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Encyclopedia > Surrender of Japan
The Japanese representatives, Mamoru Shigemitsu and Yoshijiro Umezu, on board USS Missouri during the surrender ceremonies on 2 September 1945. Behind them in the middle row, from left to right, are Major General Yatsuji Nagai, Army; Katsuo Okazaki, Foreign Ministry; Rear Admiral Tadatoshi Tomioka, Navy; Toshikazu Kase, Foreign Ministry, and Lieutenant General Suichi Miyakazi, Army.
The Japanese representatives, Mamoru Shigemitsu and Yoshijiro Umezu, on board USS Missouri during the surrender ceremonies on 2 September 1945. Behind them in the middle row, from left to right, are Major General Yatsuji Nagai, Army; Katsuo Okazaki, Foreign Ministry; Rear Admiral Tadatoshi Tomioka, Navy; Toshikazu Kase, Foreign Ministry, and Lieutenant General Suichi Miyakazi, Army.

The surrender of Japan in August 1945 brought World War II to a close. On August 10, 1945, after the invasion of Manchuria by the Soviet Union and the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan's leaders at the Imperial conference (gozenkaigi) decided, in principle, to accept the uncompromising terms the Allies had set down for ending the war in the Potsdam Declaration. It was after several more days of behind-the-scenes negotiations and a failed coup attempt that Emperor Hirohito gave a radio address to the nation, the Imperial Rescript on Surrender, announcing the acceptance on August 15. In this address, the Emperor emphasized the role of the atomic bombings in his decision, saying, "The enemy now possesses a new and terrible weapon with the power to destroy many innocent lives and do incalculable damage". A separate re-script issued to Japan's armed forces on August 17, did not mention the atomic bombings but emphasized the Soviet invasion. Controversy still exists over the reasons behind Japan's decision to surrender. On August 28, the occupation of Japan by Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers began. On September 2, the Japanese government signed the Japanese Instrument of Surrender, which officially ended World War II. Some isolated commands of Japan's far-flung forces refused to surrender for months and years after. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 727 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (740 × 610 pixel, file size: 95 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Surrender of Japan, Tokyo Bay, 2 September 1945. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 727 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (740 × 610 pixel, file size: 95 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Surrender of Japan, Tokyo Bay, 2 September 1945. ... Mamoru Shigemitsu (重光 葵, 1887 - June 27, 1957) was the Japanese Minister of Foreign affairs at the end of World War II. He, along with Yoshijiro Umezu, was the one who signed the instrument of surrender on September 2, 1945. ... Umezu signing the instrument of surrender to the United States General Yoshijiro Umezu ) (January 4, 1882 - January 8, 1949) was the chief commander of the Japanese army in World War II. In the 1920s Umezu was a member of the Tosei-Ha (Control Group) led by General Kazushige Ugaki along... Radars: AN/SPS-49 Air Search Radar AN/SPS-67 Surface Search Radar Fire control: 4 × Mk 37 Gun Fire Control 2 × Mk 38 Gun Director 1 × Mk 40 Gun Director EW: AN/SLQ-32 Other: AN/SLQ-25 NIXIE Decoy System 8 × Super Rapid Bloom Rocket Launchers (SRBOC) Armor... Katsuo Okazaki (1897 - 1965) was a Japanese political figure. ... Toshikazu Kase (kanji: 加瀬俊一 kana: かせ としかず) (12 January 1903 - 21 May 2004) was a Japanese civil servant and career diplomat. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The mushroom cloud over Hiroshima after the dropping of Little Boy. ... Gozenkaigi (御前会議)or Conference in the Imperial presence refers to a special kind of conference attended by the highest ranking politicians and military officials in Japan, usually conducted before the Japanese Emperor. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... The Potsdam Declaration or the Proclamation Defining Terms for Japanese Surrender (not to be confused with the Potsdam Agreement) was a statement issued on July 26, 1945 by Harry S. Truman, Winston Churchill, and Chiang Kai-Shek which outlined the terms of surrender for Japan as agreed upon at the... Emperor Shōwa ) (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989) was the 124th emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from December 25, 1926 until his death in 1989. ... Gyokuon-ban, the record used for the broadcast. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... History of Japan Paleolithic Jomon Yayoi Yamato period ---Kofun period ---Asuka period Nara period Heian period Kamakura period Muromachi period Azuchi-Momoyama period ---Nanban period Edo period Meiji period Taisho period Showa period ---Japanese expansionism ---Occupied Japan ---Post-Occupation Japan Heisei The Surrender of Japan Japan surrendered to the Allies... Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers (SCAP) was the title for Douglas MacArthur during the Occupation of Japan following WWII. The title did belong to Dwight David Eisenhower during WWII, however, he had nothing to do with the attacks on Japan. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Representatives of Japan stand aboard the USS Missouri prior to signing of the Instrument of Surrender. ... Japanese holdouts were Japanese soldiers who, after the official surrender of Japan after World War II, either refused to believe the veracity of the formal surrender due to strong, dogmatic, militaristic principles, or were not aware of it due to the cut-off communications that resulted from the United States...

Contents

Impending defeat

Allied landings in the Pacific Theatre of Operations, August 1942 to August 1945
Allied landings in the Pacific Theatre of Operations, August 1942 to August 1945
Two American Marines at the Battle of Okinawa. Okinawa was the final stepping stone before the invasion of the Japanese homeland, code-named Operation Downfall.
Two American Marines at the Battle of Okinawa. Okinawa was the final stepping stone before the invasion of the Japanese homeland, code-named Operation Downfall.

By 1945, as a result of a very successful United States submarine campaign, Japanese merchant shipping had been largely destroyed, Japan's navy was confined to port for lack of fuel, her air force was grounded (fuel was being saved to repel the expected invasion), and most supplies from the mainland had been cut off. Japan's war economy was in shambles, with production of fuel, steel, rubber and other vital supplies at only a fraction of their pre-war levels. [1] Download high resolution version (2000x1363, 414 KB)Allied landings - August 1942 to August 1945 Source: Scanned from Reports of General MacArthur (1994 facsimile printing), Vol 1. ... Download high resolution version (2000x1363, 414 KB)Allied landings - August 1942 to August 1945 Source: Scanned from Reports of General MacArthur (1994 facsimile printing), Vol 1. ... Download high resolution version (1386x1105, 235 KB)A Marine of the 1st Marine Division draws a bead on a Japanese sniper with his tommy-gun as his companion ducks for cover. ... Download high resolution version (1386x1105, 235 KB)A Marine of the 1st Marine Division draws a bead on a Japanese sniper with his tommy-gun as his companion ducks for cover. ... Combatants  United States  United Kingdom  Canada  Australia  New Zealand Empire of Japan Commanders Simon B. Buckner â€  Joseph W. Stilwell Ray Spruance Mitsuru Ushijima â€  Isamu Cho â€  Strength 548,000 soldiers, 1,300 ships,  ? aircraft 100,000 regulars and militia,  ? ships,  ? aircraft Casualties 12,513 dead or missing, 38,916 wounded, 33... Operation Downfall was the overall Allied plan for the invasion of Japan near the end of World War II. The operation was cancelled when Japan surrendered following the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and the Soviet Unions declaration of war against Japan. ... For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ...


