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Encyclopedia > Survey of Palestine

On 29 November 1947 the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine or United Nations General Assembly Resolution 181, a plan to resolve the Arab-Israeli conflict in the British Mandate of Palestine, was approved by the United Nations General Assembly. The plan would have partitioned the territory of Palestine into Jewish and Arab states, with the Greater Jerusalem area, encompassing Bethlehem, coming under international control. The failure of the British government and the United Nations to implement this plan, prior agreement between the Jewish Agency and King Abdullah to divide Palestine between them,[1] and rejection of the plan by the Arabs resulted in the War for Independence, also known as the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 327 × 598 pixel Image in higher resolution (627 × 1147 pixel, file size: 54 KB, MIME type: image/png) I created this image, based on Image:UN Partition Plan Palestine, which is an image licensed under the terms of the GNU Free... November 29 is the 333rd (in leap years the 334th) day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel and the United... Map of the territory under the British Mandate of Palestine. ... The Holy Land or Palestine Showing not only the Old Kingdoms of Judea and Israel but also the 12 Tribes Distinctly, and Confirming Even the Diversity of the Locations of their Ancient Positions and Doing So as the Holy Scriptures Indicate, a geographic map from the studio of Tobiae Conradi... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... United Nations General Assembly The United Nations General Assembly is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Languages Arabic other languages (Arab minorities) Religions Predominantly Muslim Some adherents of Druze, Judaism, Samaritan, Christianity Related ethnic groups Mizrachi Jews, Sephardi Jews[], Ashkenazi Jews, Canaanites, other Semitic-speaking groups An Arab (Arabic: ‎; transliteration: ) is a member of a Semitic-speaking people originally from the Arabian peninsula and surrounding territories... Hebrew יְרוּשָׁלַיִם (Yerushalayim) (Standard) Yerushalayim or Yerushalaim Arabic commonly القـُدْس (Al-Quds); officially in Israel أورشليم القدس (Urshalim-Al-Quds) Name Meaning Hebrew: (see below), Arabic: The Holiness Government City District Jerusalem Population 724,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 123,000 dunams (123 km²) Jerusalem (Hebrew:  , Yerushaláyim or Yerushalaim; Arabic:  , al-Quds, the Holiness)[2... Central Bethlehem Bethlehem (Arabic بيت لحم   house of meat; Standard Hebrew בית לחם house of bread, Bet léḥem / Bet láḥem; Tiberian Hebrew Bêṯ léḥem / Bêṯ lāḥem; Greek: Βηθλεέμ) is a city in the Bethlehem Governorate of the West Bank under Palestinian Authority considered a central hub of Palestinian cultural and tourism... The Jewish Agency for Israel also known as The Jewish Agency (or sochnut in Hebrew), was previously called the Jewish Agency for Palestine (during the British Mandate of Palestine) is an Israeli organisation that advocates for Israel and is composed mainly, but not entirely, of Jewish people. ... Abdullah I of Jordan King Abdullah I of Jordan (1882 – July 20, 1951) (Arabic: عبد الله الأول), also known as Abdullah bin Husayn (Arabic: عبد الله بن حسين), was, successively, Emir of Trans-Jordan (1921–1946) under a British Mandate, then King of Transjordan (May 25, 1946–1949), and finally King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan... Combatants Egypt Syria Transjordan  Lebanon Saudi Arabia Iraq Holy War Army Arab Liberation Army  Israel Commanders Glubb Pasha Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni† Hasan Salama† Fawzi al-Qawuqji Yaakov Dori Yigael Yadin Strength Egypt: 10,000 initially rising to 20,000 Iraq: 5,000 initially rising to 15,000–18...

Contents

Creation of the plan

After the First World War and the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, Palestine was placed under British mandate by the Allied Supreme Council, which met at the San Remo Conference in April 1920. The Balfour Declaration and increased anti-Semitism in Europe, which had been on the rise since the late 19th century, led to a greater Jewish influx following the war. On 24 July, in Europe, which had terms of the British Mandate over Palestine and Transjordan. On 16 September the League formally approved a memorandum from Great Britain confirming the exemption of Transjordan from the clauses of the mandate concerning the creation of a Jewish national home and is from the mandate's responsibility to facilitate Jewish immigration and land settlement.[2] Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... The Holy Land or Palestine Showing not only the Old Kingdoms of Judea and Israel but also the 12 Tribes Distinctly, and Confirming Even the Diversity of the Locations of their Ancient Positions and Doing So as the Holy Scriptures Indicate, a geographic map from the studio of Tobiae Conradi... The Sanremo conference was an international meeting held in Sanremo, Italy, from 19-26 April 1920. ... The name Balfour Declaration is applied to two key British government policy statements associated with Conservative statesman and former Prime Minister Arthur Balfour. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... July 24 is the 205th day (206th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 160 days remaining. ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... September 16 is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years). ...


The United Nations, the successor to the League of Nations, attempted to solve the dispute between the Jews and Arabs in Palestine. On May 15, 1947 the UN appointed a committee, the UNSCOP, composed of representatives from eleven states. To make the committee more neutral, none of the Great Powers were represented. After spending three months conducting hearings and general survey of the situation in Palestine, UNSCOP officially released its report on August 31. A majority of nations (Canada, Czechoslovakia, Guatemala, Netherlands, Peru, Sweden, Uruguay) recommended the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states, with Jerusalem to be placed under international administration. A minority (India, Iran, Yugoslavia) supported the creation of a single federal state containing both Jewish and Arab constituent states. Australia abstained. The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference, 1919. ... May 15 is the 135th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (136th in leap years). ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... UNSCOP stands for the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine. ... One of the hallmarks of contemporary Great power status is permanent membership on the United Nations Security Council. ... August 31 is the 243rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (244th in leap years), with 122 days remaining. ... Corpus separatum means a divided body in Latin, it is used to describe cities that are split in two such as Jerusalem. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in Latin, Југославија in Cyrillic, English: Land of the South Slavs) describes four political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ...


On November 29, the UN General Assembly voted 33 to 13, with 10 abstentions, in favour of the Partition Plan, while making some adjustments to the boundaries between the two states proposed by it. The division was to take effect on the date of British withdrawal. Both the United States and Soviet Union agreed on the resolution. In addition, pressure was exerted on some small countries by Zionist sympathizers in the United States.[3] November 29 is the 333rd (in leap years the 334th) day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Zionism is a political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel, where Jewish nationhood is thought to have evolved somewhere between 1200 BCE and late Second Temple times,[1][2] and where Jewish kingdoms existed up to the 2nd century CE. Zionism is...

