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Encyclopedia > Suspension bridge
Suspension bridge
An early bridge of this type, the Clifton Suspension Bridge
An early bridge of this type, the
Clifton Suspension Bridge
Ancestor: Simple suspension bridge
Related: None, but see also cable stayed bridge and compression arch suspended-deck bridge
Descendant: Self-anchored suspension bridge
Carries: Pedestrians, automobiles, trucks, light rail
Span range: Medium to long
Material: Steel rope, multiple steel wire strand cables or forged or cast chain links
Movable: No
Design effort: medium
Falsework required: No

A suspension bridge is a type of bridge where the main load-bearing elements are hung from suspension cables. While modern suspension bridges with level decks date from the early 19th century, earlier types are reported from the 3rd century BC. Simple suspension bridges, for use by pedestrians and livestock, are still constructed, based upon the ancient Inca rope bridge. Clifton Suspension Bridge over the River Avon in Bristol, England. ... The Clifton Suspension Bridge is a suspension bridge, spanning the Avon Gorge and linking Clifton in Bristol to Leigh Woods in North Somerset, England. ... A simple suspension bridge is an early bridge type and is still formed from native materials, chiefly grass rope, in some areas of South America. ... Sunshine Skyway, Tampa Bay, Florida Millau viaduct in France A cable_stayed bridge is a bridge that consists of one or more pillars, with cables supporting the roadbed. ... The Tyne Bridge, in green, with many of the Tynes other bridges pictured behind it. ... A self-anchored suspension bridge is a type of bridge combining elements of a suspended-deck suspension bridge and a cable-stayed bridge. ... Look up Pedestrian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Car redirects here. ... For other uses, see Truck (disambiguation). ... This article is about light rail systems in general. ... The old steel cable of a colliery winding tower Steel is a metal alloy whose major component is iron, with carbon being the primary alloying material. ... Falseworks are temporary structures used in the building of bridges and other arched structures in order to hold the item in place until its building is sufficiently far advanced to support itself. ... This article is about the structure. ... A cable is two or more wires or optical fibers bound together, typically in a common protective jacket or sheath. ... A simple suspension bridge is an early bridge type and is still formed from native materials, chiefly grass rope, in some areas of South America. ... Look up Pedestrian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Inca rope bridges were simple suspension bridges over canyons and gorges (pongos) to provide access for the Inca Empire. ...


Suspended well from two high locations over a river or canyon, simple suspension bridges follow a shallow downward arc and are not suited for modern roads and railroads. Advances in materials and design led to the development of the suspended-deck suspension bridge, a modern bridge capable of carrying vehicles and light rail. Instead of the deck following the downward arc of the main load-bearing cables (or chains), these cables are suspended between towers, and vertical suspender cables carry the weight of the deck below, upon which traffic crosses. This arrangement allows the deck to be level or to arc slightly upward for additional clearance. Vehicles are non-living means of transport. ... This article is about light rail systems in general. ... For other uses, see Cable (disambiguation). ...


The suspension cables must be anchored at each end of the bridge, since any load applied to the bridge is transformed into a tension in these main cables. The main cables continue beyond the pillars to deck-level supports, and further continue to connections with anchors in the ground (An exception is the Royal Albert Bridge (1859) where the anchors are replaced by an arch between the columns.) The roadway is supported by vertical suspender cables or rods, called hangers. In some circumstances the towers may sit on a bluff or canyon edge where the road may proceed directly to the main span, otherwise the bridge will usually have two smaller spans, running between either pair of pillars and the highway, which may be supported by suspender cables or may use a truss bridge to make this connection. In the latter case there will be very little arc in the outboard main cables. For other bridges bearing the name Albert, see Albert Bridge. ... For other uses, see Arch (disambiguation). ...

Contents

History

The suspension bridge is one of the oldest types of bridge. Early simple, or catenary, suspension bridges consisted of three or more cables made from vines, where people walked directly on the ropes to cross. Simple suspension bridges with decking made from planks resting on two cables date back at least to 285BC[1] in China, and other bridges of similar type are recorded in Tibet. Seven bridges of this type were reportedly built in China in 95BC at Chengdu by Li Bing.[1] A Chinese multi-span simple suspension bridge with bamboo cables is reported at Quan-Xian, documented from 960AD and possibly dating back to the 3rd century BC.[1] For other uses, see Cable (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... Not to be confused with Chengde. ... Li Bing (李冰) was a Qin civil/military official who became a cultural and mythological icon. ... For other uses, see Bamboo (disambiguation). ...