Japan's leaders had envisioned a negotiated settlement to the war. Their pre-war planning expected a rapid expansion, consolidation, eventual conflict with the United States and then a settlement in which they were able to retain at least some of the new territory they had conquered.[2]


Although Japan's leaders were in agreement that the war was going badly, they disagreed over the best means to negotiate an end to it. There were two camps: the so-called "peace" camp, which favored a diplomatic initiative to persuade Joseph Stalin, the leader of the Soviet Union, to mediate a settlement between the US, its allies and Japan; and the hard liners, who favored fighting one last "decisive" battle that would inflict so many casualties on the U.S. that they would be willing to offer more lenient terms. Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from...


Both approaches were based on Japan's experience in the Russo-Japanese War forty years earlier. That war consisted of a series of costly but largely indecisive battles, followed by the decisive naval engagement in the Tsushima Strait. The peace settlement that followed was mediated by President of the United States Theodore Roosevelt. Combatants Russian Empire Montenegro[1] Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov â€  Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War (Japanese: Nichi-Ro Sensō, Russian: , Chinese: , February 10, 1904 – September 5, 1905) was a conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of... Combatants Empire of Japan Russian Empire Commanders Heihachiro Togo Zinovi Rozhdestvenski # Nikolai Nebogatov Strength 4 battleships 27 cruisers destroyers and auxiliary vessels 8 battleships 3 coastal battleships 8 cruisers Casualties 117 dead 583 injured 3 torpedo boats sunk 4,380 dead 5,917 captured 21 ships sunk 7 captured 6... The Russian and Japanese delegates around the negotiating table at the Portsmouth Navy Yard St The Treaty of Portsmouth formally ended the 1904-1905 Russo-Japanese War. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ...


In July 1944, General Hideki Tojo was replaced as prime minister by General Kuniaki Koiso, who declared that the Philippines would be the site of the decisive battle.[3] Despite the defeats at Leyte Gulf and on Leyte, the Emperor continued to believe that General Tomoyuki Yamashita could defeat Allied General Douglas MacArthur's invasion of Luzon. Hideki Tojo (KyÅ«jitai: 東條 英機; Shinjitai: 東条 英機;  ) (December 30, 1884 – December 23, 1948) was a General in the Imperial Japanese Army and the 40th Prime Minister of Japan during much of World War II, from October 18, 1941 to July 22, 1944. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Kuniaki Koiso (小磯 國昭 Koiso Kuniaki, March 22, 1880–November 3, 1950) was the 41st Prime Minister of Japan from July 22, 1944 to April 7, 1945. ... Combatants  United States  Australia  Philippines Empire of Japan Commanders William Halsey, Jr (3rd Fleet) Thomas C. Kinkaid (7th Fleet) Takeo Kurita (Centre Force) Shoji Nishimura â€  (Southern Force) Kiyohide Shima (Southern Force) Jisaburo Ozawa (Northern Force) Strength 17 aircraft carriers 18 escort carriers 12 battleships 24 cruisers 141 destroyers and destroyer... Combatants United States, The Philippines Empire of Japan Commanders Douglas MacArthur Walter Krueger Franklin C. Sibert John R. Hodge Ruperto C. Kangleon Tomoyuki Yamashita Sosaku Suzuki Shiro Makino Strength 200,000 U.S. troops 3,189 Filipino guerrillas 55,000 Japanese troops Casualties 3,500 killed 12,000 wounded 49... Tomoyuki Yamashita, 1945 General Tomoyuki Yamashita (山下 奉文 Yamashita Tomoyuki,) (November 8, 1885 – February 23, 1946) was a general of the Japanese Imperial Army during the World War II era. ... This article is about the American general; for the municipality in the Philippines, see General MacArthur, Eastern Samar. ... Combatants United States Philippines Mexico Japan Commanders Douglas Macarthur Sergio Osmeña Basilio S. Valdes Rafael Jalandoni Alfredo M. Santos Luis Taruc Tomoyuki Yamashita The Battle of Luzon, on the island of Luzon, home to the Filipino capital Manila, saw the showdown between Japanese commander Tomoyuki Yamashita and General Douglas...


None of these hopes were borne out. After the defeats of the Marianas campaign at the Philippine Sea and Saipan, and faced with the prospect of an invasion of the Japanese Home Islands, the War Journal of the Imperial Headquarters concluded: "We can no longer direct the war with any hope of success. The only course left is for Japan's one hundred million people to sacrifice their lives by charging the enemy to make them lose the will to fight."[4] In the Pacific theater of World War II, the American Marianas Campaign, known as Operation Forager, pushed westward from the Marshall Islands in the summer of 1944 to capture the islands of Saipan, Tinian, and Guam. ... Combatants United States Navy Imperial Japanese Navy Commanders Ray Spruance Jisaburo Ozawa Kakuji Kakuta Strength 7 fleet carriers, 8 light carriers, 7 battleships, 79 other ships, 28 submarines, 956 planes 5 fleet carriers, 4 light carriers, 5 battleships, 43 other ships, 450 carrier-based planes, 300 land-based planes Casualties... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Richmond K. Turner Holland Smith Yoshitsugu Saito â€  Chuichi Nagumo â€  Strength 71,000 31,000 Casualties 3,426 killed; 13,160 wounded 24,000 KIA and 5,000 suicides; 921 prisoners The Battle of Saipan was a battle of the Pacific campaign of World...


In February 1945, Prince Fumimaro Konoe gave to Emperor Hirohito a memorandum about his analysis of the situation and told him that if the war continued, the Imperial house might be in greater danger from an internal revolution than from defeat. [5] According to the diary of Grand Chamberlain Hisanori Fujita, the Emperor, looking for a tennozan, replied that it was premature to seek peace, "unless we make one more military gain". [6] Fumimaro Konoe Prince Fumimaro Konoe (近衞{衛 in Shinjitai} 文麿 Konoe Fumimaro) (sometimes Konoye, October 12, 1891–December 16, 1945) was a Japanese politician and the 34th (June 4, 1937–January 5, 1939), 38th (July 22, 1940–July 18, 1941) and 39th (July 18, 1941–October 18, 1941) Prime Minister of Japan. ... now. ...


Divisions within Japan

Kantaro Suzuki headed the Japanese delgation to the USSR. Suzuki's mission was to get the Soviets to help mediate an end to the war on terms that would allow the Japanese to keep some of the conquered territory, and that European colonies Japan had conquered be granted independence.
Kantaro Suzuki headed the Japanese delgation to the USSR. Suzuki's mission was to get the Soviets to help mediate an end to the war on terms that would allow the Japanese to keep some of the conquered territory, and that European colonies Japan had conquered be granted independence.

In April 1945, Admiral Kantaro Suzuki was chosen to replace Koiso. The "Fundamental Policy" of Suzuki's government was to fight on and to choose "honorable death of the hundred million" over surrender. However, underlings in the government bureaucracy were pointing out the weakness of Japan's position, particularly the shortages of petroleum and food. Despite the Soviet Union's announcement that it would not renew its 1941–46 neutrality pact with Japan for another five years, Foreign Minister Shigenori Togo was authorized to approach the Soviet Union, seeking to maintain its neutrality, or more fantastically, to form an alliance. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Admiral Baron Kantaro Suzuki (Japanese: 鈴木 貫太郎 18 January 1868 - 17 April 1948) was an admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy and 42nd Prime Minister of Japan from 7 April 1945 to 17 August 1945. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... The Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact refers to a pact between the Soviet Union and Japan signed on April 13, 1941, two years after the Soviet-Japanese Border War (1939). ... The Minister for Foreign Affairs ) of Japan is the Cabinet member responsible for Japanese foreign policy and the chief executive of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. ... Shigenori Togo Shigenori Togo (東郷茂徳 Tōgō Shigenori, 10 December 1882 - 23 July 1950) was Minister of Foreign Affairs for Japan at both the start and the end of World War II. He also served as Minister for Colonization in 1941, and assumed the same position, renamed the Minister for Greater...

