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Encyclopedia > Surrealism
Surrealism

Surrealist music
Surrealist films
Surrealist Manifesto
Surrealist techniques
Surrealist humor
Surrealism articles The Elephant Celebes by Max Ernst. ... The Elephant Celebes by Max Ernst. ... Max Ernst (2 April 1891 - 1 April 1976) was a German painter, sculptor, graphic artist, and poet, considered one of the chief representatives of Dadaism and Surrealism. ... The Elephant Celebes (also known as Celebes) (1921) is a painting by the German Dadaist/surrealist Max Ernst. ... The Surrealist Manifesto was written by the French writer André Breton and published in 1924. ... Surrealism in art, poetry, and literature utilizes numerous unique techniques and games to provide inspiration. ... This photograph, a cow with antlers standing on a pole, is an example of surreal humour. ...

Surrealism[1] is a cultural movement that began in the early-1920s, and is best known for the visual artworks and writings of the group members. The works feature the element of surprise, unexpected juxtapositions and non sequitur, however many Surrealist artists and writers regard their work as an expression of the philosophical movement first and foremost with the works being an artifact, and leader André Breton was explicit in his assertion that Surrealism was above all a revolutionary movement. From the Dada activities of World War I Surrealism was formed with the most important center of the movement in Paris and from the 1920s spreading around the globe, eventually affecting films such as Angel's Egg and El Topo, amongst others. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... André Breton André Breton (French IPA: ) (February 19, 1896 – September 28, 1966) was a French writer, poet, and surrealist theorist, and is best known as the main founder of surrealism. ... DaDa is a concept album by Alice Cooper, released in 1983. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Angels Egg ) is a Japanese anime feature film produced by Tokuma Shoten in 1985. ... For the Puerto Rican musician, see Antonio Caban Vale. ...

Contents

Founding of the movement

World War I scattered the writers and artists who had been based in Paris, and while away from Paris many involved themselves in the Dada movement believing that excessive rational thought and bourgeois values had brought the terrifying conflict upon the world. The Dadaists protested with anti-rational anti-art gatherings, performances, writing and art works. After the war when they returned to Paris the Dada activities continued. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... DaDa is a concept album by Alice Cooper, released in 1983. ... Anti art is a work that is exhibited or delivered in a conventional context but makes fun of serious art or challenges the nature of art. ...


During the war Surrealism's soon-to-be leader André Breton, who had trained in medicine and psychiatry, served in a neurological hospital where he used the psychoanalytic methods of Sigmund Freud with soldiers who were shell-shocked. He also met the young writer Jacques Vaché and felt that he was the spiritual son of writer and 'pataphysician Alfred Jarry, and he came to admire the young writer's anti-social attitude and disdain for established artistic tradition. Later Breton wrote, "In literature, I am successively taken with Rimbaud, with Jarry, with Apollinaire, with Nouveau, with Lautréamont, but it is Jacques Vaché to whom I owe the most."[2] André Breton André Breton (French IPA: ) (February 19, 1896 – September 28, 1966) was a French writer, poet, and surrealist theorist, and is best known as the main founder of surrealism. ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... The military term combat stress reaction (CSR) comprises the range of adverse behaviours in reaction to the stress of combat and combat related activities. ... Jacques Vaché (1895-1919) was a friend of André Breton, the founder of surrealism. ... Pataphysics, a term coined by the French writer Alfred Jarry, is a philosophy dedicated to studying what lies beyond the realm of metaphysics. ... Alfred Jarry Alfred Jarry (September 8, 1873 – November 1, 1907) was a French writer born in Laval, Mayenne, France, not far from the border of Brittany; he was of Breton descent on his mothers side. ... Rimbaud redirects here. ... Guillaume Apollinaire Guillaume Apollinaire (August 26, 1880 – November 9, 1918) was a poet, writer, and art critic. ... Germain Nouveau (1851-1920) was a French poet, associated with the symbolist movement. ... Lautréamont Comte de Lautréamont was the pen name of Isidore Lucien Ducasse (April 4, 1846 – November 24, 1870), a French poet whose only work, Les Chants de Maldoror, had a major influence on modern literature, and in particular on the Surrealist movement. ...