██ In favour ██ Abstained ██ Against ██ Absent
██ In favour ██ Abstained ██ Against ██ Absent

The 33 countries that voted in favour of the partition, as set by UN resolution 181: Australia, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Belarus, Canada, Costa Rica, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, France, Guatemala, Haiti, Iceland, Liberia, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Sweden, South Africa, Ukranian SSR, United States of America, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Uruguay, Venezuela. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1357x628, 45 KB) Summary United Nations General Assembly Resolution 181 (1947 UN Partition Plan)  In favor  Abstaining  Against  Absent Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): 1947... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1357x628, 45 KB) Summary United Nations General Assembly Resolution 181 (1947 UN Partition Plan)  In favor  Abstaining  Against  Absent Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): 1947... Motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) Translation: Workers of the world, unite!) Anthem: The Internationale (1922-1944) Hymn of the Soviet Union (1944-1991) Capital Moscow Language(s) Russian (the de facto official language), 14 other official languages Government Socialist republic Leaders  - 1922-1924 Vladimir Lenin  - 1924-1953 Joseph Stalin...


The 13 countries that voted against UN Resolution 181: Afghanistan, Cuba, Egypt, Greece, India, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, Yemen.


The ten countries that abstained: Argentina, Chile, Republic of China, Colombia, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Honduras, Mexico, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Yugoslavia. Motto: Three Principles of the People (三民主義 San-min Chu-i) Anthem: National Anthem of the Republic of China Capital Taipei (de facto)  Nanking (de jure)1  Largest city Taipei Official languages Mandarin (GuóyÇ”) Government Semi-presidential system  - President Chen Shui-bian  - Vice President Annette Lu  - Premier Su Tseng-chang... Motto: (Royal) (French) God and my right Anthem: God Save the Queen  United Kingdom() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() [] Capital London Largest Most populous conurbation Greater London Urban Area Official languages de facto English Government  - Monarch Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair Formation  -  24 March 1603   - Acts... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian, Slovenian, Macedonian Government Socialist republic President  - 1945 - 1953 Ivan Ribar  - 1991 Stjepan Mesić Prime Minister  - 1945 - 1963 Josip Broz Tito  - 1989 - 1991 Ante Marković Historical era Cold War  - Proclamation November 29, 1943  - UN membership October 24, 1945  - Constitution February 21, 1974  - dissolution June 25...


One state (Thailand) was absent.


Following the adoption of the plan, Arab countries proposed to query the International Court of Justice on the competence of the General Assembly to partition a country against the wishes of the majority of its inhabitants (it would place 36% of the Arabs inside the Jewish state). This was narrowly defeated.[3] The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; French: ) is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations. ...


Meeting in Cairo in November and December of 1947, the Arab League then adopted a series of resolutions aimed at a military solution to the conflict.


The Division

Palestine's land surface was approximately 26,320,505 dunums (26,320 km²), of which about one third was cultivable. By comparison, the size of modern day Israel (as of 2006) is 20,770,000 dunums (20,770 km²) (Israel#Geography Geography of Israel). The land in Jewish possession had risen from 456,000 dunums (456 km²) in 1920 to 1,393,000 dunums (1,393 km²) in 1945[4]) and 1,850,000 dunums (1,850 km²) by 1947 (Avneri p. 224).[5] Regarding the Arab ownership, the Survey of Palestine puts the amount of land owned by Arabs at 24,670,455 dunums (24,670 km²) in 1945 (Land Ownership of Palestine). The MidEast Web, however, states "At the time of partition, slightly less than half the land in all of Palestine was owned by Arabs, slightly less than half was "crown lands" belonging to the state, and about 8% was owned by Jews or the Jewish Agency."[6] Anthem: Hatikvah (The Hope) Capital  Jerusalem Largest city Jerusalem Official languages Hebrew, Arabic Government Parliamentary democracy  - President Moshe Katsav1  - Prime Minister Ehud Olmert  - Knesset Speaker Dalia Itzik Independence from the League of Nations mandate administered by the United Kingdom   - Declaration 14 May 1948 (05 Iyar 5708)  Area  - Total 20,770... Flag Palestine and Transjordan were incorporated (under different legal and administrative arrangements) into the British Mandate of Palestine, issued by the League of Nations to Great Britain on 29 September, 1923 Capital Not specified Organizational structure League of Nations Mandate High Commissioner  - 1920 — 1925 Sir Herbert Louis Samuel  - 1945 — 1948...


See also: Land ownership of the British Mandate of Palestine Flag Palestine and Transjordan were incorporated (under different legal and administrative arrangements) into the British Mandate of Palestine, issued by the League of Nations to Great Britain on 29 September, 1923 Capital Not specified Organizational structure League of Nations Mandate High Commissioner  - 1920 — 1925 Sir Herbert Louis Samuel  - 1945 — 1948...

The Jewish population was concentrated in settlement areas in 1947. The borders were drawn to encompass them, placing most of the Jewish population in the Jewish state. (Map reflects Jewish owned land not the size and number of settlements. It does not imply that only Jews lived here or that all other land was owned or exclusively populated by Arabs.)
The Jewish population was concentrated in settlement areas in 1947. The borders were drawn to encompass them, placing most of the Jewish population in the Jewish state. (Map reflects Jewish owned land not the size and number of settlements. It does not imply that only Jews lived here or that all other land was owned or exclusively populated by Arabs.)
The front page of Yedioth Ahronoth the day after the UN vote. The headline is "Jewish State". It lists the 33 countries that voted in favor of the partition, 13 against, and 10 that abstained.
The front page of Yedioth Ahronoth the day after the UN vote. The headline is "Jewish State". It lists the 33 countries that voted in favor of the partition, 13 against, and 10 that abstained.