Simple suspension bridges using iron chains are also documented in China and the Himalayas, although their earliest date is unclear. One example, the Luding Bridge, dates from 1703, spanning 100 m using eleven iron chains.[1] Several are attributed to Tibetan monk Thang-stong rGyal-po, who reportedly built several in Tibet and Bhutan in the 15th century, including one at Chuka.[1] Claims that more modern suspension bridges with a horizontal deck also originated in Tibet or China remain largely unsubstantiated. General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... A broad metal chain made of torus-shaped links. ... For the movie Himalaya, see Himalaya (film). ... now. ...

Finly's Jacob's Creek bridge
Finly's Jacob's Creek bridge

The first design for a bridge resembling the modern suspension bridge in the West is attributed to Faust Verantius, whose 1595 book “Machinae Novae” included drawings both for a timber and rope suspension bridge, and a hybrid suspension and cable-stayed bridge using iron chains. However, the first such bridge actually built was James Finley’s iron chain bridge at Jacob’s Creek, in Pennsylvania, in 1801. This was widely publicised from 1810 onwards, beginning a period of rapid development of the modern suspension bridge. Faust Vrančić (1551, Šibenik - January 17, 1617, Venice), also known as Faust Verantius, was a humanist, philosopher, historian, lexicographer, and inventor. ... A cable-stayed bridge is a bridge that consists of one or more columns (normally referred to as towers or pylons), with cables supporting the bridge deck. ... James Finley (1756 - 1828), also known as Judge James Finley, is widely recognised as the the first designer and builder of the modern suspension bridge. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


Early British chain bridges included the Dryburgh Abbey Bridge (1817) and 137 m Union Bridge (1820), with spans rapidly increasing to 176 m with the Menai Suspension Bridge (1826). The Clifton Suspension Bridge shown above (designed in 1831, completed in 1864 with a 214 m central span) is one of the longest of the parabolic arc chain type. Viewed from Scotland The Union Bridge, also called the Chain Bridge spans the River Tweed at grid reference NT934510, between Horncliffe, Northumberland, England and Fishwick, Borders, Scotland. ... The Menai Suspension Bridge from a viewpoint on the A4080 near the Britannia Bridge. ... The Clifton Suspension Bridge is a suspension bridge, spanning the Avon Gorge and linking Clifton in Bristol to Leigh Woods in North Somerset, England. ...


Development of wire cable suspension bridges dates to the temporary simple suspension bridge at Annonay built by Marc Seguin and his brothers in 1822. It spanned only 18 m.[1] The first permanent wire cable suspension bridge was Guillaume Henri Dufour’s Saint Antoine Bridge in Geneva of 1823, with two 40 m spans.[1] The first with cables assembled in mid-air in the modern method was Joseph Chaley’s Grand Pont Suspendu in Fribourg, in 1834.[1] Annonay is a town and commune in the Ardèche département of France in the Rhône-Alpes region. ... Maurice Seguin (February 27, 1942 - July 17, 1999) was a French public servant, France’s last colonial minister, and a Lieutenant with the French Paratroopers. ... Henri Dufour Guillaume-Henri Dufour (15 September 1787, Constance - 14 July 1875, Geneva) was a Swiss general and topographer. ... For other uses, see Geneva (disambiguation). ... Fribourg (French), (German: or , often Fribourg) is the capital of the Swiss canton of Fribourg and the district of Sarine. ...


Structural behavior

Structural analysis

The main forces in a suspension bridge are tension in the main cables and compression in the pillars. Since almost all the force on the pillars is vertically downwards and they are also stabilized by the main cables, the pillars can be made quite slender, and they have been in, for example, the Severn Bridge, near Bristol, England In physics, a net force acting on a body causes that body to accelerate; that is, to change its velocity. ... Tension is a reaction force applied by a stretched string (rope or a similar object) on the objects which stretch it. ... Physical compression is the result of the subjection of a material to compressive stress, resulting in reduction of volume. ... For the Ontario community, see Severn Bridge, Ontario. ... This article is about the English city. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...

