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Coordinates: 32.18922° N 48.257785° E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

Susa
Location of the city of Susa, Iran

Susa (Biblical Hebrew: שושן‎ (Shushan); also Greek: Σέλεύχεια, transliterated as Seleukeia or Seleukheia; Latin Seleucia ad Eulaeum) was an ancient city of the Elamite, Persian and Parthian empires of Iran, located about 150 miles east of the Tigris River. Susa may refer to one of the following: Susa, Iran, the Biblical city of Shushan Susa, Italy, a city in Piedmont, Italy. ... Shushan is a city in the Khuzestan province of Iran. ... Image File history File links Red_pog. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x849, 47 KB) Summary Blank locator map (orthographic projection) of Iran By Kaveh General SVG version: Sources Map of Iran - CIA - 2005 Provinces of Iran Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on... This article describes the Biblical dialects of Hebrew. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Transliteration in a narrow sense is a mapping from one script into another script. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Elam (Persian: تمدن ایلام) is one of the oldest recorded civilizations. ... Persia redirects here. ... Parthia[1] (Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was a civilization situated in the northeast of modern Iran, but at its height covering all of Iran proper, as well as regions of the modern countries of Armenia, Iraq, Georgia, eastern Turkey, eastern Syria, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, the Persian Gulf... The Tigris (Old Persian: Tigr, Syriac Aramaic: Deqlath, Arabic: دجلة, Dijla, Turkish: Dicle; biblical Hiddekil) is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ...


The modern town of Shush is located at the site of ancient Susa. Shush (Persian: شوش Šũš) at the site of ancient Susa is the administrative capital of the Shush County of Irans Khuzestan province. ...

Contents

History

Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa.
Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa.

Susa is one of the oldest-known settlements of the region and indeed the world, possibly founded about 4000 BCE (See List of oldest continuously inhabited cities); although the first traces of an inhabited village have been dated to ca. 7000 BCE. Evidence of a painted-pottery civilization has been dated to ca. 5000 BCE. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x877, 105 KB) Description: Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x877, 105 KB) Description: Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa. ... For other uses, see Sphinx (disambiguation). ... Seal of Darius I, showing the king hunting on his chariot, and the symbol of Ahuramazda Darius the Great (Pers. ... (5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC - other millennia) Events City of Ur in Mesopotamia (40th century BC). ... This is a list of the oldest, still surviving, towns and cities in the world. ... (8th millennium BC – 7th millennium BC – 6th millennium BC – other millennia) Events circa 7000 BC – Agriculture and settlement at Mehrgarh in South Asia circa 6500 BC – English Channel formed circa 6100 BC – The Storegga Slide, causing a megatsunami in the Norwegian Sea circa 6000... (6th millennium BC – 5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – other millennia) Events 4713 BC – The epoch (origin) of the Julian Period described by Joseph Justus Scaliger occurred on January 1, the astronomical Julian day number zero. ...


In historic times, Susa was the primary capital of the Elamite Empire. Its name in Elamite was written variously Šušan, Šušun, etc. The city appears in the very earliest Sumerian records, eg. in Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta it is described as one of the places obedient to Inanna, patron deity of Uruk. Elamite is an extinct language, which was spoken by the ancient Elamites (also known as Ilamids). ... Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta is a legendary Sumerian account of the greatest antiquity, possibly based on genuine events of the 3rd millennium BC. It is one of a series of accounts describing the conflicts between Enmerkar, king of Unug-Kulaba (Uruk), and the unnamed king of Aratta (probably... Inanna was one of the most revered of goddesses among later Sumerian mythology. ... Uruk (Sumerian Unug, Biblical Erech, Greek Orchoë and Arabic وركاء Warka), was an ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates, on the line of the ancient Nil canal, in a region of marshes, about 140 miles (230 km) SSE from Baghdad. ...