Back in Paris, Breton joined in the Dada activities and also started the literary journal Littérature along with Louis Aragon and Philippe Soupault. They began experimenting with automatic writing—spontaneously writing without censoring their thoughts—and published the "automatic" writings, as well as accounts of dreams, in Littérature. Breton and Soupault delved deeper into automatism and wrote The Magnetic Fields (Les Champs Magnétiques) in 1919. They continued the automatic writing, gathering more artists and writers into the group, and coming to believe that automatism was a better tactic for societal change than the Dada attack on prevailing values. In addition to Breton, Aragon and Soupault the original Surrealists included Paul Éluard, Benjamin Péret, René Crevel, Robert Desnos, Jacques Baron, Max Morise, Marcel Noll, Pierre Naville, Roger Vitrac, Simone Breton, Gala Éluard, Max Ernst, Man Ray, Hans Arp, Georges Malkine, Michel Leiris, Georges Limbour, Antonin Artaud, Raymond Queneau, André Masson, Joan Miró, Marcel Duchamp, Jacques Prévert and Yves Tanguy.[3] Louis Aragon (October 3, 1897 - December 24, 1982), French historian, poet and novelist. ... Philippe Soupault (August 2, 1897 – March 12, 1990) was a French writer and poet, novelist, critic, and political activist. ... Headline text Automatism is a surrealist technique involving spontaneous writing, drawing, or the like practiced without conscious aesthetic or moral self-censorship. ... Les Champs Magnétiques (The Magnetic Fields) is a novel by André Breton and Philippe Soupault. ... It appears that this entire article has been copied and pasted from http://www. ... Benjamin Péret (1899-1959) was a French poet and Surrealist. ... René Crevel - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Robert Desnos (July 4, 1900 - June 8, 1945) was a French surrealist poet. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Pierre Naville (Paris, 1904 — Paris, 1993) was a French writer and sociologist. ... Roger Vitrac (1899–1952) was a French surrealist playwright and poet. ... Salvador Dalí, Galarina, 1944. ... Max Ernst (2 April 1891 - 1 April 1976) was a German painter, sculptor, graphic artist, and poet, considered one of the chief representatives of Dadaism and Surrealism. ... For other uses, see Man Ray (disambiguation). ... Jean Arp (September 16, 1886 - June 7, 1966) was a sculptor, painter, and poet. ... Georges Malkine, Self-portrait Georges Alexandre Malkine (1898-1970) was the only painter to sign the Surrealist Manifesto of 1924; the other signatories were, for the most part, writers. ... Michel Leiris (1901-1990) was a French surrealist writer and ethnographer. ... Antonin Artaud Antoine Marie Joseph Artaud, better known as Antonin Artaud (born September 4, 1896, in Marseille; died March 4, 1948 in Paris) was a French playwright, poet, actor and director. ... Raymond Queneau (February 21, 1903 – October 25, 1976) was a French poet and novelist. ... Pedestal Table in the Studio, (1922) André-Aimé-René Masson (January 4, 1896 – October 28, 1987) was a French artist. ... Joan Miró i Ferrà (April 20, 1893 – December 25, 1983) was a Catalan (Spanish) painter, sculptor, and ceramist born in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain to the family of a goldsmith and watchmaker. ... Marcel Duchamp (pronounced ) (July 28, 1887 – October 2, 1968) was a French artist (he became an American citizen in 1955) whose work and ideas had considerable influence on the development of post-World War II Western art, and whose advice to modern art collectors helped shape the tastes of the... Jacques Prévert (pronounced in French) was a French poet and screenwriter who was born on February 4, 1900 in Neuilly-sur-Seine and died on April 11, 1977 in Omonville-la-Petite. ... Indefinite Divisibility 1942 Raymond Georges Yves Tanguy (January 5, 1900 – January 15, 1955) was a surrealist painter. ...

Cover of the first issue of La Révolution surréaliste, December 1924.
Cover of the first issue of La Révolution surréaliste, December 1924.