The slender lines of the Severn Bridge

Assuming a negligible weight as compared to the weight of the deck and vehicles being supported, a suspension bridge’s main cables will form a parabola (very similar to a catenary, the form the unloaded cables take before the deck is added). This can be seen from the cable’s constant gradient increase with linear (deck) distance, this increase in gradient at each connection with the deck providing a net upward support force. Combined with the relatively simple constraints placed upon the actual deck, this makes the suspension bridge much simpler to design and analyze than a cable-stayed bridge, where the deck is in compression. Image File history File links The Severn Bridge, Bristol, England,witch was taken by Adrian Pingstone in 2002 and released to the public domain. ... For the Ontario community, see Severn Bridge, Ontario. ... A parabola A graph showing the reflective property, the directrix (light blue), and the lines connecting the focus and directrix to the parabola (blue) In mathematics, the parabola (from the Greek: παραβολή) (IPA pronunciation: ) is a conic section generated by the intersection of a right circular conical surface and a plane... For the railroad term see Overhead lines For its use in ring theory, see Catenary ring. ... A cable-stayed bridge is a bridge that consists of one or more columns (normally referred to as towers or pylons), with cables supporting the bridge deck. ...


Advantages over other bridge types

A suspension bridge can be made out of simple materials such as wood and common wire rope.
A suspension bridge can be made out of simple materials such as wood and common wire rope.
  • Longer main spans are achievable than with any other type of bridge
  • Less material may be required than other bridge types, even at spans those can achieve, leading to a reduced construction cost
  • Except for installation of the initial temporary cables, little access from below is required during construction, for example allowing a waterway to remain open while the bridge is built above
  • May be better able to withstand seismic movements than heavier and more rigid bridges

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 497 KB) A suspension bridge in Bairnsdale Australia File links The following pages link to this file: Bridge ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 497 KB) A suspension bridge in Bairnsdale Australia File links The following pages link to this file: Bridge ... Seismology (from the Greek seismos = earthquake and logos = word) is the scientific study of earthquakes and the movement of waves through the Earth. ...

Disadvantages compared with other bridge types

  • Considerable stiffness or aerodynamic profiling may be required to prevent the bridge deck vibrating under high winds
  • The relatively low deck stiffness compared to other types makes it more difficult to carry heavy rail traffic where high concentrated live loads occur
  • Some access below may be required during construction, to lift the initial cables or to lift deck units. This access can often be avoided in cable-stayed bridge construction

The term heavy rail is often used for regular railways, to distinguish from systems such as trams/light rail and metro. ... A cable-stayed bridge is a bridge that consists of one or more columns (normally referred to as towers or pylons), with cables supporting the bridge deck. ...

Variations

Underspanned suspension bridge

Micklewood Bridge as illustrated by Charles Drewry, 1832

In an underspanned suspension bridge, the main cables hang entirely below the bridge deck, but are still anchored into the ground in a similar way to the conventional type. Very few bridges of this nature have been built, as the deck is inherently less stable than when suspended below the cables. Examples include the Pont des Bergues of 1834 designed by Guillaume Henri Dufour[1]; James Smith’s Micklewood Bridge [2]; and a proposal by Robert Stevenson for a bridge over the River Almond near Edinburgh[2]. Henri Dufour Guillaume-Henri Dufour (15 September 1787, Constance - 14 July 1875, Geneva) was a Swiss general and topographer. ... Bust of Robert Stevenson by Samuel Joseph, commissioned 19th July 1824 by the Northern Lighthouse Board to be placed in the library of the Bell Rock Lighthouse in testimony of his distinguished talent and indefatigable zeal in the erection of that lighthouse. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ...


Suspension cable types

The main suspension cable in older bridges was often made from chain or linked bars, but modern bridge cables are made from multiple strands of wire. This is for greater redundancy; a few flawed strands in the hundreds used pose very little threat, whereas a single bad link or eyebar can cause failure of the entire bridge. This was found to be the cause of the collapse of the Silver Bridge over the Ohio river. Another reason is that as spans increased, engineers were unable to lift larger chains into position, whereas parallel-strand cables can be largely prepared in mid-air. In this light truss bridge each side truss has sixteen elements. ... The Silver Bridge upon completion in 1928 The Silver Bridge was an eyebar chain suspension bridge built in 1928 and was named for the color of its aluminum paint. ... View of Pittsburgh, the largest metropolitan area on the Ohio River, where the Allegheny River (left) and the Monongahela River (right) join at Point State Park to form the Ohio River Cincinnati, Ohio is a well known city along the Ohio River, historically known for its riverboats. ...


