contributing factor to global climate change. ... It has been suggested that Small-scale agriculture be merged into this article or section. ... Sustainable architecture applies techniques of sustainable design to architecture. ... There are many initiatives to improve business practices around the use of renewable resources, the environmental and human rights impact of business practices. ... A more sustainable city, or Eco-city, has fewer inputs (of energy, water, food etc) and fewer waste products (heat, air pollution, water pollution etc) than a less sustainable city. ... The Sustainable Communities Plan was launched in 2003 and is a key policy of the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister in guiding its regeneration and departmental objectives. ... Sustainable communities are communities planned, built, or modified to promote sustainable living. ... Sustainable design (also referred to as green design, eco-design, or design for environment) is the art of designing physical objects and the built environment to comply with the principles of economic, social, and ecological sustainability. ... Sustainable development is a pattern of resource use that aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment so that these needs can be met not only in the present, but in the indefinite future. ... Overfishing is a situation where one or more fish stocks are reduced below predefined levels of acceptance by fishing activities. ... It has been suggested that American Tree Farm System be merged into this article or section. ... Sustainable forestry is a forest management concept. ... The earliest mention of the phrase sustainable industries appeared in 1990 in a story about a Japanese group reforesting a tropical forest to help create sustainable industries for the local populace. ... Sustainable landscape architecture is a category of sustainable design concerned with the planning and design of outdoor space. ... Sustainable living refers to an individual or societys lifestyle that can be sustained with limited exhaustion of natural resources. ... The term sustainable municipal infrastructure is used by the Federation of Canadian Municipalities, Infrastructure Canada, National Research Council of Canada and Canadian Public Works Association to describe the goal of their FCM InfraGuide project. ... Sustainable procurement is a spending and investment process typically associated with public policy, although it is equally applicable to the private sector. ... There are many different definitions of sustainable tourism that have been developed over the last decade. ... Girl on a bicycle in a car free area in Frankfurt Sustainable transport is a phrase which was coined in the late 20th century to describe all forms of transport which minimise emissions of carbon dioxide and pollutants. ... Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) are designed to reduce the potential of flooding on new and existing urban developments. ... Sustainable urban infrastructure is a term used to describe infrastructure that facilitates a place or regions progress towards the goal of sustainable living. ... The sustainable yield of natural capital is the ecological yield that can be extracted without reducing the base of capital itself, i. ...

Notes and references

Footnotes

  1. ^ United Nations. 1987. "Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development." General Assembly Resolution 42/187, 11 December 1987. Retrieved: 2007-04-12
  2. ^ Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). (1997). Towards sustainable transportation : conference organised by the OECD, hosted by the Government of Canada, Vancouver, British Columbia, 24-27 March 1996 : conference highlights and overview of issues, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris.
  3. ^ Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). (1997). Towards sustainable transportation : conference organised by the OECD, hosted by the Government of Canada, Vancouver, British Columbia, 24-27 March 1996 : conference highlights and overview of issues, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris. Page 10
  4. ^ Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). (1997). Towards sustainable transportation : conference organised by the OECD, hosted by the Government of Canada, Vancouver, British Columbia, 24-27 March 1996 : conference highlights and overview of issues, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris. Page 10
  5. ^ Tisdell, C. 1988. Sustainable development: Differing perspectives of ecologists and economists, and relevance to LDCs. World Development 16(3): 373-384.
  6. ^ E. O. Wilson, The future of life, 2001
  7. ^ Global Footprint Network "National Footprints". Download National Footprint Results in .xls format. Retrieved on: August 4, 2007.
  8. ^ World Hunger Education Service World Hunger Facts 2008. Retrieved on: February 10, 2008.
  9. ^ Pimentel, D, X. Huang, A. Cordova, and M. Pimentel (1996). "Impact of Population Growth on Food Supplies and Environment". Paper presented at AAAS Annual Meeting, Baltimore, February 1996. Population and Development Review. Retrieved on August 4, 2007.
  10. ^ Bartlett, A. (1997). "Reflections on Sustainability, Population Growth and the Environment -- Revisited". Renewable Resources Journal, 15, 4, Winter 1997-98. Retrieved on: August 4, 2007.