"It should be clearly made known to Russia that she owes her victory over Germany to Japan, since we remained neutral, and that it would be to the advantage of the Soviets to help Japan maintain her international position, since they have the United States as an enemy in the future".

On June 9, the Emperor's confidant, Marquis Kōichi Kido, wrote a "Draft Plan for Controlling the Crisis Situation", warning that by the end of the year, Japan's ability to wage modern war would be extinguished and the government would be unable to contain civil unrest. June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... Marquis Koichi Kido ) (July 18, 1889 – April 6, 1977), served as Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal from 1940 to 1945, and was the closest advisor to Emperor Showa throughout World War II. Kido Kōichi was the grandson of Kido Takayoshi, one of the leaders of the Meiji Restoration. ...

"...we cannot be sure we will not share the fate of Germany and be reduced to adverse circumstances under which we will not attain even our supreme object of safeguarding the Imperial Household and preserving the national polity".[7]

Kido proposed that the Emperor himself take action, offering to end the war on "very generous terms". Kido proposed that Japan give up occupied European colonies, provided they were granted independence, and that the nation disarm and for a time be "content with minimum defense". With the Emperor's authorization, Kido approached several members of the Supreme Council, the "Big Six". Togo was very supportive. Suzuki and Admiral Mitsumasa Yonai, the Navy minister, were both cautiously supportive; both wondered what the other thought. General Korechika Anami, the Army minister, was ambivalent, insisting that diplomacy must wait until "after the United States has sustained heavy losses in [Ketsu-Go]".[8] Supreme War Council was de-facto inner cabinet of Japan prior and during World War II. Among memberes were Prime Minister, the Minister of Foreign Affairs, the Minister of War, the Minister of the Navy, the chiefs of the General Staffs of both the Army and the Navy. ... Mitsumasa Yonai (米内 光政 Yonai Mitsumasa; March 2, 1880–April 20, 1948) was a Japanese politician and the 37th Prime Minister of Japan from January 16, 1940 to July 22, 1940. ... The Japanese Naval Ministry was established at the end of the 19th century, along with the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN). ... Korechika Anami Korechika Anami (阿南 惟幾 Anami Korechika, February 21st 1887- August 15th 1945) was a Japanese general in World War II. Military Career 2dLt (Infantry),December 1906; was graduated from War College, November 1918; attached to Army General Staff, April 1919; Member, same, December 1919; Major, February 1922; Staff Officer, Sakhalin... The Ministry of War of Japan (陸軍省 Rikugun shó) was established in the late 19th century, alongside many other Ministries, as part of the creation of the first modern Japanese government. ... Operation Downfall was the overall Allied plan for the invasion of Japan near the end of World War II. The operation was cancelled when Japan surrendered following the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and the Soviet Unions declaration of war against Japan. ...


In June, the Emperor lost confidence in the chances of achieving a military victory. The battle of Okinawa was lost, and he learned of the weakness of the Japanese army in China, of the navy, and of the army defending the Home Islands. Combatants  United States  United Kingdom  Canada  Australia  New Zealand Empire of Japan Commanders Simon B. Buckner â€  Joseph W. Stilwell Ray Spruance Mitsuru Ushijima â€  Isamu Cho â€  Strength 548,000 soldiers, 1,300 ships,  ? aircraft 100,000 regulars and militia,  ? ships,  ? aircraft Casualties 12,513 dead or missing, 38,916 wounded, 33...

... according to [Prince Higashikuni's] report it was not just the coast defense; the divisions reserved to engage in the decisive battle also did not have sufficient numbers of weapons. I was told that the iron from bomb fragments dropped by the enemy was being used to make shovels. This confirmed my opinion that we were no longer in a position to continue the war.[9]

On June 22, the Emperor summoned the Big Six to a meeting. Unusually, he spoke first. "I desire that concrete plans to end the war, unhampered by existing policy, be speedily studied and that efforts made to implement them."[10] It was agreed to solicit Soviet aid in ending the war. Other neutral nations, like Switzerland, Sweden, and the Vatican City were known to be willing to play a role in making peace, but they were so small they could not have done more than deliver the Allies' terms of surrender and Japan's acceptance or rejection. The Japanese hoped that the Soviet Union could be persuaded to act as an agent for Japan in negotiations with the Western Allies. There was no agreement on what peace terms Japan might accept, or when to approach the Allies. The leaders of the Army were confident of their ability to deal the Americans a crippling blow when they attempted to invade Kyūshū in late 1945. Prince Higashikuni (Naruhiko) of Japan (東久邇 稔彦 Higashikuni Naruhiko, also Higashikuni no miya Naruhiko ō (東久邇宮 稔彦王)) (3 December 1887 – 26 January 1990) was the 43rd Prime Minister of Japan from 17 August 1945 to 9 October 1945, a period of 54 days. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Attempts to deal with the Soviet Union

On June 30, Togo told Naotake Sato, Japan's ambassador in Moscow, to try to establish "firm and lasting relations of friendship". Sato was to discuss the status of Manchuria and "any matter the Russians would like to bring up".[11] Sato finally met with Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov on July 11 but without result. On July 12, Togo directed Sato to tell the Russians that, is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Naotake Sato (佐藤尚武 Sato Naotake, October 30, 1882 - December 18, 1971) was a Japanese diplomat and politician. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Molotov (disambiguation). ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

"His Majesty the Emperor, mindful of the fact that the present war daily brings greater evil and sacrifice upon the peoples of all the belligerent powers, desires from his heart that it may be quickly terminated. But so long as England and the United States insist upon unconditional surrender, the Japanese Empire has no alternative but to fight on with all its strength for the honor and existence of the Motherland."[12]

The Emperor proposed sending Prince Konoe as a Special Envoy, though he would be unable to reach Moscow before the Potsdam Conference. Unconditional surrender refers to a surrender without conditions, except for those provided by international law. ... Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin meeting at the Potsdam Conference on July 18, 1945. ...


Sato advised Togo that in reality, "unconditional surrender or terms closely equivalent thereto" was all that Japan could expect. Moreover Togo's messages were not "clear about the views of the Government and the Military with regard to the termination of the war," questioning whether Togo's initiative was supported by the key elements of Japan's power structure.[13]


On July 17, Togo responded, is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

"Although the directing powers, and the government as well, are convinced that our war strength still can deliver considerable blows to the enemy, we are unable to feel absolutely secure peace of mind ...
Please bear particularly in mind, however, that we are not seeking the Russians' mediation for anything like an unconditional surrender."[14]

In reply, Sato clarifed,

"It goes without saying that in my earlier message calling for unconditional surrender or closely equivalent terms, I made an exception of the question of preserving [the Imperial House]."[15]

On July 21, speaking in the name of the cabinet, Togo repeated, is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

"With regard to unconditional surrender we are unable to consent to it under any circumstances whatever. ... It is in order to avoid such a state of affairs that we are seeking a peace, ... through the good offices of Russia. ... it would also be disadvantageous and impossible, from the standpoint of foreign and domestic considerations, to make an immediate declaration of specific terms."[16]

Allied cryptographers had broken most of Japan's codes. As a result, messages between Tokyo and Japan's embassies were provided to Allied policy-makers nearly as quickly as to the intended recipients. The German Lorenz cipher machine, used in World War II for encryption of very high-level general staff messages Cryptography (or cryptology; derived from Greek κρυπτός kryptós hidden, and the verb γράφω gráfo write or λεγειν legein to speak) is the study of message secrecy. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ...