Tomb of Daniel
Tomb of Daniel

Susa is also mentioned in the Ketuvim of the Hebrew Bible, mainly in Esther, but also once each in Nehemiah and Daniel. Both Daniel and Nehemiah lived in Susa during the Babylonian captivity of Judah of the 6th century BCE. Esther became queen there, and saved the Jews from genocide. A tomb presumed to be that of Daniel is located in the area, known as Shush-Daniel. The tomb is marked by an unusual white, stone cone, which is neither regular nor symmetric. Many scholars believe it was at one point a Magen David. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (960 × 1280 pixel, file size: 588 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (960 × 1280 pixel, file size: 588 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Ketuvim is the third and final section of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible). ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum Hebrew Bible is a term that refers to the common portions of the Jewish canon and the Christian canons. ... Esther (1865), by John Everett Millais Esther (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ), born Hadassah, was a woman in the Hebrew Bible, the queen of Ahasuerus (commonly identified with either Xerxes I or Artaxerxes II), and heroine of the Biblical Book of Esther which is named after her. ... Nehemiah or Nechemya (נְחֶמְיָה Comforted of/is the LORD (YHWH), Standard Hebrew Nəḥemya, Tiberian Hebrew Nəḥemyāh, ) is a major figure in the post-exile history of the Jews as recorded in the Bible, and is believed to be the primary author of the Book of Nehemiah. ... For other uses, see Book of Daniel (disambiguation). ... Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Germany  · France  · Latin America Britain  · Famous Jews by country Jewish languages Hebrew: (Biblical / Modern... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 6th century BC started on January 1, 600 BC and ended on December 31, 501 BC. // Monument 1, an Olmec colossal head at La Venta The 5th and 6th centuries BC were a time of empires, but more importantly, a time... Esther (1865), by John Everett Millais Esther (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ), born Hadassah, was a woman in the Hebrew Bible, the queen of Ahasuerus (commonly identified with either Xerxes I or Artaxerxes II), and heroine of the Biblical Book of Esther which is named after her. ... The Star of David The Star of David (Magen David or Mogen David in Hebrew, Shield of David, Solomons Seal, or Seal of Solomon) is a generally recognized symbol of Judaism and Jewish identity. ...


Susa is further mentioned in the Book of Jubilees (8:21 & 9:2) as one of the places within the inheritance of Shem and his eldest son Elam; and in 8:1, "Susan" is also named as the son (or daughter, in some translations) of Elam. The Book of Jubilees expands and reworks material found in Genesis to Exodus 15. ... Shem (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; Greek: Σημ, SÄ“m ; Arabic:  ; Geez: Sham ; renown; prosperity; name) was one of the sons of Noah in the Bible. ...


Šušan was incorporated by Sargon the Great into his Akkadian Empire in approximately 2330 BC. It remained capital of an Akkadian province until ca. 2240 BC, when its Elamite governor, Kutik-Inshushinak, rose up in rebellion and liberated it, making it a literary center. However, following this, the city was again conquered by the neo-Sumerian Ur-III dynasty, and held until Ur finally collapsed at the hands of the Elamites under Kindattu in ca. 2004 BC. At this time Susa again became an Elamite capital. Bronze head of Sargon (?), from Nineveh, stolen from National Museum of Iraq in 2003 Sargon of Akkad, or Sargon the Great (Akkadian Sharru-kin, the true king, reigned 2334 BC - 2279 BC, short chronology), founder of the Dynasty of Akkad. ... The Akkadian Empire usually refers to the Semitic speaking state that grew up around the city of Akkad north of Sumer, and reached its greatest extent under Sargon of Akkad. ... Kutik-Inshushinak (also known as Puzur-Inshushinak) was king of Elam from about 2240 to 2220 BC (long chronology), and the last from the Awan dynasty. ... The third dynasty of Ur reinstalled Sumerian rule after several centuries of Akkadian and Gutian kings (Sumerian Renaissance). ...


The Elamites under Shutruk-Nahhunte plundered the original stele bearing the Code of Hammurabi in ca. 1175 BC and took it to Susa, where it was found in 1901. However, Nebuchadrezzar I of the Babylonian empire managed to plunder Susa in return, around fifty years later. Shutruk-Nahhunte was king of Elam from about 1185 to 1155 BC, and the second king of the Shutrukid Dynasty. ... This article is about the stone structure. ... An inscription of the Code of Hammurabi. ... Centuries: 13th century BC - 12th century BC - 11th century BC Decades: 1220s BC 1210s BC 1200s BC 1190s BC 1180s BC - 1170s BC - 1160s BC 1150s BC 1140s BC 1130s BC 1120s BC April 16, 1178 BC - A solar eclipse may mark the return of Odysseus, legendary King of Ithaca... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Nebuchadrezzar I, also known as Nebuchadnezzar I (Akkadian: Nabu-kudurri-usur, meaning Nebo, protect my eldest son or Nebo, protect the border), was the king of the Babylonian Empire from about 1125 BC to 1104 BC. He is considered to be the greatest king of the Dynasty of Pashe (also... Babylonia was a state in southern Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq, combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ...


Assyrians

Main article: Battle of Susa
Ashurbanipal's brutal campaign against Susa in 647 BCE is triumphantly recorded in this relief. Here, flames rise from the city as Assyrian soldiers topple it with pickaxes and crowbars and carry off the spoils.
Ashurbanipal's brutal campaign against Susa in 647 BCE is triumphantly recorded in this relief. Here, flames rise from the city as Assyrian soldiers topple it with pickaxes and crowbars and carry off the spoils.