Deck structure types

A plate deck suspension bridge over the Yangtze River in China

Most suspension bridges have open truss structures to support the roadbed (particularly owing to the unfavorable effects of using plate girders, discovered accidentally from the Tacoma Narrows bridge collapse). Recent developments in bridge aerodynamics have allowed the re-introduction of plate structures. In the illustration to the right, note the very sharp entry edge and sloping undergirders in the suspension bridge shown. This enables this type of construction to be used without the danger of vortex shedding and consequent aeroelastic effects, such as those that destroyed the Tacoma Narrows Bridge. Suspension bridge over Chang Jiang (Yangtze) river near the downstream approach to the Gezhouba Dam locks. ... Suspension bridge over Chang Jiang (Yangtze) river near the downstream approach to the Gezhouba Dam locks. ... The Yangtze River or Chang Jiang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), or Drichu in Tibetan (Tibetan: འབ; Wylie: bri chu) is the longest river in Asia and the third longest in the world, after the Nile in Africa, and the Amazon in South America. ... The Tacoma Narrows Bridge is a pair of mile-long (1600 meter) suspension bridges with main spans of 2800 feet (850 m), they carry Washington State Route 16 across the Tacoma Narrows of Puget Sound between Tacoma and the Kitsap Peninsula, USA. The first bridge, nicknamed Galloping Gertie, was opened...


Use other than road and rail

Cable-suspended footbridge at Dallas Fort Worth Airport Terminal D
Cable-suspended footbridge at Dallas Fort Worth Airport Terminal D

The principles of suspension used on the large scale may also appear in contexts less dramatic than road or rail bridges. Light cable suspension may prove less expensive and seem more elegant for a footbridge than strong girder supports. Where such a bridge spans a gap between two buildings, there is no need to construct special towers, as the buildings can anchor the cables. Cable suspension may also be augmented by the inherent stiffness of a structure that has much in common with a Tubular bridge. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1685 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1685 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... DFW redirects here. ... Section of the original wrought-iron tubular Britannia Bridge standing in front of the modern bridge A tubular bridge is a bridge built as a rigid box section within which the traffic is carried. ...

Construction sequence (wire strand cable type)

New Little Belt suspension bridge, 1970 Denmark
New Little Belt suspension bridge, 1970 Denmark
  • Where the towers are founded on underwater piers, caissons are sunk and any soft bottom is excavated for a foundation. If the bedrock is too deep to be exposed by excavation or the sinking of a caisson, pilings are driven to the bedrock or into overlying hard soil, or a large concrete pad to distribute the weight over less resistant soil may be constructed, first preparing the surface with a bed of compacted gravel. (Such a pad footing can also accommodate the movements of an active earthquake fault, and this has been implemented on the foundations of the cable-stayed Rio-Antirio bridge. The foundation piers are then extended to above water level.
  • Where the towers are founded on dry land, deep foundation excavation or pilings are used.
  • From the tower foundation, towers of single or multiple columns are erected using concrete, stonework, or steel structures. At some elevation there must be a passage for the deck, with the columns extending high above this level.
  • Smooth open cable paths called saddles are anchored atop the towers. These allow for slight movements of the cable as the loads change during construction. The top of these saddles may be closed with an additional part after completion of the bridge.
  • Anchorages are constructed to resist the tension of the cables. These are usually anchored in good quality rock, but may consist of massive reinforced concrete deadweights within an excavation. The anchorage structure will have multiple protruding open eyebolts enclosed within a secure space.
  • A temporary suspended walkway supported by wire rope follows the curve of the cables to be constructed, mathematically described as a catenary arc.
Manhattan Bridge in New York City with deck under construction from the towers outward.
Manhattan Bridge in New York City with deck under construction from the towers outward.
  • Another set of wire ropes are suspended above the walkway and are used to support a traveler that has wheels riding atop these cables. There will be one set of wire ropes and a traveler for each cable to be “spun”.
  • Pulling cables attached to winches are capable of pulling the traveler from one anchorage to the other, traveling in arcs to the tops of the two towers.
  • High strength wire, typically less than 10 mm in diameter, is pulled in a loop by pulleys on the traveler, with one end affixed at an anchorage. Workers stationed along the walkway attach the passing cable to a bundle with a temporary binding. When the traveler reaches the opposite anchorage the loop is placed over an open anchor eyebar.
  • The traveler is returned to the start point to pick up another loop or it is used to carry a new loop from this side.
  • As loops are placed, corrosion proofing may be applied.
  • In this way a complete sub-cable is created linking the eyebar (or a set of eyebars) from one anchorage to the other. The sub-cables will have a hexagonal cross section and are held together with the temporary bindings.
  • Multiple adjacent sub-cables are placed adjacent to each other. While these are on a hexagonal grid, the general form for the larger cable is circular.
  • The entire cable is then compressed by a traveling hydraulic press into a closely packed cylinder and tightly wrapped with additional wire to form the final circular cross section.
  • Saddles to carry the suspender cables are clamped to the main cables, each with an appropriate shape to conform to the ultimate slope of the main cables. Each saddle is an equal horizontal distance from the next, with spacing appropriate to the design of the deck.
  • Suspender cables engineered and cut to precise lengths and carrying swedged ends are looped over the saddles. In some bridges, where the towers are close to or on the shore, the suspender cables may be applied only to the central span.
Lions' Gate Bridge with deck under construction from the span's center
Lions' Gate Bridge with deck under construction from the span's center
  • Special lifting hosts attached to the suspenders or from the main cables are used to lift prefabricated sections of bridge deck to the proper level, provided that the local conditions allow the sections to be carried below the bridge by barge or other means, otherwise a traveling cantilever may be used to extend the deck one section at a time. If the addition of the deck structure extends from the towers the finished portions of the deck will pitch upward rather sharply, as there is no downward force in the center of the span. Upon completion of the deck the added load will pull the main cables into an arc mathematically described as a parabola, while the arc of the deck will be as the designer intended — usually a gentle upward arc for added clearance if over a shipping channel, or flat in other cases such as a span over a canyon.
  • With completion of the primary structure various details such as lighting, handrails, finish painting and paving are added.