The UN General Assembly made a non-binding recommendation for a three-way partition[7] of Palestine into a Jewish State, an Arab State and a small internationally administered zone including the religiously significant towns Jerusalem and Bethlehem. The two states envisioned in the plan were each composed of three major sections, linked by extraterritorial crossroads. The Jewish state would receive the Coastal Plain, stretching from Haifa to Rehovot, the Eastern Galilee (surrounding the Sea of Galilee and including the Galilee panhandle) and the Negev, including the southern outpost of Umm Rashrash (now Eilat). The Arab state would receive the Western Galilee, with the town of Acre, the Samarian highlands and the Judean highlands, and the southern coast stretching from north of Isdud (now Ashdod) and encompassing what is now the Gaza Strip, with a section of desert along the Egyptian border. The UNSCOP report placed the mostly-Arab town of Jaffa, just south of Tel Aviv, in the Jewish state, but it was moved to form an enclave part of the Arab State before the proposal went before the UN. Map of Jewish settlements in Palestine in 1947. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Yedioth Ahronoth (Hebrew: ידיעות אחרונות, meaning latest news) is a major daily Israeli newspaper, written in Hebrew. ... In a country that is split into two or more non-adjacent parts, with another country in between, an extraterritorial crossroad is a strip of land that formally belongs to neither country, or with other special arrangements. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Rehovot (Hebrew רְחוֹבוֹת ) is a city in the Center District of Israel, about 20 km south of Tel Aviv. ... Galilee (Arabic al-jaleel الجليل, Hebrew hagalil הגליל), meaning circuit, is a large area overlapping with much of the North District of Israel. ... The Sea of Galilee is Syrias largest freshwater lake. ... Hebrew אילת Founded in 1951 Government City (from 1959) District South Population 45,800 (2006) Jurisdiction 80,000 dunams (80 km²) Mayor Meir Yitzhak Halevi North Beach, Eilat, from southwest. ... The Old City of Akko in the 19th or early 20th century, looking south-west from atop the Land Wall Promenade, the open space now a parking lot. ... It has been suggested that Sebastia, Middle East be merged into this article or section. ... Map of the southern Levant, c. ... Ashdod (Hebrew: ; Arabic: ‎) is a city in the Southern District of Israel. ... Jaffa (Hebrew יָפוֹ, Standard Hebrew Yafo, Tiberian Hebrew Yāp̄ô; Arabic يَافَا Yāfā; also Japho, Joppa), is an ancient city located in Israel. ... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ...


The land allocated to the Arab state (about 43% of Mandatory Palestine[8]) consisted of all of the highlands, except for Jerusalem, plus one third of the coastline.


The Jewish state was to receive 56% of Mandatory Palestine, a slightly larger area to accommodate the increasing numbers of Jews who would immigrate there even though Jews still only made up a slight majority even in the lands given to them.[8] The state constituted the western side of "Historic Palestine", and included three fertile lowland plains — the Sharon on the coast, the Jezreel Valley and the upper Jordan Valley. Sharon (Hebrew שרון Sārôn) is a region of the central coast of Israel. ... The Jezreel Valley arabic (Sahel Zirin)سهل زرعين or Marj Ibn Amer(the meadow of the son of Amer) مرج بن عامر (Hebrew: עמק יזרעאל;Emek Yizrael, also known as the Plain of Esdraelon) is a large plain and inland valley in the north of Israel. ... Northern part of the Great Rift Valley as seen from space (NASA) The Jordan River The Jordan River (Hebrew: נהר הירדן nehar hayarden, Arabic: نهر الأردن nahr al-urdun) is a river in Southwest Asia flowing through the Great Rift Valley into the Dead Sea. ...


The bulk of the proposed Jewish State's territory, however, consisted of the Negev Desert. The desert was not suitable for agriculture, nor for urban development at that time. The Jewish state was also given sole access to the Red Sea and the Sea of Galilee (the largest source of fresh water in Palestine). The land allocated to the Jewish state was largely made up of areas in which there was a significant Jewish population.[9] The Negev (נגב, Standard Hebrew Négev / Nágev, Tiberian Hebrew Néḡeḇ / Nāḡeḇ; Arabic النقب an-Naqab) is the desert region of southern Israel. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... The Sea of Galilee is Syrias largest freshwater lake. ...


The plan tried its best to accommodate as many Jews as possible into the Jewish state. In many specific cases, this meant including areas of Arab majority (but with a significant Jewish minority) in the Jewish state. Thus the Jewish State would have an overall large Arab minority. Areas that were sparsely populated (like the Negev), were also included in the Jewish state to create room for immigration in order to relieve the "Jewish Problem".[10]

Territory Arab and other population % Arab and other Jewish population % Jewish Total population
Arab State 725,000 99% 10,000 1% 735,000
Jewish State 407,000 45% 498,000 55% 905,000
International 105,000 51% 100,000 49% 205,000
Total 1,237,000 67% 608,000 33% 1,845,000
Data from the Report of UNSCOP — 1947

The UNSCOP Report also noted that "in addition there will be in the Jewish State about 90,000 Bedouins, cultivators and stock owners who seek grazing further afield in dry seasons."[11] A Bedouin man resting on a hillside at Mount Sinai Bedouin, derived from the Arabic ( ‎), a generic name for a desert-dweller, is a term generally applied to Arab nomadic pastoralist groups, who are found throughout most of the desert belt extending from the Atlantic coast of the Sahara via...


Reactions to the plan

State of Israel
Geography

Land of Israel · Districts · Cities
Transport · Mediterranean
Dead Sea · Red Sea · Sea of Galilee
Jerusalem · Tel Aviv · Haifa Image File history File links COA_of_Israel. ... Anthem: Hatikvah (The Hope) Capital  Jerusalem Largest city Jerusalem Official languages Hebrew, Arabic Government Parliamentary democracy  - President Moshe Katsav1  - Prime Minister Ehud Olmert  - Knesset Speaker Dalia Itzik Independence from the League of Nations mandate administered by the United Kingdom   - Declaration 14 May 1948 (05 Iyar 5708)  Area  - Total 20,770... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Kingdom of Israel: Early ancient historical Israel — land in pink is the approximate area under direct central royal administration during the United Monarchy. ... Map of the districts of Israel There are six main administrative districts of Israel, known in Hebrew as mehozot (מחוזות; singular: mahoz) and fifteen sub-districts known as nafot (נפות; singular: nafa). ... Cities in Israel, by district: // Northern District See also North District, Israel. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... The Dead Sea (Hebrew: ‎; Arabic: ‎) is the Earths lowest point not covered by ice, at 418 m (1371 feet) below sea level and falling[2], and the deepest hypersaline lake in the world, at 330 m (1083 feet) deep. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... The Sea of Galilee is Syrias largest freshwater lake. ... Hebrew יְרוּשָׁלַיִם (Yerushalayim) (Standard) Yerushalayim or Yerushalaim Arabic commonly القـُدْس (Al-Quds); officially in Israel أورشليم القدس (Urshalim-Al-Quds) Name Meaning Hebrew: (see below), Arabic: The Holiness Government City District Jerusalem Population 724,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 123,000 dunams (123 km²) Jerusalem (Hebrew:  , Yerushaláyim or Yerushalaim; Arabic:  , al-Quds, the Holiness)[2... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