In 647 BCE, the Assyrian king Assurbanipal leveled the city during a war in which the people of Susa apparently participated on the other side. A tablet unearthed in 1854 by Austen Henry Layard in Nineveh reveals Ashurbanipal as an "avenger", seeking retribution for the humiliations the Elamites had inflicted on the Mesopotamians over the centuries: Combatants Assyria Elam Commanders King Assurbanipal of Assyria King Teumann of Elam (until death in 655 BC) Strength Unknown Unknown, presumed equal at first before declining Casualties Unknown King Teumann, many other civilians and soldiers The Battle of Susa was a battle involving Assyrians and Elamites. ... Image File history File links The destruction of Susa of Elam by Ashurbanipal, 647 BC, relief. ... Image File history File links The destruction of Susa of Elam by Ashurbanipal, 647 BC, relief. ... Ashurbanipal, Assurbanipal or Sardanapal, in Akkadian AÅ¡Å¡ur-bāni-apli, (b. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC 650s BC - 640s BC - 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC 600s BC 590s BC Events and Trends Assyrian king Ashurbanipal founds library, which includes our earliest complete copy of the Epic... Assurbanipal in a relief from the north palace at Nineveh There were several Assyrian kings named Assur-bani-pal, also spelled Asurbanipal, Assurbanipal (most commonly), Ashurbanipal and Ashshurbanipal, but the best known was Assurbanipal IV.  Ashurbanipal, or Assurbanipal, (reigned 668 - 627 BCE), the son of Esarhaddon and Naqia-Zakutu... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Right Honourable Sir Austen Henry Layard (5 March 1817–5 July 1894) was a British author and diplomatist, best known as the excavator of Nineveh. ... , For other uses, see Nineveh (disambiguation). ...

Ninhursag with the spirit of the forests next to the seven spiked cosmic tree of life. Relief from Susa.
Ninhursag with the spirit of the forests next to the seven spiked cosmic tree of life. Relief from Susa.

"Susa, the great holy city, abode of their gods, seat of their mysteries, I conquered. I entered its palaces, I opened their treasuries where silver and gold, goods and wealth were amassed... I destroyed the ziggurat of Susa. I smashed its shining copper horns. I reduced the temples of Elam to naught; their gods and goddesses I scattered to the winds. The tombs of their ancient and recent kings I devastated, I exposed to the sun, and I carried away their bones toward the land of Ashur. I devastated the provinces of Elam and on their lands I sowed salt."[1] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Dur-Untash, or Choqa Zanbil, built in 13th century BC by Untash Napirisha and located near Susa, Iran is one of the worlds best-preserved ziggurats. ...


The city was taken by the Achaemenid Persians under Cyrus the Great in 538 BCE. Under Cyrus' son Cambyses II, the capital of the empire moved from Pasargadae to Susa. Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... “Cyrus” redirects here. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC Events and Trends 538 BC - Babylon occupied by Jews transported to Babylon are allowed to return to... Cambyses II (Persian Kambujiya), was the name borne by the son of Cyrus the Great. ... Pasargadae (Persian: پاسارگاد) was a city in ancient Persia, and is today an archaeological site and one of Irans UNESCO World Heritage Sites. ...


The city lost some of its importance when Alexander of Macedon conquered it in 331 BCE and destroyed the first Persian Empire. After Alexander, Susa fell to the Seleucid Empire and was renamed Seleukeia. Bust of Alexander the Great in the British Museum. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC Years: 336 BC 335 BC 334 BC 333 BC 332 BC - 331 BC - 330 BC 329 BC... The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Greats dominion. ...


Parthian period

Letter in Greek of the Parthian king Artabanus III to the inhabitants of Susa in the 1st century CE (the city retained Greek institutions since the time of the Seleucid empire). Louvre Museum.
Letter in Greek of the Parthian king Artabanus III to the inhabitants of Susa in the 1st century CE (the city retained Greek institutions since the time of the Seleucid empire). Louvre Museum.