Potsdam Declaration

On July 26, the United States, Britain, and China released the Potsdam Declaration, announcing the terms for Japan's surrender, with the warning, "We will not deviate from them. There are no alternatives. We shall brook no delay." is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Potsdam Declaration or the Proclamation Defining Terms for Japanese Surrender (not to be confused with the Potsdam Agreement) was a statement issued on July 26, 1945 by Harry S. Truman, Winston Churchill, and Chiang Kai-Shek which outlined the terms of surrender for Japan as agreed upon at the...

  • the elimination "for all time [of] the authority and influence of those who have deceived and misled the people of Japan into embarking on world conquest"
  • the occupation of "points in Japanese territory to be designated by the Allies"
  • "Japanese sovereignty shall be limited to the islands of Honshū, Hokkaidō, Kyūshū, Shikoku and such minor islands as we determine." As had been announced in the Cairo Declaration in 1943, Japan was to be stripped of her pre-war empire, including Korea and Taiwan, as well as all her recent conquests.
  • "The Japanese military forces shall be completely disarmed"
  • "stern justice shall be meted out to all war criminals, including those who have visited cruelties upon our prisoners"

But on the other hand, This article does not cite any references or sources. ...   literally North Sea Circuit, Ainu: Mosir), formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is Japans second largest island and the largest of its 47 prefectural-level subdivisions. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the island. ... The Cairo Declaration was an statement released at Cairo, Egypt on December 1, 1943 by President Franklin Roosevelt of the United States, Prime Minister Winston Churchill of the United Kingdom, and Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek of the Republic of China. ... This article is about the Korean peninsula and civilization. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ...

  • "We do not intend that the Japanese shall be enslaved as a race or destroyed as a nation, ... The Japanese Government shall remove all obstacles to the revival and strengthening of democratic tendencies among the Japanese people. Freedom of speech, of religion, and of thought, as well as respect for the fundamental human rights shall be established."
  • "Japan shall be permitted to maintain such industries as will sustain her economy and permit the exaction of just reparations in kind, ... Japanese participation in world trade relations shall be permitted."
  • "The occupying forces of the Allies shall be withdrawn from Japan as soon as these objectives have been accomplished and there has been established in accordance with the freely expressed will of the Japanese people a peacefully inclined and responsible government.

The only mention of "unconditional surrender" came at the end: This article is about the general concept. ... Freedom of thought (also called freedom of conscience and freedom of ideas) is the freedom of an individual to hold or consider a fact, viewpoint, or thought, regardless of anyone elses view. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...

  • "We call upon the government of Japan to proclaim now the unconditional surrender of all Japanese armed forces, and to provide proper and adequate assurances of their good faith in such action. The alternative for Japan is prompt and utter destruction."

Whether the Emperor was of one those who had "misled the people of Japan", or even a war criminal — or potentially part of a "peacefully inclined and responsible government" was left unstated.


On July 27, the Japanese government considered how to respond to the Declaration. The four military members of the Big Six wanted to reject it, but Togo persuaded the cabinet not to do so until he could get a reaction from the Soviets. In a telegram, Shunichi Kase, Japan's ambassador to Switzerland, observed that unconditional surrender applied only to the military and not to the government or the people, and he pleaded that it should be understood that the careful language of Potsdam appeared "to have occasioned a great deal of thought" on the part of the signatory governments — "they seem to have taken pains to save face for us on various points." The next day, Japanese paper reported that the Declaration, the text of which had been broadcast and dropped on leaflets into Japan, had been rejected. In an attempt to manage public perception, Prime Minister Suzuki met with the press, and stated, is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

"I consider the Joint Proclamation a rehash of the Declaration at the Cairo Conference. As for the Government, it does not attach any important value to it at all. The only thing to do is just kill it with silence (mokusatsu) it. We will do nothing but press on to the bitter end to bring about a successful completion of the war".

The meaning of the word mokusatsu, literally "kill with silence", is not precise; it can range from 'ignore' to 'treat with contempt' — which actually described fairly accurately the range of effective reactions within the government. However, Suzuki's statement, particularly its final sentence, leaves little room for misinterpretation and was taken as a rejection by the press, both in Japan and abroad, and no further statement was made in public or through diplomatic channels to alter this understanding. Mokusatsu (黙殺) is a Japanese word formed from two chinese characters: silence (moku, é»™) and kill (satsu, 殺) and means the act of keeping a contemptuous silence. ...


On July 30, Ambassador Sato wrote that Stalin was probably talking to the Western Allies about his dealings with Japan. is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

"There is no alternative but immediate unconditional surrender if we are to prevent Russia's participation in the war. ...
Your way of looking at things and the actual condition in the Soviet Union may be seen as being completely contradictory."[17]

On August 2, Togo wrote to Sato, is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

" ... However, it should not be difficult for you to realize that ... our time to proceed with arrangements of ending the war before the enemy lands on the Japanese mainland is limited, on the other hand it is difficult to decide on concrete peace conditions here at home all at once."[18]

Hiroshima, Manchuria, and Nagasaki

The second atomic bomb, the Fat Man, was dropped on Nagasaki by the B-29 named Bockscar.
The second atomic bomb, the Fat Man, was dropped on Nagasaki by the B-29 named Bockscar.

On the morning of August 6, confused reports reached Tokyo that the city of Hiroshima in southwest Honshū had been the target of an air raid, which had leveled the city with a "blinding flash and violent blast". Later, U.S. President Harry S. Truman's broadcast was received, announcing the first use of an atomic bomb, and promising Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1246x1468, 760 KB) if you look closely, you can see a japanese person in the bottom right corner TITLE: Mushroom cloud CALL NUMBER: POS 6 - U.S., no. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1246x1468, 760 KB) if you look closely, you can see a japanese person in the bottom right corner TITLE: Mushroom cloud CALL NUMBER: POS 6 - U.S., no. ... This article is about the nuclear weapon used in World War II. For other uses, see Fat Man (disambiguation). ... Bockscar nose art. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Main keep of Hiroshima Castle The city of Hiroshima (広島市; -shi) is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the Chugoku region of western Honshu, the largest of Japans islands. ... The mushroom cloud over Hiroshima after the dropping of Little Boy. ... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ...