History

Jewish history · Timeline · Zionism · Aliyah
Herzl · Balfour · Mandate · 1947 UN Plan
Independence · Flag · Austerity · Refugees
This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Jewish history is the history of the Jewish people, faith, and culture. ... This is a timeline of the development of Judaism and the Jewish people. ... Zionism is a political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel, where Jewish nationhood is thought to have evolved somewhere between 1200 BCE and late Second Temple times,[1][2] and where Jewish kingdoms existed up to the 2nd century CE. Zionism is... Aliyah (Hebrew: עלייה, ascent or going up) is a term widely used to mean Jewish immigration to the Land of Israel (and since its establishment in 1948, the State of Israel). ... Theodor Herzl, in his middle age. ... The Balfour Declaration of 1917 was made in a letter dated November 2, 1917, from the British Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour to Lord Rothschild (Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild), a leader of the British Jewish community, for transmission to the Zionist Federation, a private Zionist organization, on the partitioning... Flag Palestine and Transjordan were incorporated (under different legal and administrative arrangements) into the British Mandate of Palestine, issued by the League of Nations to Great Britain on 29 September, 1923 Capital Not specified Organizational structure League of Nations Mandate High Commissioner  - 1920 — 1925 Sir Herbert Louis Samuel  - 1945 — 1948... Flag ratio: 8:11 Another common colorization of the flag, using lighter blue. ... Main article: History of Israel Austerity in Israel: From 1949 to 1959, the state of Israel was, to a varying extent, under a regime of austerity (צנע tsena), during which rationing and similar measures were enforced. ...

Arab-Israeli conflict · Proposals

1948 War · 1949 Armistice · Suez War
Six-Day War · Attrition War
Yom Kippur War · Lebanon War
2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict
Peace treaties with: Egypt, Jordan
Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel and the United... Geneva Accord October 20, 2003 Road Map for Peace April 30, 2003 The Peoples Voice July 27, 2002 Elon Peace Plan 2002 ... Combatants Egypt Syria Transjordan  Lebanon Saudi Arabia Iraq Holy War Army Arab Liberation Army  Israel Commanders Glubb Pasha Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni† Hasan Salama† Fawzi al-Qawuqji Yaakov Dori Yigael Yadin Strength Egypt: 10,000 initially rising to 20,000 Iraq: 5,000 initially rising to 15,000–18... The 1949 Armistice Agreements are a set of agreements signed during 1949 between Israel and its neighbors Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria. ... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA 2,900 WIA 2... Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... Combatants Israel Egypt Soviet Union Strength unknown Egyptian: unknown Soviet advisors: 10,700–12,300 Casualties 1,424 soldiers and >100 civilians killed 2,000 soldiers and 700 civilians wounded [1] [2] 10,000 Egyptian soldiers and civilians killed¹ 3 Soviet pilots killed The War of Attrition (Hebrew: ‎)(Arabic: ‎) was... Combatants Israel Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul... Combatants Israel Phalange South Lebanon Army Amal PLO Syria Commanders Menachem Begin (Prime Minister) Ariel Sharon, (Ministry of Defence) Rafael Eitan, (CoS) Yasser Arafat Strength 76,000 37,000 Casualties 670 9,800 The 1982 Lebanon War (Hebrew: , Milkhemet Levanon, Milkhemet Levanon, Arabic: ‎), called by Israel the Operation Peace of... Combatants Hezbollah Amal LCP  Israel Commanders Hassan Nasrallah (Secretary General of Hezbollah) Imad Mughniyeh (Commander of Hezbollahs armed wing)[5] Dan Halutz (CoS) Moshe Kaplinsky[12] Udi Adam (Regional) Strength 600-1,000 active fighters 3,000-10,000 reservists[6] 30,000 ground troops (plus IAF & ISC)[13...

Israeli-Palestinian conflict

Timeline · Peace process · Peace camp
1st Intifada · Oslo · 2nd Intifada
Barrier · Disengagement Israel, with the West Bank and Gaza Strip in diagonal stripes The Israeli-Palestinian conflict which is often claimed to be at the heart of the Arab-Israeli conflict, is an ongoing dispute between two peoples, Jewish Israelis and Arab Palestinians, that both claim the right to sovereignty over the... This is an incomplete timeline of notable events in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. ... The UN Partition Plan Map of the State of Israel today The Peace process in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict has taken shape over the years, despite the ongoing violence in the Middle East. ... The Israeli peace camp is a collection of political and non-political movements which desire to promote peace, mainly with the Arab neighbours of Israel (the Palestinians, Syria and Lebanon) and encourage co-existence with the Arab citizens of Israel. ... The First Intifada, or Palestinian uprising refers to a series of violent incidents between Palestinians and Israelis between 1987 and approximately 1990. ... Yitzhak Rabin, Bill Clinton, and Yasser Arafat during the Oslo Accords on September 13, 1993. ... For other uses, see al-Aqsa (disambiguation). ... The barrier route as of May 2005. ... Israels unilateral disengagement plan (termed in Hebrew: תוכנית ההתנתקות Tokhnit HaHitnatkut or תכנית ההינתקות Tokhnit HaHinatkut in the Disengagement Plan Implementation Law), also known as the disengagement plan, Gaza Pull-Out plan, and Hitnatkut) was a proposal by Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon, adopted by the government and enacted in August 2005, to...

Economy

Science & technology · Companies
Tourism · Wine · Diamonds
Military industry This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... Tourism in Israel includes a rich variety of historical and religious sites in the Holy Land, as well as modern beach resorts, archaeological tourism, heritage tourism and ecotourism. ... The Israeli wine industry is known for its vibrancy, with wineries numbering in the hundreds and ranging in size from small boutique enterprises making a few thousand bottles per year to the largest producing over ten million bottles per year. ... The Israeli Diamond industry is a world leader in producing cut diamonds for wholesale. ... The Military equipment of Israel includes a wide array of arms, tanks, planes, cannons, armored vehicles. ...

Demographics · Culture

Religion · Israeli Arabs · Kibbutz
Music · Archaeology · Universities
Hebrew · Literature · Sport · Israelis This article discusses the demographics of Israel. ... The culture of Israel, also called Israeli culture, is inseparable from long history of Judaism and Jewish history which preceded it (i. ... Arab citizens of Israel, Arabs of Israel or Arab population of Israel are terms used by Israeli authorities and Israeli Hebrew-speaking media to refer to non-Jewish Arabs who are citizens of the State of Israel. ... Kibbutz Dan, near Qiryat Shemona, in the Upper Galilee, 1990s A kibbutz (Hebrew: ‎; plural: kibbutzim: קיבוצים; gathering or together) is an Israeli collective intentional community. ... Modern Israeli music is heavily influenced by its constituents, which include Jewish immigrants (see Jewish music) from more than 120 countries around the world, which have brought their own musical traditions, making Israel a global melting pot. ... The archaeology of Israel is a national passion that also attracts considerable international interest on account of the regions Biblical links. ... There are eight official universities in Israel. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Israeli literature is the literature of the people or State of Israel. ...