Approximately one century later when Parthia gained its independence from the Seleucid Empire, Susa was made one of the two capitals (along with Ctesiphon) of the new state. Susa became a frequent place of refuge for Parthian and later, the Persian Sassanid kings, as the Romans sacked Ctesiphon five different times between 116 and 297 CE. Typically, the Parthian rulers wintered in Susa, and spent the summer in Ctesiphon. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 355 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,895 × 1,285 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 355 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,895 × 1,285 pixels, file size: 1. ... Artabanus III of Parthia was a rival for the crown of the Parthian Empire during the reign of Pacorus II, against whom he revolted; his own reign extended from about 80 to 90. ... The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Greats dominion. ... The main courtyard of the Louvre. ... Parthia[1] (Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was a civilization situated in the northeast of modern Iran, but at its height covering all of Iran proper, as well as regions of the modern countries of Armenia, Iraq, Georgia, eastern Turkey, eastern Syria, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, the Persian Gulf... The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Greats dominion. ... Ctesiphon, 1932 Ctesiphon (Parthian and Pahlavi: Tyspwn as well as Tisfun, Persian: ‎, also known as in Arabic Madain, Maden or Al-Madain: المدائن) is one of the great cities of ancient Mesopotamia and the capital of the Parthian Empire and its successor, the Sassanid Empire, for more than 800 years... The Sassanid Empire in the time of Shapur I; the conquest of Cappadocia was temporary Official language Pahlavi (Middle Persian) Dominant Religion Zoroastrianism Capital Ctesiphon Sovereigns Shahanshah of the Iran (Eranshahr) First Ruler Ardashir I Last Ruler Yazdegerd III Establishment 224 AD Dissolution 651 AD Part of the History of... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Events Roman Emperor Trajan completes his invasion of Parthia by capturing the cities of Seleucia, Ctesiphon and Susa, marking the high-water mark of the Roman Empires eastern expansion. ... Events Narseh of Persia and Diocletian conclude a peace treaty between Persia and Rome. ...


The Roman emperor Trajan captured Susa in 116, but was soon forced to withdraw, because of revolts to his rear. This advance marked the easternmost penetration by the Romans. This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... Events Roman Emperor Trajan completes his invasion of Parthia by capturing the cities of Seleucia, Ctesiphon and Susa, marking the high-water mark of the Roman Empires eastern expansion. ...

Islamic art: Cup with rose petals, 8th–9th centuries
Islamic art: Cup with rose petals, 8th–9th centuries

Susa was destroyed at least three times in its history. The first was in 647 BCE, by Assurbanipal. The second destruction took place in 638 CE, when the Muslim armies first conquered Persia. Finally, in 1218, the city was completely destroyed by invading Mongols. The ancient city was gradually abandoned in the years that followed. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1416x1293, 1460 KB) Summary Description: Cup with rose petals, 8th–9th centuries. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1416x1293, 1460 KB) Summary Description: Cup with rose petals, 8th–9th centuries. ... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC 650s BC - 640s BC - 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC 600s BC 590s BC Events and Trends Assyrian king Ashurbanipal founds library, which includes our earliest complete copy of the Epic... Events Islamic calendar introduced The Muslims capture Antioch, Caesarea Palaestina and Akko Births Deaths October 12 - Pope Honorius I Categories: 638 ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Persia redirects here. ... // Events Damietta is besieged by the knights of the Fifth Crusade. ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ...

Sources and notes

  1. ^ "Persians: Masters of Empire" ISBN 0-8094-9104-4 p. 7-8

See also

edit Geographical extent of Iranian influence in the 1st century BCE. The Parthian Empire (mostly Western Iranian) is shown in red, other areas, dominated by Scythia (mostly Eastern Iranian), in orange. ... An inscription of the Code of Hammurabi. ... An Elamite Man in Persepolis The ancient Elamite Empire (تمدن عیلام in Persian) lay to the east of Sumer and Akkad, in what is now southwestern Iran. ... Map showing Khuzestan in Iran Domes like this are quite common in Khuzestan province. ... A model of the current Chogha Zanbil ziggurat, showing the other buildings in the vicinity of the main structure. ... Ghirshmans team in Sialk in 1934: Sitting from R to L: Roman Ghirshman, Tania Ghirshman, and Dr. Contenau. ... Monsieur Chouchani (?? - 1968), or Shushani, is the nickname of an otherwise anonymous and enigmatic Jewish teacher who taught a small number of distinguished students in post-World War II Europe and elsewhere, including Emmanuel Levinas and Elie Wiesel. ...

External links

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Susa
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Susa (379 words)
Susa was an ancient city of the Babylonian, Persian and Parthian empires, located about 150 miles east of the Tigris River in the southeastern portion of the modern nation of Iran.
Susa, derived from the word shushan, meaning "lily" in the ancient Semitic tongues, is one of the oldest known settlements of the Mesopotamian civilization, probably founded about 4000 B.C. It is frequently mentioned in the Old Testament of the Christian Bible and in the Jewish Tanakh.
Susa became a frequent place of refuge for Parthian and later the Persian Sassanid kings, as the Romans sacked Ctesiphon five different times between 116 and 297.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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