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 344 pixel Image in higher resolution (1350 × 581 pixel, file size: 124 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Other versions Originally from en. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 344 pixel Image in higher resolution (1350 × 581 pixel, file size: 124 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Other versions Originally from en. ... A picture of the Lillebælt in Denmark The Little Belt or Small Belt (Danish:Lillebælt) is a strait between the Danish island of Funen and the Jutland Peninsula. ... In geotechnical engineering, a caisson is a retaining, watertight structure used, for example, to work on the foundations of a bridge pier, for the construction of a concrete dam, or for the repair of ships. ... Bedrock is the native consolidated rock underlying the Earths surface. ... Geologic faults, fault lines or simply faults are planar rock fractures, which show evidence of relative movement. ... A cable-stayed bridge is a bridge that consists of one or more columns (normally referred to as towers or pylons), with cables supporting the bridge deck. ... The Rio-Antirio bridge (Greek: Γέφυρα Ρίου-Αντίρριου), officially called Charilaos Trikoupis bridge after the statesman who first envisaged it, is a cable-stayed bridge crossing the Gulf of Corinth near Patras, linking the town of Rio on the Peloponnese to Antirio on mainland Greece, thus connecting the peninsula with the rest of... Coils of rope used for long-line fishing A rope (IPA: ) is a length of fibers, twisted or braided together to improve strength for pulling and connecting. ... For the railroad term see Overhead lines For its use in ring theory, see Catenary ring. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3744x2256, 1236 KB) Manhattan Bridge, made March 23rd, 1909 Marine terminal in foreground; bridge under construction in background. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3744x2256, 1236 KB) Manhattan Bridge, made March 23rd, 1909 Marine terminal in foreground; bridge under construction in background. ... The Manhattan Bridge is a suspension bridge that crosses the East River in New York City, connecting Lower Manhattan (at Canal Street) with Brooklyn (at Flatbush Avenue Extension). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... In this light truss bridge each side truss has sixteen elements. ... Image File history File links The Lions Gate Bridge under construction in Vancouver in 1938. ... Image File history File links The Lions Gate Bridge under construction in Vancouver in 1938. ... Lions Gate Bridge, officially known as the First Narrows Bridge,[1] is a suspension bridge that crosses the first narrows of Burrard Inlet and connects the City of Vancouver, British Columbia, to the North Shore municipalities of the District of North Vancouver, the City of North Vancouver, and West Vancouver. ... A schematic image of two cantilevers. ... A parabola A graph showing the reflective property, the directrix (light blue), and the lines connecting the focus and directrix to the parabola (blue) In mathematics, the parabola (from the Greek: παραβολή) (IPA pronunciation: ) is a conic section generated by the intersection of a right circular conical surface and a plane...

Golden Gate Bridge details gallery

The longest suspension bridge spans in the world

The Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge between Akashi and Awaji Island, Japan
Main article: List of longest suspension bridge spans

Suspension bridge are typically ranked by the length of their main span. Image File history File links Akashi-kaikyo_bridge3. ... Image File history File links Akashi-kaikyo_bridge3. ... The Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge ), also known as Pearl Bridge, is a suspension bridge in Japan that crosses the Akashi Strait; it links Maiko in Kobe and Iwaya on Awaji Island as part of the HonshÅ«-Shikoku Highway. ... Akashi (明石市; -shi) is a city located in southern Hyogo, Japan, on the Inland Sea west of Kobe. ... Awaji Island (Jp. ... The Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge has the largest span of any bridge This list of suspension bridges ranks the worlds suspension bridges by the length of main span (distance between the suspension towers). ...