"We are now prepared to obliterate rapidly and completely every productive enterprise the Japanese have ... It was to spare the Japanese from utter destruction that the ultimatum of July 26 was issued at Potsdam. Their leaders promptly rejected that ultimatum. If they do not now accept our terms they may expect a rain of ruin from the air, the like of which has never been seen on earth."[19]

At first, some refused to believe the Americans could have managed to build an atomic bomb. The Japanese knew enough about the potential process to know how very difficult it was (and the fact that both their Army and Navy had independent atomic-bomb programs had further complicated their own efforts). Admiral Soemu Toyoda, the Chief of the Naval General Staff, argued that even if the Americans had made one, they could not have many more. More detailed reports of the unprecedented scale of the destruction at Hiroshima were received, but two days passed before the government met to consider the changed situation. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


At 04:00 on August 9, word reached Tokyo that the Soviet Union had broken the neutrality pact, declared war on Japan and launched an invasion of Manchuria. The senior leadership of the Japanese Army took the news in stride, grossly underestimating the scale of the attack. They did start preparations to impose martial law on the nation, with the support of Minister of War Anami, in order to stop anyone attempting to make peace.[20] Hirohito told Kido to "quickly control the situation" because "the Soviet Union has declared war and today began hostilities against us."[21] is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Neutrality pact refers to more than one pact between Russia and Japan and a proposed pact between the United States and Nazi Germany, during World War 2. ... Combatants Soviet Union Peoples Republic of Mongolia Japan Manchukuo Mengjiang Commanders Aleksandr Vasilevsky Otsuzo Yamada Strength Soviet Union 1,577,225 men, 26,137 artillery, 1,852 sup. ... The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) (Kyūjitai: 大日本帝國陸軍, Shinjitai: , Romaji: Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun), or more officially Army of the Greater Japanese Empire was the official ground based armed force of Imperial Japan from 1867 to 1945. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Korechika Anami Korechika Anami (阿南 惟幾 Anami Korechika, February 21st 1887- August 15th 1945) was a Japanese general in World War II. Military Career 2dLt (Infantry),December 1906; was graduated from War College, November 1918; attached to Army General Staff, April 1919; Member, same, December 1919; Major, February 1922; Staff Officer, Sakhalin... Emperor Shōwa ) (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989) was the 124th emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from December 25, 1926 until his death in 1989. ... KIDO is a commercial radio station located in Nampa, Idaho, broadcasting to the Boise, Idaho area on 580 AM. KIDO airs news/talk programming branded as NewsRadio 580 KIDO. NewsRadio Official Website Query the FCCs AM station database for KIDO AM radio stations in the Boise, Idaho market (Arbitron...


The Supreme Council met at 10:30. Prime Minister Suzuki, who had just come from a meeting with the Emperor, said it was impossible to continue the war. Foreign Minister Togo Shigenori said that they could accept the terms of the Potsdam Declaration, but they needed a guarantee of the Emperor's position. Navy Minister Yonai said that they had to propose something — they could no longer afford to wait for better circumstances. In the middle of the meeting, news arrived that Nagasaki, on the west coast of Kyūshū, had been hit by a second atomic bomb. By the time the meeting ended, the Big Six had split 3–3. Suzuki, Togo, and Admiral Yonai favored Togo's one additional condition to Potsdam, while Generals Anami, Umezu, and Admiral Toyoda insisted on three further terms that modified Potsdam: that Japan handle her own disarmament, that Japan deal with any Japanese war criminals, and that there be no occupation of Japan.[22] Megane-bashi (Spectacles Bridge) Nagasaki   listen? (長崎市; -shi, literally long peninsula) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture located at the south-western coast of Kyushu, Japan. ... Umezu signing the instrument of surrender to the United States General Yoshijiro Umezu ) (January 4, 1882 - January 8, 1949) was the chief commander of the Japanese army in World War II. In the 1920s Umezu was a member of the Tosei-Ha (Control Group) led by General Kazushige Ugaki along...


Emperor's intervention

That afternoon, the full cabinet met, and likewise split, with neither Togo's position nor Anami's attracting a majority. Suzuki and Togo met with the Emperor, and Suzuki proposed an impromptu Imperial conference, which started just before midnight. Suzuki presented Anami's four-condition proposal as the consensus position of the Supreme Council. The other members of the Supreme Council spoke, as did Baron Hiranuma Kiichirō, the president of the Privy Council, who outlined Japan's inability to defend itself and its domestic problems, such as the shortage of food. Suzuki then addressed Emperor Hirohito, asking him to decide between the two positions. Although not recorded, from recollections of the participants, the Emperor's statement was: This is a Japanese name; the family name is Hiranuma Baron Hiranuma Kiichiro ) (28 September 1867 - 22 August 1952) was a prominent pre-World War II right-wing Japanese politician and the 35th Prime Minister of Japan from 5 January 1939 to 30 August 1939. ...

"I have given serious thought to the situation prevailing at home and abroad and have concluded that continuing the war can only mean destruction for the nation and prolongation of bloodshed and cruelty in the world. I cannot bear to see my innocent people suffer any longer. ...
I was told by those advocating a continuation of hostilities that by June new divisions would be in place in fortified positions [east of Tokyo] ready for the invader when he sought to land. It is now August and the fortifications still have not been completed. ...
There are those who say the key to national survival lies in a decisive battle in the homeland. The experiences of the past, however, show that there has always been a discrepancy between plans and performance. ... [He then made some specific reference to the atomic bomb]
It goes without saying that it is unbearable for me to see the brave and loyal fighting men of Japan disarmed. It is equally unbearable that others who have rendered me devoted service should now be punished as instigators of the war. Nevertheless, the time has come to bear the unbearable. ...
I swallow my tears and give my sanction to the proposal to accept the Allied proclamation on the basis outlined by the Foreign Minister."'

According to General Sumihisa Ikeda and Admiral Zenshirô Hoshina, Privy Coucil President Hiranuma Kiichirō then turned to the Emperor and asked him: "Your majesty, you also bear responsibility (sekinin) for this defeat. What apology are you going to make to the heroic spirits of the imperial founder of your house and your other imperial ancestors?" [23] This is a Japanese name; the family name is Hiranuma Baron Hiranuma Kiichiro ) (28 September 1867 - 22 August 1952) was a prominent pre-World War II right-wing Japanese politician and the 35th Prime Minister of Japan from 5 January 1939 to 30 August 1939. ...


Once the Emperor had left; Suzuki pushed the cabinet to accept the Emperor's will, which it did.


The Foreign Ministry sent telegrams to the Allies, announcing that Japan would accept the Potsdam Declaration but would not comprise any demand which would prejudice the prerogatives of the Emperor. That effectively meant that the Tenno would remain a position of real power within the government — power that was normally wielded in his name by the people at the tops of the military and governmental hierarchies. For the CPR ocean liner, see Empress of Japan. ...


The response from the Allies was received on August 12. On the status of the Emperor it said, is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

"From the moment of surrender the authority of the Emperor and the Japanese government to rule the state shall be subject to the Supreme Commander of the Allied powers who will take such steps as he deems proper to effectuate the surrender terms. ...
The ultimate form of government of Japan shall, in accordance with the Potsdam Declaration, be established by the freely expressed will of the Japanese people."

At the following cabinet meeting, Suzuki argued that they must reject this and insist on an explicit guarantee for the Imperial system. Anami returned to his position that there be no occupation of Japan. Afterwards, Togo told Suzuki that there was no hope of getting better terms, and Kido conveyed the Emperor's will that Japan surrender. In a meeting with the Emperor, Yonai spoke of his concerns about growing civil unrest,

"I think the term is inappropriate, but the atomic bombs and the Soviet entry into the war are, in a sense, divine gifts. This way we don't have to say that we have quit the war because of domestic circumstances."

On August 10, the cabinet drafted an "Imperial Rescript ending the War" following the emperor's indications that the declaration did not compromise any demand which prejudiced the prerogatives of His Majesty as a Sovereign Ruler. is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


On August 12, Hirohito informed the imperial family of his decision to surrender. One of his uncles, Prince Asaka, then asked whether the war would be continued if the kokutai (national polity) could not be preserved. The emperor simply replied "of course."[24] is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Emperor Shōwa ) (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989) was the 124th emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from December 25, 1926 until his death in 1989. ... Prince Asaka Yasuhiko, circa 1937 His Imperial Highness Prince Asaka (Yasuhiko) of Japan (jp: 朝香鳩彦 Asaka Yasuhiko, 2 October 1887 - 13 April 1981), Prince Asaka-no-miya (朝香宮) of Japan, was a member of the Japanese imperial family and a career army officer. ... Kokutai (Japanese kanji: 国体, lit. ...