Laws · Politics

Law of Return · Jerusalem Law
Parties · Elections · PM · President
Knesset · Supreme Court · Courts The Basic Laws of Israel are a key component of Israels uncodified constitution. The State of Israel has no formal constitution. ... Politics of Israel takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Israel is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Jerusalem Law is a common name of Basic Law: Jerusalem, Capital of Israel passed by the Israeli Knesset on July 30, 1980 (17th Av, 5740). ... Political parties in Israel: Israels political system is based on proportional representation which allows for a multi-party system with numerous parties, in which a single party usually has no chance of gaining power by itself, forcing the parties to cooperate and form coalition governments. ... Elections in Israel gives information on election and election results in Israel. ... The Prime Minister of Israel (Hebrew: ראש הממשלה, Rosh HaMemshala, lit. ... President of the State of Israel (Hebrew: ‎, Nesí Hamdiná, literally: The President of the State) is the Head of State of Israel, but has a largely ceremonial, figurehead role with real power lying in the hands of the Prime Minister of Israel. ... The modern Knesset building, Israels parliament, in Jerusalem Though similar-sounding, Beit Knesset (בית כנסת) literally means House of Assembly, and refers to a synagogue. ... The Supreme Court (Hebrew: בית המשפט העליון, Beit Hamishpat Haelyon ) is at the head of the court system in the State of Israel. ... Judicial branch is an independent branch of the government which includes secular and religious courts. ...

Foreign affairs

Intl. Law · UN · US · Arab League High priorities in the foreign policy of Israel include seeking an end to hostilities with Arab forces, against which it has fought six wars since 1948 and gaining wide acceptance as a sovereign state with an important international role. ... Arguments about the applicability of various elements of international law underlie the debate around the Arab-Israeli conflict. ... Israel and the United Nations have had mixed relations since Israels founding on May 14, 1948. ... Israel-United States relations have evolved from an initial United States policy of sympathy and support for the creation of a Jewish homeland in 1948 to an unusual partnership that links a small but militarily powerful Israel, dependent on the United States for its economic and military strength, with the... From the time it was established in March 1945, the Arab League took an active role in the Arab-Israeli conflict. ...

Security Forces

Israel Defense Forces
Intelligence Community · Security Council
Police · Border Police · Prison Service The Israeli Security Forces are several organizations collectively responsible for Israels security. ... The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) (Hebrew: ‎  , [Army] Force for the Defense of Israel), often abbreviated with the Hebrew acronym צהל Tsahal, alternative English spelling Tzahal, is the name of Israels military forces, comprising the Israeli Army, the Israeli Air Force and the Israeli Sea Corps. ... The Israeli Intelligence Community (Hebrew: קהילת המודיעין הישראלית) is the designation given to the complex of organizations responsible for intelligence collection, dissemination, and research for the State of Israel. ... The Israeli National Security Council (Hebrew: המועצה לביטחון לאומי) is a council established by the Prime Ministers Office in 1999 during the prime ministership of Binyamin Netanyahu in the framework of drawing lessons from the Yom Kipur War. ... The Israel Border Police (Hebrew: משמר הגבול, Mishmar HaGvul) is the combat branch of the Israeli Police. ... The Israel Prison Service (Hebrew: שירות בתי הסוהר, Sherut Batei HaSohar), commonly known by its acronym, Shabas, is the Israeli prison service. ...

Portal:Israel

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Palestinians
Israeli-Palestinian conflict

Balfour Declaration
1936-1939 Arab revolt in Palestine
Partition · British Mandate
Transjordan · Israel
Palestinian exodus
Jordanian control (West Bank)
Egyptian control (Gaza Strip)
1st Intifada · Oslo Accords
Hafrada · Israeli Gaza Strip barrier
2nd Intifada · Israeli West Bank barrier ·
Israel's unilateral disengagement plan
Timeline The term Palestine and the related term Palestinian have several overlapping (and occasionally contradictory) definitions. ... Israel, with the West Bank and Gaza Strip in diagonal stripes The Israeli-Palestinian conflict which is often claimed to be at the heart of the Arab-Israeli conflict, is an ongoing dispute between two peoples, Jewish Israelis and Arab Palestinians, that both claim the right to sovereignty over the... The Balfour Declaration was a letter dated November 2, 1917 from the British Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour, to Lord Rothschild (Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild), a leader of the British Jewish community, for transmission to the Zionist Federation, a private Zionist organization. ... The 1936-1939 Arab revolt in Palestine was an uprising during the British mandate by Palestinian Arabs in Palestine which lasted from 1936 to 1939. ... Flag Palestine and Transjordan were incorporated (under different legal and administrative arrangements) into the British Mandate of Palestine, issued by the League of Nations to Great Britain on 29 September, 1923 Capital Not specified Organizational structure League of Nations Mandate High Commissioner  - 1920 — 1925 Sir Herbert Louis Samuel  - 1945 — 1948... Map of the territory of the British Mandate of Palestine The Emirate of Transjordan was an autonomous political division of the British Mandate of Palestine, created as an administrative entity in April 1921 before the Mandate came into effect. ... The Palestinian exodus (Arabic: الهجرة الفلسطينية al-Hijra al-Filasteeniya) refers to the refugee flight of Palestinian Arabs during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war. ... Map of the West Bank today Rule of the West Bank and East Jerusalem by Jordan. ... Map of the Gaza Strip from The World Factbook. ... The First Intifada, or Palestinian uprising refers to a series of violent incidents between Palestinians and Israelis between 1987 and approximately 1990. ... Yitzhak Rabin, Bill Clinton, and Yasser Arafat during the Oslo Accords on September 13, 1993. ... Hafrada (הפרדה) is a Hebrew word that means separation. It is usually used in Israel in two contexts. ... Gaza Strip Barrier near the Karni Crossing The Israeli Gaza Strip barrier is a separation barrier along the armistice line of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War between the Gaza Strip and Israel. ... For other uses, see al-Aqsa (disambiguation). ... The barrier route as of May 2005. ... Israels unilateral disengagement plan (termed in Hebrew: תוכנית ההתנתקות Tokhnit HaHitnatkut or תכנית ההינתקות Tokhnit HaHinatkut in the Disengagement Plan Implementation Law), also known as the disengagement plan, Gaza Pull-Out plan, and Hitnatkut) was a proposal by Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon, adopted by the government and enacted in August 2005, to... This is an incomplete timeline of events in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. ...