  1. Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge (Japan), 1991 m — 1998
  2. Xihoumen Bridge (China), 1650 m — 2007
  3. Great Belt Bridge (Denmark), 1624 m — 1998
  4. Runyang Bridge (China), 1490 m — 2005
  5. Humber Bridge (England, United Kingdom), 1410 m — 1981. (The longest span from 1981 until 1998.)
  6. Jiangyin Suspension Bridge (China), 1385 m — 1997
  7. Tsing Ma Bridge (China), 1377 m — 1997 (longest span with both road and metro)
  8. Verrazano Narrows Bridge (USA), 1298 m — 1964. (The longest span from 1964 until 1981.)
  9. Golden Gate Bridge (USA), 1280 m — 1937. (The longest span from 1937 until 1964.)
  10. Yangluo Bridge (China), 1280 m — 2007
Bosphorus Bridge in Istanbul, connecting Europe (left) and Asia (right) .You can see Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge in the background.
Bosphorus Bridge in Istanbul, connecting Europe (left) and Asia (right) .You can see Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge in the background.

The Strait of Messina Bridge, with a center span of 3300 m, was planned to connect Italy and Sicily but was cancelled shortly before construction was set to begin. Bridges have also been suggested for the Strait of Gibraltar and the Sunda Strait with longest spans of several kilometres. The suspension cables for these longest bridges are suspended from the ends of cable-stayed ties extending diagonally from tall pylons, also called towers. The Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge ), also known as Pearl Bridge, is a suspension bridge in Japan that crosses the Akashi Strait; it links Maiko in Kobe and Iwaya on Awaji Island as part of the HonshÅ«-Shikoku Highway. ... The Xihoumen Bridge is a suspension bridge planned for the Zhoushan Archipelago, the largest offshore island group in China. ... The Great Belt Bridge The Great Belt Bridge (Danish: Storebæltsbroen) is a suspension bridge that is part of the fixed link across the Great Belt in Denmark. ... The Runyang Bridge (Simplified Chinese: 润扬长江大桥; Traditional Chinese: 潤揚長江大橋; Hanyu pinyin: rùnyáng chángjiāng dà qiáo) is a large bridge complex that crosses the Yangtze River in Jiangsu Province, China, downstream of Nanjing. ... The Humber Bridge is the fourth-largest single-span suspension bridge in the world, near Kingston upon Hull in England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The Jiangyin Suspension Bridge is the most seaward bridge to cross the Yangtze River of China. ... Tsing Ma Bridge (青馬大橋) by night Tsing Ma Bridge (Chinese: 青馬大橋; Cantonese: cing1 maa5 daai6 kiu4; Mandarin: QÄ«ngmÇŽ dàqiáo) (named after two islands of Tsing Yi (青衣島) and Ma Wan (馬灣) in Cantonese), of Hong Kong is the worlds sixth largest suspension bridge (22° 21N, 114° 04 E). ... The Verrazano Narrows Bridge (properly written as the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge) is a suspension bridge that connects the boroughs of Staten Island and Brooklyn in New York City at the Narrows, the reach connecting the relatively protected upper bay with the larger lower bay. ... The Golden Gate Bridge is a suspension bridge spanning the Golden Gate, the opening of the San Francisco Bay onto the Pacific Ocean. ... The Asiatic side of the bridge. ... Humber Bridge from south side. ... Humber Bridge from south side. ... The Humber Bridge is the fourth-largest single-span suspension bridge in the world, near Kingston upon Hull in England. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... Tsing Ma Bridge (青馬大橋) by night Tsing Ma Bridge (Chinese: 青馬大橋; Cantonese: cing1 maa5 daai6 kiu4; Mandarin: QÄ«ngmÇŽ dàqiáo) (named after two islands of Tsing Yi (青衣島) and Ma Wan (馬灣) in Cantonese), of Hong Kong is the worlds sixth largest suspension bridge (22° 21N, 114° 04 E). ... Satellite photo of the Strait of Messina, taken June 2002. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... The Strait of Gibraltar as seen from space (on the left: Spain) A view across the Strait of Gibraltar taken from the hills over Tarifa, Spain The Strait of Gibraltar (Arabic: مضيق جبل طارق, Spanish: Estrecho de Gibraltar) is the strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Spain... The Sunda Strait The Sunda Strait is the strait between the Indonesian islands of Java and Sumatra. ... A kilometre (American spelling: kilometer) (symbol: km) is a unit of length equal to 1000 metres (from the Greek words khilia = thousand and metro = count/measure). ...