Clement Allan Tisdell (born 18 November 1939 in Taree, New South Wales) is an Australian economist and Emeritus Professor at the University of Queensland. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... AAAS is an acronym. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

References

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

Bibliography

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  • AtKisson, A. 1999. Believing Cassandra, An Optimist looks at a Pessimist’s World, Chelsea Green Publishing., White River Junction, VT
  • Bartlett, A. 1998. "Reflections on Sustainability, Population Growth, and the Environment—Revisited" revised version (January 1998) of paper first published in Population & Environment, Vol. 16, No. 1, September 1994, pp. 5-35.
  • Benyus, J. 1997. Biomimicry: Innovations Inspired by Nature, William Morrow, New York
  • Bookchin, M. 2005. The Ecology of Freedom: the emergence and dissolutioni of hierarchy. Oakland, CA: AK Press.
  • Brown, M.T. and Ulgiati, S 1999. Emergy Evaluation of Natural Capital and Biosphere Services, AMBIO, Vol.28, No.6, Sept. 1999.
  • Brundtland, G.H. (ed.), (1987), Our common future: The World Commission on Environment and Development, Oxford, Oxford University Press.
  • Costanza, Robert, Lisa J. Graumlich, and Will Steffen (eds.), (2007), Sustainability or Collapse? An Integrated History and Future of People on Earth, The MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-03366-4.
  • Dalal-Clayton, B. (1993) Modified Eia And Indicators Of Sustainability: First Steps Towards Sustainability Analysis, Environmental Planning Issues No.1, International Institute For Environment And Development, Environmental Planning Group.
  • Daly H. 1996. Beyond Growth: The Economics of Sustainable Development. Boston: Beacon Press. ISBN 0-8070-4709-0
  • Daly H. and J. Cobb. 1989. For the Common Good: Redirecting the Economy Toward Community, the Environment, and a Sustainable Future. Boston: Beacon Press. ISBN 0-8070-4705-8 Review
  • Dean, J. W. (2006). Conservatives Without Conscience. New York: Viking Penguin.
  • Ekins, P. (Ed.). (1986). The Living Economy. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  • Hargroves, K. and M. Smith (Eds.) 2005. The Natural Advantage of Nations: Business Opportunities, Innovation and Governance in the 21st Century. ISBN 1-84407-121-9, 525 pages. Earthscan/James&James. (See the books online companion at www.thenaturaladvantage.info)
  • Hawken, Paul, Lovins, Amory and Lovins, L. H. 1999. Natural Capitalism: Creating the Next Industrial Revolution, Earthscan, London (Downloadable from www.natcap.org)
  • International Institute for Sustainable Development (1996) Global Tomorrow Coalition Sustainable Development Tool Kit: A Sample Policy Framework, Chapter 4.
  • Jarzombek, Mark. "Sustainability—Architecture: between Fuzzy Systems and Wicked Problems," Blueprints 21/1 (Winter 2003), pp. 6-9; and LOG 8 (Summer 206) 7-13.
  • Kriegman, O. 2006. Dawn of the Cosmopolitan: The Hope of a Global Citizens Movement. Boston: Tellus Institute.
  • Kull, Kalevi; Kukk, Toomas; Lotman, Aleksei 2003. When culture supports biodiversity: The case of the wooded meadow. In: Roepstrorff, Andreas; Bubandt, Nils; Kull, Kalevi (eds.), Imagining Nature: Practices of Cosmology and Identity. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press, 76-96.
  • Lane, R. E. (1991). The Market Experience. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Marks, N., Simms, A., Thompson, S., and Abdallah, S. (2006).The (Un)happy Planet Index. London: New Economics Foundation. Downloadable from www.neweconomics.org
  • McDonough, W. & Braungart, M. (2002). Cradle to Cradle. North Point Press
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  • Richardson, B.J. and Wood, S. (eds) (2006). Environmental Law for Sustainability: A Reader, Hart Publishing, Oxford.
  • Robèrt, Karl-Henrik. (2002). The Natural Step Story: Seeding a Quiet Revolution. Gabriola Island, BC: New Society Publishers.
  • Rolando, Leveious (2008). Children and Youth in Sustainable Development. New York: HUGS Movement.
  • Shah, H., & Marks, N. (2004). A Well-being Manifesto for a Flourishing Society. London: New Economics Foundation.
  • Sinclair, Fiona, D. (2007). "What is Sustainability"
  • Steffen, Alex (2006). Worldchanging: A User's Guide to the 21st Century. Abrams, New York.
  • Trainer, F. E. (Ed.). (1990). A rejection of the Brundtland Report. International Foundation for the Development of Alternatives Dossier, 77, May-June, 71-85.
  • Unruh, G. (2000). Understanding Carbon Lock-in, Energy Policy, Volume 28, Issue 12, October, 817–830.
  • Unruh, G. (2002). Escaping Carbon Lock-in, Energy Policy, Volume 30, Issue 4, March, 317-325.
  • Yankelovitch, D., Zetterberg, H., Strumpel, B., Shanks, M., et al. (1983). Work and Human Values. New York: Aspen Institute for Humanistic Studies.
  • Young, L. & J. Hamshire 2000. Promoting Practical Sustainability. Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID), Canberra Australia, ISBN 0-642-45058-7. Free copies available at AusAID Public Affairs, GPO Box 887, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia.