On August 13, the Big Six and the cabinet were still deadlocked. The next day, with leaflets dropped from B-29s describing the Japanese offer of surrender and the Allied response, Suzuki, Kido, and the Emperor realized the day would end with either an acceptance of the American terms or a military coup. The Emperor met with the most senior Army and Navy officers. While several spoke in favor of fighting on, Field Marshall Shunroku Hata did not. As commander of the Second General Army, the headquarters of which had been in Hiroshima, Hata commanded all the troops defending southern Japan — the troops preparing to fight the "decisive battle". Hata said he had no confidence in defeating the invasion and did not dispute the Emperor's decision. The Emperor requested that his military leaders cooperate with him in ending the war. is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Boeing B-29 Superfortress (Boeing Model 341/345) was a four-engine heavy bomber flown by the United States Army Air Force. ... Hata Shuroku (born July 26, 1879 - died May 10, 1962), was a Japanese general during World War II. Military career 2nd Lt (Artillery), June 1901 Graduated from War College with top scholarly rank, November 1910 Army General Staff, December 1910 Military student, Germany, March 1912 Major, July 1914; official duty...


At conference with cabinet and other councillors, Anami, Toyoda, and Umezu again made their case for continuing to fight, after which the Emperor said,

"I have listened carefully to each of the arguments presented in opposition to the view that Japan should accept the Allied reply as it stands and without further clarification or modification, but my own thoughts have not undergone any change. ...
In order that the people may know my decision, I request you to prepare at once an imperial rescript so that I may broadcast to the nation. Finally, I call upon each and every one of you to exert himself to the utmost so that we may meet the trying days which lie ahead."

The cabinet immediately convened and unanimously ratified the Emperor's wishes. On 14 August 1945, the Suzuki cabinet decided to destroy vast amounts of material pertaining to matters related to war crimes and the war responsibility of the nation's highest leaders [25] This is a Japanese name; the family name is Suzuki Baron Kantarō Suzuki , 18 January 1868 - 17 April 1948) was an admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy and 42nd Prime Minister of Japan from 7 April 1945 to 17 August 1945. ...


During the night of August 14 and August 15, the final and largest bombing raid of the Pacific War was launched. Eight hundred bombers and two hundred fighters of the United States Army Air Corps dropped over 6,000 tons of explosives and incendiary weapons on eight Japanese cities. Even though this was less than half the explosive power of one of the atomic bombs, it did significant damage to the target cities. is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Pacific War (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ...


Military reaction

The USS Missouri taken from one of the armada of aircraft flying over Tokyo Bay.
Hatazō Adachi, the commander of the Japanese 18th Army in New Guinea, surrenders his sword to the commander of the Australian 6th Division, H. C. H. Robertson
Hatazō Adachi, the commander of the Japanese 18th Army in New Guinea, surrenders his sword to the commander of the Australian 6th Division, H. C. H. Robertson

Late on the night of August 12, 1945, Major Kenji Hatanaka, along with Lieutenant Colonels Masataka Ida, Masahiko Takeshita, and Inaba Masao, and Colonel Okitsugu Arao, the Chief of the Military Affairs Section, spoke to War Minister Anami Korechika, hoping for his support, and asking him to do whatever he could to prevent acceptance of the Potsdam Declaration. General Anami refused to say whether he would help the young officers in treason. As much as they needed his support, Hatanaka and the other rebels decided they had no choice but to continue planning and to pull off the 'coup' on their own. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (782x694, 220 KB) Taken during the Japanese Surrender Ceremony by my father, Ted H. Lambert, from his B-29 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (782x694, 220 KB) Taken during the Japanese Surrender Ceremony by my father, Ted H. Lambert, from his B-29 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Radars: AN/SPS-49 Air Search Radar AN/SPS-67 Surface Search Radar Fire control: 4 × Mk 37 Gun Fire Control 2 × Mk 38 Gun Director 1 × Mk 40 Gun Director EW: AN/SLQ-32 Other: AN/SLQ-25 NIXIE Decoy System 8 × Super Rapid Bloom Rocket Launchers (SRBOC) Armor... Image File history File linksMetadata Japanese_surrender_(AWM_019296). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Japanese_surrender_(AWM_019296). ... Major General H. C. H. Robertson (right) accepts the sword of Japanese Lieutenant General Hatazō Adachi (left). ... The most well-known 6th Division in the Australian Army was a unit in the Second Australian Imperial Force (2nd AIF) during World War II. (The 6th Division name was previously used for a short-lived World War I unit, formed from First Australian Imperial Force troops in England, in... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Major Kenji Hatanaka Major Kenji Hatanaka (畑中健二 Hatanaka Kenji) was a young soldier in the Military Affairs Section of the Japanese Ministry of War, at the end of World War II. He was one of the chief conspirators in a plot to seize the Imperial Palace and prevent the broadcast of... Lt. ... Lt. ... Colonel Okitsugu (Koko) Arao was one of the original plotters in a scheme to prevent the Emperors declaration of surrender at the end of World War II. He was the chief of the War Affairs section of the Military Affairs Bureau of the Imperial Japanese Army. ... The Ministry of War of Japan (陸軍省 Rikugun shó) was established in the late 19th century, alongside many other Ministries, as part of the creation of the first modern Japanese government. ... Korechika Anami (阿南 惟幾 Anami Korechika, 1887_1945) was a Japanese general in World War II. In April of 1945 he was made the War Minister of Japan, giving him great power in Japan as a member of the Japanese Cabinet and the Supreme Council for the Direction of...


Hatanaka spent much of August 13 and the morning of August 14 gathering allies, seeking support from the higher-ups in the Ministry, and perfecting his plot. Around 21:30 on August 14, Hatanaka's rebels set their plan into motion. The Second Regiment of the First Imperial Guards had entered the palace grounds, doubling the strength of the battalion already stationed there, presumably to provide extra protection against Hatanaka's rebellion. However, Hatanaka, along with Lt. Col. Jirō Shiizaki, convinced the commander of the 2nd Regiment of the First Imperial Guards, Colonel Haga Toyojiro, of their cause, and (untruthfully) that the War Minister, Army Chief of Staff, and the commanders of the Eastern District Army and Imperial Guards Divisions were all in on the plan. is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jirō Shiizaki (志井崎次郎,Shiizaki Jirō)(d. ... Korechika Anami Korechika Anami (阿南 惟幾 Anami Korechika, February 21st 1887- August 15th 1945) was a Japanese general in World War II. Military Career 2dLt (Infantry),December 1906; was graduated from War College, November 1918; attached to Army General Staff, April 1919; Member, same, December 1919; Major, February 1922; Staff Officer, Sakhalin... Umezu signing the instrument of surrender to the United States General Yoshijiro Umezu ) (January 4, 1882 - January 8, 1949) was the chief commander of the Japanese army in World War II. In the 1920s Umezu was a member of the Tosei-Ha (Control Group) led by General Kazushige Ugaki along... The Eastern District Army (東部軍, tōbugun) was a division of the Imperial Japanese Army responsible for the defense of Tokyo, Yokohama, and the surrounding area. ...