Other famous suspension bridges

See also: History of longest vehicle suspension bridge spans. The Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge has the largest span of any bridge This list of suspension bridges ranks the worlds suspension bridges by the length of main span (distance between the suspension towers). ...

  • Union Bridge (England/Scotland), 137 m — 1820. The longest span from 1820 to 1826. The oldest in the world still in use today.
  • Royal Albert Bridge (1859) where the anchors are replaced by an arch between the columns.
  • Bear Mountain Bridge (USA), 497 m — 1924. The longest span from 1924 to 1926. The first suspension bridge to have a concrete deck. The construction methods pioneered in building it would make possible several much larger projects to follow.
  • Royal Gorge Bridge (USA) 1929 The highest (384 m) suspension bridge in the world.
  • San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge (California, USA), 704 m — 1936. The western portion is two complete two tower bridges end-to-end with a central anchorage, required to avoid dynamic interactions between three main spans between the four towers. Until recently, this was the longest steel high-level bridge in the world.[3] The eastern portion (a cantilever bridge) is currently being replaced with a self-anchored suspension bridge which will be the longest of its type in the world.
  • Tacoma Narrows Bridge (USA), 853 m — 1950 & 2007. The largest twin suspension bridge in the world.

Viewed from Scotland The Union Bridge, also called the Chain Bridge spans the River Tweed at grid reference NT934510, between Horncliffe, Northumberland, England and Fishwick, Borders, Scotland. ... For other bridges bearing the name Albert, see Albert Bridge. ... For other uses, see Arch (disambiguation). ... The Bear Mountain Bridge is a toll suspension bridge in New York State, carrying U.S. Highways 202 and 6, as well as the Appalachian Trail, across the Hudson River between Rockland and Orange Counties to the west and Westchester and Putnam Counties to the east. ... Royal Gorge in 1987 The Royal Gorge Bridge is a tourist attraction near Cañon City, Colorado, within a 360 acre (1. ... The San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge ( ; known locally as the Bay Bridge) is a toll bridge which spans San Francisco Bay and links the California cities of Oakland and San Francisco in the United States, as part of Interstate 80. ... For the dentistry term, see Bridge (dentistry). ... Proposed replacement span Obsolete eastern span and replacement construction Construction progress, January 2007 As of June 2006, work is continuing on the eastern span replacement of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge. ... A self-anchored suspension bridge is a type of bridge combining elements of a suspended-deck suspension bridge and a cable-stayed bridge. ... The Tacoma Narrows Bridge is a pair of mile-long (1600 meter) suspension bridges with main spans of 2800 feet (850 m), they carry Washington State Route 16 across the Tacoma Narrows of Puget Sound between Tacoma and the Kitsap Peninsula, USA. The first bridge, nicknamed Galloping Gertie, was opened...

Infamous suspension bridges

  • The Bridge of San Luis Rey (Fictional)
  • Silver Bridge, a 1928 eyebar chain bridge that collapsed in 1967, killing forty-six people.
  • Tacoma Narrows Bridge, (USA), 853 m — 1940. The Tacoma Narrows are prone to sustained and moderately strong winds, with which the bridge had a tendency to resonate (owing to its unique plate-girder deck structure and ultimately its nickname “The Galloping Gertie”). This led to its collapse only months after completion. The collapse was captured on film.

The Bridge of San Luis Rey is a 1927 novel by American author Thornton Wilder that tells the story of several interrelated people who happen to be on an Inca rope-fiber suspension bridge in Peru, and the events that lead up to them being on the bridge at the... The Silver Bridge upon completion in 1928 The Silver Bridge was an eyebar chain suspension bridge built in 1928 and was named for the color of its aluminum paint. ... The Tacoma Narrows Bridge is a pair of mile-long (1600 meter) suspension bridges with main spans of 2800 feet (850 m), they carry Washington State Route 16 across the Tacoma Narrows of Puget Sound between Tacoma and the Kitsap Peninsula, USA. The first bridge, nicknamed Galloping Gertie, was opened... The Tacoma Narrows, a strait, is part of Puget Sound. ... For other uses, see Wind (disambiguation). ...