Palestinian National Authority

Geography of the West Bank and Gaza Strip
Palestinian territories
List of Arab localities in Palestine 1948
West Bank · Gaza Strip
Districts · Cities · East Jerusalem
Refugee camps
Biodiversity It has been suggested that Palestinian government of March 2006 be merged into this article or section. ... Location: Middle East, west of Jordan Geographic coordinates: Map references: Middle East Area: total: 5,860 km² land: 5,640 km² water: 220 km² note: includes West Bank, Latrun Salient, and the northwest quarter of the Dead Sea, but excludes Mount Scopus; East Jerusalem and Jerusalem No mans land... This article is about the Palestinian territories as a geopolitical phenomenon. ... District of Acre Acre Amqa Arab al-Samniyya al-Bassa al-Birwa al-Damun Dayr al-Qassi al-Ghabisiyya Iqrit Iribbin, Khirbat Jiddin, Khirbat al-Kabri Kafr Inan Kuwaykat al-Manshiyya al-Mansura Miar al-Nabi Rubin Nahf al-Nahr al-Ruways Sakhnin Shaab Suhmata al-Sumayriyya Suruh... The 16 Governorates of the West Bank and Gaza Strip are divided into 16 districts (Aqdya, singular - qadaa). ... Map of the West Bank Map of Gaza Strip This is a list of cities and towns in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, the two territories that make up the Palestinian territories. ... East Jerusalem is that part of Jerusalem which was held by Jordan from the 1948 Arab-Israeli War until the Six-Day War in 1967. ... List of Palestinian refugee camps with current population and year they were established: Gaza, 8 camps, 478,854 refugees 1948, Beach camp (Shati), 76,109 1949, Bureij, 30,059 1948, Deir el-Balah, 20,188 1948, Jabalia (Jabalyia, Abalyia), 103,646 1949, Khan Yunis, 60,662 1949, Maghazi, 22,536... This article is about the fauna and flora in the geographical region of Israel and the Disputed Territories (the West Bank and Gaza Strip). ...

Politics

PLO · PNA · PNC · PLO EC · PLC
Political Parties
National Covenant · Foreign Relations
... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic: ‎;   or Munazzamat al-Tahrir al-Filastiniyyah) is a political and paramilitary organization regarded by the Arab League since October 1974 as the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people. ... It has been suggested that Palestinian government of March 2006 be merged into this article or section. ... The Palestinian National Council (PNC) is the parliament in exile of the Palestinian people. ... The Executive Committee (PLO EC) is the highest executive body of the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO). ... The Palestinian Legislative Council, (sometimes referred to to as the Palestinan Parliament) the legislature of the Palestinian Authority, is a unicameral body with 88 members, elected from 16 electoral districts in the West Bank and Gaza. ... A political party is a political organization subscribing to a certain ideology or formed around very special issues with the aim to participate in power, usually by participating in elections. ... The Palestinian National Covenant or Palestinian National Charter (Arabic: al-Mithaq al-Watani al-Filastini) is the charter or constitution of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). ... The Palestinian Declaration of Independence, led to Palestines recognition by 93 countries and to the renaming of the PLO mission in the UN to Palestine. After the formation of the Palestinian Authority, many countries exchanged embassies and delegations with it. ...

Demographics

Demographics of the West Bank
People
The Palestinian territories, occupied — according to the United Nations terminology — since the 1967 Six-Day War, include the West Bank and the Gaza strip. ... See also: Demographics of Israel, demographics section in Gaza strip Population: 2,020,298 note: in addition, there are some 171,000 Israeli settlers in the West Bank and about 172,000 in East Jerusalem (July 2000 est. ...

Economy

Economy of the West Bank
Economy - overview: Economic conditions in the West Bank - where economic activity is governed by the Paris Economic Protocol of April 1994 between Israel and the Palestinian Authority - have deteriorated since the early 1990s. ...

Religion & Religious Sites

Palestinian Jew · Palestinian Christian
Druze · Sunni Muslim
Al-Aqsa Mosque · Dome of the Rock
Church of the Nativity · Rachel's Tomb
Church of the Holy Sepulchre
See also Template:History of the Levant
Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual... A Palestinian Jew is a Jewish inhabitant of Palestine throughout certain periods of Middle East history. ... The Palestinian Christians are Palestinians who follow Christianity. ... Druze star The Druze or Druz (also known as Druse; Arabic: derzÄ« or durzÄ« درزي, pl. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... For other uses, see Al-aqsa (disambiguation). ... The Dome of the Rock (Arabic: مسجد قبة الصخرة, translit. ... View of The Church of the Nativity from Manger Square The Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem is one of the oldest continuously operating churches in the world. ... Rachels Tomb is a holy site of high significance to Judaism and is located in Northern Judea (Southern West Bank) just outside of the Jerusalem neighborhood of Gilo at the northern entrance to Bethlehem along what was once the Biblical Bethlehem-Ephrath road. ... Main Entrance to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. ...

Culture

Music · Dance · Arab cuisine
Palestinian Arabic
Palestinian flag Palestinian culture is most closely related to the cultures of the nearby Levantine countries such as Lebanon, Syria, and Jordan and of the Arab World. ... In the areas now controlled by Israel and Palestinian National Authority, multiple ethnic groups, races and religions have long held on to a diverse culture. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Arab cuisine is the cuisine of the Arab countries. ... Palestinian Arabic is a Levantine Arabic dialect subgroup. ...

Notable Personalities

Rashid Khalidi · Rim Banna
Edward Said · Emile Habibi
Ghassan Kanafani · Qustandi Shomali
Ghada Karmi· Mahmoud Darwish ·
Samih al-Qasim · Nathalie Handal ·
Khalil al-Sakakini · Elia Suleiman ·
Hany Abu-Assad · May Ziade
The following is a list of prominent Palestinians, both from Palestine and from the Palestinian diaspora. ... Rashid Khalidi (1950 - ) is the Edward Said Professor of Arab Studies at Columbia University, and the head of Columbias Middle East Institute. ... Rim Banna is a Palestinian singer, composer and arranger, well-known for her modern interpretations of traditional folk songs. ... Edward Wadie Said (Arabic: ‎, translit: ) (1 November 1935, Jerusalem &ndash 25 September 2003, New York City) was a well-known Palestinian-American literary theorist and outspoken Palestinian activist. ... Emile Habibi (August, 1921 - May 3, 1996) was a Palestinian-Israeli writer and politician. ... Ghassan Kanafani Ghassan Kanafani (غسان كنفاني, born April 9, 1936 in Acre, Palestine - died July 8, 1972 in Beirut, Lebanon) was a Palestinian writer and a spokesman for the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. ... Qustandi Shomali Born in Beit Sahour on 8 July 1946, worked as an Arabic teacher in Algeria from 1965-72; received a B.A in Arabic Literature from Oran University in Algeria in 1971, worked as editor of the Arab World Review in Canada from 1972 to 1975 and as... —Ghada Karmi (1939- ) (Arabic: ‎) is a Palestinian doctor of medicine, author and academic. ... Mahmoud Darwish Mahmoud Darwish (born 1941 in Al-Birwah, British mandate of Palestine) is a contemporary Palestinian poet and writer of prose. ... Nathalie Handal (born July 29, 1969) is a Palestinian poet, writer and playwright and a literary researcher. ... Khalil Sakakini Khalil al-Sakakini (خليل السكاكيني) (January 23, 1878 - August 13, 1953) was a distinguished Palestinian Jerusalemite educator, scholar, and poet. ... Elia Suleiman (born July 28, 1960 in Nazareth) is a Palestinian film director and actor. ... Hany Abu-Assad (Arabic: ‎, born 11 October 1961) is a Dutch-Palestinian film director. ... May Ziade (1886 - 1941) was born in Palestine (of the Ottoman Empire) in 1886. ...