Gro Harlem Brundtland [IPA: gro hɑɭɛm brʉntlɑnd] (born April 20, 1939) is a Norwegian politician, diplomat, and physician, and an international leader in sustainable development and public health. ... Paul Hawken is an environmentalist, entrepreneur, journalist, and best-selling author. ... Amory Lovins Amory Bloch Lovins (born November 13, 1947 in Washington, DC) was trained in physics and has worked professionally as an environmentalist. ... Mark Jarzombek is a US-born author and architectural historian, and (since 1995) Director of the History Theory Criticism Section of the Department of Architecture at MIT, Cambridge MA, USA. Jarzombek received his architectural training at the ETH Zurich, where he graduated in 1980. ...

External links

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  • Sustainability at the Open Directory Project
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  • Wikia has a wiki on this subject: Sustainable Community Action
  • AAAS Center for Science, Innovation and Sustainability [1]
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  • Goethe-Institut: Dossier - On the Path to a Culture of Sustainability [3]
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Monitoring for Sustainability (2998 words)
What many refer to as the “sustainability process” summarizes a set of behaviors or actions that they believe will help them achieve a state of sustainability, whether they mean it as an absolute state or as a range of conditions.
The fundamental problem with the sustained yield perspective is that it fails to recognize that management activities influence joint-production land systems that constantly provide soil, water, air, plant and animal material, portions of which humans use as resources.
He suggests that the challenges are twofold and require first to identify social goals related to sustainability and those that are unrelated and second to conduct an assessment (e.g., historical analysis) to show that a particular aspect of well-being has been missing in societies that are unsustainable.
Sustainability - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3365 words)
Sustainability is a systemic concept, relating to the continuity of economic, social, institutional and environmental aspects of human society, as well as the non-human environment.
There is also a positive way to view sustainability: though values vary greatly in detail within and between cultures, at the heart of the concept of sustainability there is a fundamental, immutable value set that is best stated as 'parallel care and respect for the ecosystem and for the people within'.
The need for sustainability analysis and particularly for indicators of sustainability is a key requirement to implement and monitor the development of national sustainable development plans, as required by Agenda 21 agreed at UNCED in June 1992.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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