Picture Gallery

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Peters, Tom F., “Transitions in Engineering: Guillaume Henri Dufour and the Early 19th Century Cable Suspension Bridges”, Birkhauser, 1987, ISBN 3764319291
  2. ^ a b Drewry, Charles Stewart, “Memoir on Suspension Bridges”, Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green & Longman, London, 1832
  3. ^ McGloin, Bernard. Symphonies in Steel: Bay Bridge and the Golden Gate. Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco. Retrieved on 2008-01-12.

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

  • Category:Suspension bridges — for articles about specific suspension bridges.
  • List of longest suspension bridge spans
  • Timeline of three longest spans whether bridge, aerial tramway, powerline, ceiling or dome etc.
  • Cable-stayed bridge — superficially similar to a suspension bridge, but cables from the towers directly support the roadway, rather than the road being suspended indirectly by additional cables from the main cables connecting two towers.
  • Inca rope bridge — has features in common with a suspension bridge and predates them by at least three hundred years. However in a rope bridge the deck itself is suspended from the anchored piers and the guardrails are non-structural.
  • Self-supporting suspension bridge — combining elements of a suspension bridge and a cable-stayed bridge.
  • Simple suspension bridge — a modern implementation of the rope bridge using steel cables, although either the upper guardrail or lower footboard cables may be the main structural cables.

The Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge has the largest span of any bridge This list of suspension bridges ranks the worlds suspension bridges by the length of main span (distance between the suspension towers). ... This article is about the structure. ... An Aerial tramway in Italy. ... Power line redirects here. ... This intricate ceiling is part of the Capitol Theatre in Melbourne, Australia, designed by architect Walter Burley Griffin. ... For other uses, see Dome (disambiguation). ... A cable-stayed bridge is a bridge that consists of one or more columns (normally referred to as towers or pylons), with cables supporting the bridge deck. ... Rope bridges acted as suspension bridges over canyons and gorges to provide access for the Inca Empire. ... Sunshine Skyway, Tampa Bay, Florida Millau viaduct in France A cable-stayed bridge is a bridge that consists of one or more pillars, with cables supporting the roadbed. ... A simple suspension bridge is an early bridge type and is still formed from native materials, chiefly grass rope, in some areas of South America. ... This article is about the structure. ... A moveable bridge is a bridge that moves to allow passage for (usually) boats or barges. ... A beam bridge is a direct descendant of the log bridge, now more normally made from shallow steel I beams, box girders, reinforced concrete, or post-tensioned concrete. ... For the dentistry term, see Bridge (dentistry). ... An arch bridge is a bridge with abutments at each end shaped as a curved arch. ... A cable-stayed bridge is a bridge that consists of one or more columns (normally referred to as towers or pylons), with cables supporting the bridge deck. ... A truss bridge is a bridge composed of connected elements (typically straight) which may be stressed from tension, compression, or sometimes both in response to dynamic loads. ... This article is about the structure. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3264x2448, 3035 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Central bank Federal Reserve System Golden Gate Bridge Tax Bank for International Settlements Income tax Tax, tariff and... The Golden Gate Bridge spans Golden Gate, San Francisco Bay - one of the most admired and possibly most famous bridges in the world. ... Donghai Bridge, 2nd longest cross-sea bridge, bumped to second by the Hangzhou Bay Bridge (also in China) in May 2008. ... The Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge has the largest span of any bridge This list of suspension bridges ranks the worlds suspension bridges by the length of main span (distance between the suspension towers). ... The Tatara Bridge has the largest span among cable-stayed bridges This list of the largest cable-stayed bridges ranks the worlds cable-stayed bridges by the length of main span (distance between the suspension towers). ... The Howrah Bridge is the busiest cantilever bridge in the world This list of cantilever bridges ranks the worlds cantilever bridges by the length of their main span. ... This list of the largest arch bridges ranks the worlds arch bridges by the length of main span. ... A list of worlds tallest bridges. ... . ...

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John A. Roebling Cincinnati Suspension Bridge (2068 words)
The bridge will close in October of 2006 for a year of repairs and repainting, however the bridge is expected to carry vehicular traffic for several more decades.
In the 1920's a pair of ramps were constructed from the north end of the Suspension Bridge to Dixie Terminal, an ornate ten floor office building and street car terminal located at the southwest corner of 4th and Walnut St.
The bridge was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975 and because of its still important central location remains the busiest of Cincinnati's four non-expressway automobile bridges.
Suspension bridge - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2495 words)
Simple suspension bridges, for use by pedestrians and livestock, are still constructed, based upon the ancient Inca rope bridge.
The main forces in a suspension bridge are tension in the main cables and compression in the pillars.
However in a rope bridge the deck itself is suspended from the anchored piers and the guardrails are non-structural.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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