Portal:Palestine

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The majority of the Jews and Jewish groups accepted the proposal, in particular the Jewish Agency, which was the Jewish state-in-formation. A minority of extreme nationalist Jewish groups like Menachem Begin's Irgun Tsvai Leumi and Yitzhak Shamir's Lehi, (known as the Stern Gang) which had been fighting the British, rejected it. Begin warned that the partition won't bring peace because the Arabs will also attack the small state and that "in the war ahead we'll have to stand on our own, it will be a war on our existence and future".[12] Numerous records indicate the joy of Palestine's Jewish inhabitants as they attended to the U.N. session voting for the division proposal. Up to this day, Israeli history books mention November 29th (the date of this session) as the most important date in Israel's acquisition of independence, and many Israeli cities commemorate the date in their streets' names. However, Jews did criticise the lack of territorial continuity for the Jewish state. The Jewish Agency for Israel also known as The Jewish Agency (or sochnut in Hebrew), was previously called the Jewish Agency for Palestine (during the British Mandate of Palestine) is an Israeli organisation that advocates for Israel and is composed mainly, but not entirely, of Jewish people. ...   (August 16, 1913 – March 9, 1992) (Hebrew: מְנַחֵם בְּגִין) was a Polish-Jewish head of the Zionist underground group the Irgun, Nobel Peace Prize laureate and the first Likud Prime Minister of Israel. ... Etzel emblem Irgun (ארגון), shorthand for Irgun Tsvai Leumi (ארגון צבאי לאומי, also spelled Irgun Zvai Leumi), Hebrew for National Military Organization, was a clandestine militant Zionist group, considered Terrorist by the British, that operated in Palestine from 1931 to 1948. ... (Hebrew יִצְחָק שָׁמִיר) (born October 15, 1915) was Prime Minister of Israel from 1983 to 1984 and again from 1986 to 1992. ... Lehi emblem Lehi (IPA: , Hebrew acronym for Lohamei Herut Israel, Fighters for the Freedom of Israel, לחי - לוחמי חירות ישראל) was an armed underground Zionist faction in the Palestine Mandate that had as its goal the eviction of the British from Palestine to allow unrestricted immigration of Jews and the formation of a Jewish...


The Arab leadership (in and out of Palestine) opposed the plan, arguing that it violated the rights of the majority of the people in Palestine, which at the time was 67% non-Jewish (1,237,000) and 33% Jewish (608,000). Arab leaders also argued a large number of Arabs would be trapped in the Jewish State as a minority. While some Arab leaders opposed the right of the Jews for self-determination in the region, others criticised the amount and quality of land given to Israel.


On the day after the vote, a spate of Arab attacks left seven Jews dead and scores more wounded. Shooting, stoning, and rioting continued apace in the following days. The consulates of Poland and Sweden, both of whose governments had voted for partition, were attacked. Bombs were thrown into cafes, Molotov cocktails were hurled at shops, a synagogue was set on fire. On December 3, at the instigation of the Palestinian leadership, a large mob ransacked the new Jewish commercial center in Jerusalem, looting and burning shops and stabbing and stoning whomever they happened upon. The next day, some 120–150 armed Arabs attacked Kibbutz Efal, on the outskirts of Tel Aviv, in the first large-scale attempt to storm a Jewish village.[13] However, according to Ilan Pappe, these events were the result of hot-headed youth on both sides.[14] Molotov cocktail is the generic name for a variety of crude incendiary weapons. ... A synagogue (from Ancient Greek: , transliterated synagogÄ“, assembly; Hebrew: ‎ beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: , shul; Ladino: , esnoga) is a Jewish place of religious worship. ... December 3 is the 337th (in leap years the 338th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Hebrew יְרוּשָׁלַיִם (Yerushalayim) (Standard) Yerushalayim or Yerushalaim Arabic commonly القـُدْس (Al-Quds); officially in Israel أورشليم القدس (Urshalim-Al-Quds) Name Meaning Hebrew: (see below), Arabic: The Holiness Government City District Jerusalem Population 724,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 123,000 dunams (123 km²) Jerusalem (Hebrew:  , Yerushaláyim or Yerushalaim; Arabic:  , al-Quds, the Holiness)[2... Kibbutz Dan, near Qiryat Shemona, in the Upper Galilee, 1990s A kibbutz (Hebrew: ‎; plural: kibbutzim: קיבוצים; gathering or together) is an Israeli collective intentional community. ... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ... Ilan Pappé (born 1954) is an Israeli historian who teaches at Haifa University. ...


The United Kingdom refused to implement the plan arguing it was not acceptable to both sides. It also refused to share with the UN Palestine Commission the administration of Palestine during the transitional period, and decided to terminate the British mandate of Palestine on May 15th, 1948.[3] Map of the territory under the British Mandate of Palestine. ...


Fighting began almost as soon as the plan was approved, beginning with the Arab Jerusalem Riots of 1947. The fighting would have an effect on the Arab population of Palestine, as well the Jewish populations of neighboring Arab countries. The 1947 Jerusalem Riots occurred following the 1947 UN Partition Plan. ...

See also: Jewish exodus from Arab lands and Jewish refugees
See also: Palestinian exodus and Palestinian refugees

The Jewish exodus from Arab lands refers to the 20th century emigration of Jews, primarily of Sephardi and Mizrahi background, from majority Arab lands. ... In the course of history, Jewish populations have been expelled or ostracised by various local authorities and have sought asylum from Anti-Semitism numerous times. ... The Palestinian exodus (Arabic: الهجرة الفلسطينية al-Hijra al-Filasteeniya) refers to the refugee flight of Palestinian Arabs during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war. ... In the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, a Palestinian refugee is a refugee from Palestine created by the Palestinian Exodus, which Palestinians call the Nakba (نكبة, meaning disaster). History Most of the refugees had already fled by the time the neighboring Arab states intervened on the side of Palestinians...