Originally, Hatanaka hoped that by simply occupying the palace, by simply showing the beginnings of a rebellion, the rest of the Army would be inspired and would rise up against the move to surrender. This philosophy guided him through much of the last days and hours and gave him the blind optimism to move ahead with the plan, despite having little support from his superiors. Having set all the pieces into position, Hatanaka and his co-conspirators decided that the Guard would take over the palace at 02:00. The hours until then were spent in continued attempts to convince their superiors in the Army to join the 'coup'. At about the same time, General Anami committed seppuku, leaving a message that, "I — with my death — humbly apologize to the Emperor for the great crime." Whether the crime involved losing the war, or the coup, remains unclear. Seppuku (Japanese: 切腹, belly-cutting) is a form of Japanese ritual suicide by disembowelment. ...


At some time after 01:00, Hatanaka killed Lt. General Takeshi Mori, Commander of the 1st Imperial Guards Division, when Mori refused to side with him. Hatanaka feared that Mori would order the Guards to stop the rebellion. Lt. Col. Shiizaki and Captain Shigetaro Uehara of the Air Force Academy were also present in the room, and Uehara is presumed to have killed Lt. Col. Michinori Shiraishi, Staff Officer of the 2nd General Army. These were the only two murders of the night. Hatanaka then used General Mori's official stamp to authorize Strategic Order No. 584, a false set of orders created by his co-conspirators, which would greatly increase the strength of the forces occupying the Imperial Palace and Imperial House Ministry, and "protecting" the Emperor. The Palace police were disarmed and all the entrances blocked; but as of yet, no one in the Imperial House Ministry was aware of what was transpiring. Over the course of the night, Hatanaka's rebels captured and detained eighteen people, including Ministry staff, and NHK workers sent to record the surrender speech. Lt. ... Michinori Shiraishi ) (d. ... Panorama of the Imperial Palace in Tokyo Map of the Imperial Palace and surrounding Gardens Nijubashi Bridge at the Imperial Palace. ... NHK Broadcasting Center in Shibuya, Tokyo NHK (, Nippon Hōsō Kyōkai), or the Japan Broadcasting Corporation, is Japans public broadcaster. ...


The rebels, led by Hatanaka, spent the next several hours searching for the Imperial House Minister, the Lord of the Privy Seal, and the recordings of the surrender speech. They never found the recordings, which were hidden among pieces of bedding in an emergency cupboard. The search was made more difficult by a blackout, caused by Allied bombings, and by the archaic organization and layout of the Imperial House Ministry. Many of the rooms' names were unrecognizable to the rebels. During their search, the rebels cut nearly all of the telephone wires, severing communications between their prisoners on the Palace Grounds and the outside world. Marquis Koichi Kido (木戸幸一 Kido Kōichi, July 18, 1889 - April 6, 1977), grandson of Kido Takayoshi, served as Lord Privy Seal from 1940 to 1945, and was Emperor Hirohitos closest advisor throughout World War II. He was also one of the more cautious advisors...


Around 03:00, Hatanaka was informed by Lt Col Ida that the Eastern District Army was on its way to the Palace to stop him, and that he should simply give up. Finally, seeing his plan crumbling to pieces around him, Hatanaka tried to plead with the Chief of Staff of the Eastern District Army to be given at least ten minutes on the air (on NHK radio), to explain to the people of Japan what he was trying to accomplish and why. He was refused. Colonel Haga, commander of the 2nd Regiment of the First Imperial Guards, discovered that the Army was not, in fact, in support of this rebellion, and he ordered Hatanaka to leave the Palace Grounds. Lt. ... The Eastern District Army (東部軍, tōbugun) was a division of the Imperial Japanese Army responsible for the defense of Tokyo, Yokohama, and the surrounding area. ... The Eastern District Army (東部軍, tōbugun) was a division of the Imperial Japanese Army responsible for the defense of Tokyo, Yokohama, and the surrounding area. ... NHK Broadcasting Center in Shibuya, Tokyo NHK (, Nippon Hōsō Kyōkai), or the Japan Broadcasting Corporation, is Japans public broadcaster. ...


Just before 05:00, as his rebellion continued its search, Major Hatanaka went to NHK studios, and, brandishing a pistol, tried desperately to get some airtime to explain his actions. A little over an hour later, after receiving a phone call from the Eastern District Army, Hatanaka finally gave up. He gathered his officers and walked out of the NHK studio. The Eastern District Army (東部軍, tōbugun) was a division of the Imperial Japanese Army responsible for the defense of Tokyo, Yokohama, and the surrounding area. ...


By 08:00, the rebellion was entirely dismantled, having succeeded in holding the Palace Grounds for much of the night but ultimately failing to find the recordings. Hatanaka, on a motorcycle, and Lt. Col. Shiizaki on horseback, rode through the streets, tossing leaflets that explained their motives and their actions.


Within an hour before the Emperor's broadcast, sometime around 11:00, August 15, Major Hatanaka placed his pistol to his forehead, and pulled the trigger. In his pocket was found his death poem: "I have nothing to regret now that the dark clouds have disappeared from the reign of the Emperor." is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... General Akashi Gidayu preparing to commit seppuku after losing a battle for his master in 1582. ...

Signing of the instrument of surrender on board USS Missouri.
Signing of the instrument of surrender on board USS Missouri.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1464x1047, 227 KB) Description: General Douglas MacArthur signs as Supreme Allied Commander during formal surrender ceremonies on the USS MISSOURI in Tokyo Bay. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1464x1047, 227 KB) Description: General Douglas MacArthur signs as Supreme Allied Commander during formal surrender ceremonies on the USS MISSOURI in Tokyo Bay. ... Radars: AN/SPS-49 Air Search Radar AN/SPS-67 Surface Search Radar Fire control: 4 × Mk 37 Gun Fire Control 2 × Mk 38 Gun Director 1 × Mk 40 Gun Director EW: AN/SLQ-32 Other: AN/SLQ-25 NIXIE Decoy System 8 × Super Rapid Bloom Rocket Launchers (SRBOC) Armor...

Surrender

Allied military personnel celebrating the Japanese surrender in Paris.
Allied military personnel celebrating the Japanese surrender in Paris.

At 12:00 on August 15, the Emperor's recorded speech to the nation, the Imperial Rescript on Surrender, was broadcast: Representatives of Japan stand aboard the USS Missouri prior to signing of the Instrument of Surrender. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 745 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3000 × 2415 pixel, file size: 583 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 745 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3000 × 2415 pixel, file size: 583 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gyokuon-ban, the record used for the broadcast. ...

"... Despite the best that has been done by everyone — the gallant fighting of the military and naval forces, the diligence and assiduity of Our servants of the State, and the devoted service of Our one hundred million people — the war situation has developed not necessarily to Japan's advantage, while the general trends of the world have all turned against her interest.
Moreover, the enemy has begun to employ a new and most cruel bomb, the power of which to do damage is, indeed, incalculable, taking the toll of many innocent lives. Should we continue to fight, not only would it result in an ultimate collapse and obliteration of the Japanese nation, but also it would lead to the total extinction of human civilization.
Such being the case, how are We to save the millions of Our subjects, or to atone Ourselves before the hallowed spirits of Our Imperial Ancestors? This is the reason why We have ordered the acceptance of the provisions of the Joint Declaration of the Powers.
...
The hardships and sufferings to which Our nation is to be subjected hereafter will be certainly great. We are keenly aware of the inmost feelings of all of you, Our subjects. However, it is according to the dictates of time and fate that We have resolved to pave the way for a grand peace for all the generations to come by enduring the unendurable and suffering what is unsufferable."