Text of the Resolution

See also

Combatants Hashemite Arabs Great Britain Ottoman Empire Commanders Faisal T.E. Lawrence Ahmed Djemal Strength 5,000 (?) 25,000 (?) This article is about the Arab Revolt of 1916. ... The Hussein-McMahon Correspondence during World War I was a 1915-1916 exchange of letters between the Hejazi (the Hejaz later became part of Saudi Arabia) leader Hussein ibn Ali, Sharif of Mecca, and Sir Henry McMahon, British High Commissioner in Egypt, concerning the future political status of the Arab... Zones of French and British influence and control established by the Sykes-Picot Agreement The Sykes-Picot Agreement of May 16, 1916 was a secret understanding between the governments of Britain and France defining their respective spheres of post-World War I influence and control in the Middle East (then... Flag Palestine and Transjordan were incorporated (under different legal and administrative arrangements) into the British Mandate of Palestine, issued by the League of Nations to Great Britain on 29 September, 1923 Capital Not specified Organizational structure League of Nations Mandate High Commissioner  - 1920 — 1925 Sir Herbert Louis Samuel  - 1945 — 1948... The Balfour Declaration was a letter of November 2, 1917 from British Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour, to Lord Rothschild (Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild), a leader of the British Jewish community, for transmission to the Zionist Federation. ... 1804 print, in which Napoleon grants the Jews freedom to worship, represented by the hand given to the Jewish woman The rise of Napoleon Bonaparte proved an important event in the emancipation of the Jews of Europe from old laws restricting them to Jewish ghettos, as well as the many... The Faisal-Weizmann Agreement was signed on January 3, 1919, by Emir Faisal (son of the King of Hejaz) and Chaim Weizmann (later President of the World Zionist Organization) as part of the Paris Peace Conference, 1919 settling disputes stemming from World War I. It was a short-lived agreement... The Churchill White Paper of 3 June 1922 clarified how Britain viewed the Balfour Declaration, 1917. ... The Palestine Mandate: The Council of the League of Nations: July 24, 1922. ... The Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel, May 14, 1948 David Ben Gurion (First Prime Minister of Israel) publicly pronouncing the Declaration of the State of Israel, May 14, 1948. ... In the course of history, Jewish populations have been expelled or ostracised by various local authorities and have sought asylum from Anti-Semitism numerous times. ... In the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, a Palestinian refugee is a refugee from Palestine created by the Palestinian Exodus, which Palestinians call the Nakba (نكبة, meaning disaster). History Most of the refugees had already fled by the time the neighboring Arab states intervened on the side of Palestinians... Aliyah (Hebrew: עלייה, ascent or going up) is a term widely used to mean Jewish immigration to the Land of Israel (and since its establishment in 1948, the State of Israel). ... The 1947 Jerusalem Riots occurred following the 1947 UN Partition Plan. ... Combatants Egypt Syria Transjordan  Lebanon Saudi Arabia Iraq Holy War Army Arab Liberation Army  Israel Commanders Glubb Pasha Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni† Hasan Salama† Fawzi al-Qawuqji Yaakov Dori Yigael Yadin Strength Egypt: 10,000 initially rising to 20,000 Iraq: 5,000 initially rising to 15,000–18... The 1949 Armistice Agreements are a set of agreements signed during 1949 between Israel and its neighbors Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria. ... Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel and the United... Israel, with the West Bank and Gaza Strip in diagonal stripes The Israeli-Palestinian conflict which is often claimed to be at the heart of the Arab-Israeli conflict, is an ongoing dispute between two peoples, Jewish Israelis and Arab Palestinians, that both claim the right to sovereignty over the... Proposals for a Palestinian state vary depending on ones views of Palestinian statehood, as well as various definitions of Palestine and Palestinian (see also Palestinian state and State of Palestine). ... The Jewish exodus from Arab lands refers to the 20th century emigration of Jews, primarily of Sephardi and Mizrahi background, from majority Arab lands. ... The Palestinian exodus (Arabic: الهجرة الفلسطينية al-Hijra al-Filasteeniya) refers to the refugee flight of Palestinian Arabs during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (367x1029, 26 KB) Summary Comparison between the boundaries in the November 29th 1947 United Nations General Assembly partition plan (Resolution 181) for the British Mandate Territory of Palestine and the eventual armistice boundaries of 1949-1950. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Louis, 1986, p. 374.
  2. ^ Sicker, 1999, p. 164.
  3. ^ a b c "Palestine". Encyclopedia Britannica Online School Edition, 2006. 15 May 2006.
  4. ^ Khalaf, 1991, pp. 26–27.
  5. ^ Error on call to Template:cite web: Parameters url and title must be specified. United States Central Intelligence Agency (10 August 2006).
  6. ^ Brief History at MidEastWeb.
  7. ^ Israeli History at RepresentativePress.
  8. ^ a b UN Partition Plan at Merip.
  9. ^ Map of population distribution at Passia.
  10. ^ The Jewish Problem at MidEastWeb.
  11. ^ Domino.
  12. ^ Begin, Menachem, The Revolt 1978, p. 412.
  13. ^ MeForum.
  14. ^ Pappe, Ilan. A History of Modern Palestine. pg. 128

CIA, see CIA (disambiguation). ... August 10 is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...

References

  • Bregman, Ahron (2002). Israel's Wars: A History Since 1947. London: Routledge. ISBN
  • Arieh L. Avneri (1984). The Claim of Dispossession: Jewish Land Settlement and the Arabs, 1878–1948. Transaction Publishers. ISBN
  • Fischbach, Michael R. (2003). Records of Dispossession: Palestinian Refugee Property and the Arab-Israeli Conflict. Columbia University Press. ISBN
  • Gelber, Yoav (1997). Jewish-Transjordanian Relations: Alliance of Bars Sinister. London: Routledge. ISBN-X
  • Khalaf, Issa (1991). Politics in Palestine: Arab Factionalism and Social Disintegration,. SUNY University Press. ISBN
  • Louis, Wm. Roger (1986). The British Empire in the Middle East,: Arab Nationalism, the United States, and Postwar Imperialism. Oxford University Press. ISBN
  • "Palestine". Encyclopædia Britannica Online School Edition, 15 May 2006.
  • Sicker, Martin (1999). Reshaping Palestine: From Muhammad Ali to the British Mandate, 1831–1922. Praeger/Greenwood. ISBN

External links


 
 

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