Japan's forces were still at war against the Soviets and Chinese, so managing their cease-fire and surrender was difficult. The Soviet Union continued to fight until early September, taking the Kuril Islands. Location of Kuril Islands in the Western Pacific. ...

Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong met in the wartime capital of Chongqing, to toast to the Chinese victory over Empire of Japan.

On August 28, the occupation of Japan began by Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers led by Douglas MacArthur. The formal surrender occurred on September 2, when representatives from the Empire of Japan signed Japanese Instrument of Surrender in Tokyo Bay aboard the USS Missouri. Japanese forces in South East Asia followed suit on September 12, 1945 in Singapore. Still, August 15 is considered both in Japan and the rest of the world to mark the end of World War II. This work is copyrighted. ... This work is copyrighted. ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... “Mao” redirects here. ... Combatants China United States1 Soviet Union2 Japan Manchukuo3 Mengjiang3 Wang Jingwei Government 3 Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Peng Dehuai, Joseph Stilwell, Albert Wedemeyer, Claire Chennault, Aleksandr Vasilevsky Hirohito, Fumimaro Konoe, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime... Chongqing (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Postal map spelling: Chungching, also Chungking) is the largest and most populous of the Peoples Republic of Chinas four provincial-level municipalities, and the only one in the less densely populated western half of China. ... Representatives of Japan stand aboard the USS Missouri prior to signing of the Instrument of Surrender. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Capital Tokyo Language(s) Japanese Political structure Military occupation Military Governor  - 1945-1951 Douglas MacArthur  - 1951-1952 Matthew Ridgway Emperor  - 1926-1989 Hirohito Historical era Post-WWII  - Surrender of Japan August 15, 1945  - San Francisco Treaty April 28, 1952 At the end of the Second World War, Japan was occupied... Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers (SCAP) was the title for Douglas MacArthur during the Occupation of Japan following WWII. The title did belong to Dwight David Eisenhower during WWII, however, he had nothing to do with the attacks on Japan. ... This article is about the American general; for the municipality in the Philippines, see General MacArthur, Eastern Samar. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Capital Tokyo Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1868–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1926 Emperor Taishō  - 1926–1989 Emperor Shōwa Prime Minister (many other Prime Ministers preceded the below list)  - 1916–1918 Count Masatake Terauchi  - 1937-1939, 1940-1941 Prince Fumimaro Konoe  - 1941–1944 Hideki... Representatives of Japan stand aboard the USS Missouri prior to signing of the Instrument of Surrender. ... Tokyo Bay from space Tokyo Bay ) is a bay in the southern Kantō region of Japan. ... Radars: AN/SPS-49 Air Search Radar AN/SPS-67 Surface Search Radar Fire control: 4 × Mk 37 Gun Fire Control 2 × Mk 38 Gun Director 1 × Mk 40 Gun Director EW: AN/SLQ-32 Other: AN/SLQ-25 NIXIE Decoy System 8 × Super Rapid Bloom Rocket Launchers (SRBOC) Armor... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

Signed page of the Instrument of Surrender.
Signed page of the Instrument of Surrender.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 457 × 599 pixels Full resolution (626 × 821 pixel, file size: 57 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The text below is generated by a template which has been proposed for deletion. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 457 × 599 pixels Full resolution (626 × 821 pixel, file size: 57 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The text below is generated by a template which has been proposed for deletion. ...

Aftermath

Following the signing of the instrument of surrender many further surrender ceremonies took place across Japan's remaining holdings in the Pacific. With many Japanese troops still fighting the Allied troops, often in remote areas, it took until early 1946 for all major units to actually lay down their arms. Some individuals, especially on small Pacific Islands, refused to surrender at all (believing the declaration to be propaganda or considering the act too much against their code). Some may never have heard of it. Hiroo Onoda, the last known survivor emerged from his hidden retreat in the Philippines in 1974, while two other Japanese soldiers, who had joined communist guerillas at the end of the war, fought in southern Thailand until 1991. [26] Japanese holdouts were Japanese soldiers who, after the official surrender of Japan after World War II, either refused to believe the veracity of the formal surrender due to strong, dogmatic, militaristic principles, or were not aware of it due to the cut-off communications that resulted from the United States... Second Lieutenant Hiroo Onoda (小野田 寛郎 Onoda Hirō; born March 19, 1922) is a former Japanese army intelligence officer trained by the Nakano School who was stationed on Lubang Island in the Philippines. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Guerrilla (also called a partisan) is a term borrowed from Spanish (from guerra meaning war) used to describe small combat groups. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Robert A. Pape “Why Japan Surrendered,” International Security, Vol. 18, No. 2 (Fall 1993), pp. 154-201
  2. ^ US Strategic Bombing Survey, Summary
  3. ^ Frank, p. 90.
  4. ^ Frank, p. 89, citing Daikichi Irokawa, The Age of Hirohito (1995).
  5. ^ Herbert Bix, "Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan", 2001, p. 488-489
  6. ^ Hisanori Fujita, "Jijûchô no kaisô", Chûo Kôronsha, 1987, p.66-67.
  7. ^ Frank, p. 97, quoting The Diary of Marquis Kido, 1933–45, p. 435–436.
  8. ^ Frank, p. 97–99.
  9. ^ Frank, p. 100, quoting the Emperor's Shōwa Tennō Dokuhakuroku, p. 136–37.
  10. ^ Frank, p. 102.
  11. ^ Frank, p. 221, citing Magic Diplomatic Summary No. 1201.
  12. ^ Frank, p. 222–3, citing MDS No. 1205, p. 2 (PDF).
  13. ^ Frank, p. 226, citing MDS No. 1208, p. 10–12.
  14. ^ Frank, p. 227, citing MDS No. 1209.
  15. ^ Frank, p. 229, citing MDS No. 1212.
  16. ^ Frank, p. 230, citing MDS No. 1214, p. 2–3 (PDF).
  17. ^ Frank, p. 236, citing MDS No. 1224.
  18. ^ Frank, p. 236, citing MDS No. 1225, p. 2 (PDF).
  19. ^ Frank, p. 269.
  20. ^ Frank, p. 288–9.
  21. ^ Kido Kōichi Nikki, Daigaiku Shuppankai, 1966, p.1223.
  22. ^ Frank, p. 290–91.
  23. ^ Bix, Hirohito and the making of modern Japan, 2000, p. 517, citing Yoshida, Nihonjin no sensôkan, p.42, 43.
  24. ^ Terasaki Hidenari, Shōwa tennō dokuhakuroku, 1991, p.129, Herbert Bix, Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan, Perennial, 2001, p.519 .
  25. ^ Burning of Confidential Documents by Japanese Government, case no.43, serial 2, International Prosecution Section vol. 8; Herbert Bix, Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan, 2001, p.528
  26. ^ 'World War II', Wilmott, Cross & Messenger, Dorling Kindersley, 2004

Herbert P. Bix is the author of Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan, an acclaimed account of the Japanese Emperor and the events which shaped modern Japanese imperialism. ... In World War II, Magic was the United States codename for intelligence derived from the cryptanalysis of PURPLE, a Japanese foreign office cipher. ... “PDF” redirects here. ...

References

The Stanford University Press is a publishing house, a division of Stanford University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ... Richard B. Frank (born 1947 in Kansas) is an American lawyer and military historian. ... Stanley Weintraub (born 1929) is an American academic and author of histories and biographies. ...

External links


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