As they developed their philosophy they felt that while Dada rejected categories and labels, Surrealism would advocate the idea that ordinary and depictive expressions are vital and important, but that the sense of their arrangement must be open to the full range of imagination according to the Hegelian Dialectic. They also looked to the Marxist dialectic and the work of such theorists as Walter Benjamin and Herbert Marcuse. Image File history File links Cover of the first issue of La Révolution Surréaliste, December 1924. ... Image File history File links Cover of the first issue of La Révolution Surréaliste, December 1924. ... Cover of the first issue of La Révolution surréaliste, December 1924. ... In classical philosophy, dialectic (Greek: διαλεκτική) is controversy, Viz. ... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... Walter Bendix Schönflies Benjamin (July 15, 1892 – September 27, 1940) was a German Marxist literary critic, essayist, translator, and philosopher. ... Herbert Marcuse (July 19, 1898 – July 29, 1979) was a German-born philosopher, sociologist and a member of the Frankfurt School. ...


Freud's work with free association, dream analysis and the hidden unconscious was of the utmost importance to the Surrealists in developing methods to liberate imagination. However, they embraced idiosyncrasy, while rejecting the idea of an underlying madness or darkness of the mind. (Later the idiosyncratic Salvador Dalí explained it as: "There is only one difference between a madman and me. I am not mad."[4]) Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... IdiosyncrasyBOOTY!!! comes from Greek ιδιοσυγκρασία a peculiar temperament, habit of body (idios ones own and sun-krasis mixture). It is defined as a structural or behavioral characteristic peculiar to an individual or group. ... Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, 1st Marquis of Púbol (May 11, 1904 – January 23, 1989), was a Spanish surrealist painter of Catalan descent born in Figueres, Catalonia (Spain). ...


The group aimed to revolutionize human experience, including its personal, cultural, social, and political aspects, by freeing people from what they saw as false rationality, and restrictive customs and structures. Breton proclaimed, the true aim of Surrealism is "long live the social revolution, and it alone!" To this goal, at various times surrealists aligned with communism and anarchism. André Breton André Breton (French IPA: ) (February 19, 1896 – September 28, 1966) was a French writer, poet, and surrealist theorist, and is best known as the main founder of surrealism. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... Anarchist redirects here. ...


In 1924 they declared their intents and philosophy with the issuance of the first Surrealist Manifesto. That same year they established the Bureau of Surrealist Research, and began publishing the journal La Révolution surréaliste. The Surrealist Manifesto was written by the French writer André Breton and published in 1924. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Cover of the first issue of La Révolution surréaliste, December 1924. ...


Surrealist Manifesto

Main article: Surrealist Manifesto

Breton wrote the manifesto of 1924 (another was issued in 1929) that defines the purposes of the group and includes citations of the influences on Surrealism, examples of Surrealist works and discussion of Surrealist automatism. He defined Surrealism as: The Surrealist Manifesto was written by the French writer André Breton and published in 1924. ... The Surrealist Manifesto was written by the French writer André Breton and published in 1924. ...

Dictionary: Surrealism, n. Pure psychic automatism, by which one proposes to express, either verbally, in writing, or by any other manner, the real functioning of thought. Dictation of thought in the absence of all control exercised by reason, outside of all aesthetic and moral preoccupation.

Encyclopedia: Surrealism. Philosophy. Surrealism is based on the belief in the superior reality of certain forms of previously neglected associations, in the omnipotence of dream, in the disinterested play of thought. It tends to ruin once and for all other psychic mechanisms and to substitute itself for them in solving all the principal problems of life.

La Révolution surréaliste

Main article: La Révolution surréaliste

Shortly after releasing the first Surrealist Manifesto in 1924, the Surrealists published the inaugural issue of La Révolution surréaliste and publication continued into 1929. Pierre Naville and Benjamin Péret were the initial directors of the publication and modeled the format of the journal on the conservative scientific review La Nature. The format was deceiving, and to the Surrealists' delight La Révolution surréaliste was consistently scandalous and revolutionary. The journal focused on writing with most pages densely packed with columns of text, but also included reproductions of art, among them works by Giorgio de Chirico, Max Ernst, André Masson and Man Ray. Cover of the first issue of La Révolution surréaliste, December 1924. ... The Surrealist Manifesto was written by the French writer André Breton and published in 1924. ... Cover of the first issue of La Révolution surréaliste, December 1924. ... Pierre Naville (Paris, 1904 — Paris, 1993) was a French writer and sociologist. ... Benjamin Péret (1899-1959) was a French poet and Surrealist. ... Giorgio de Chirico (July 10, 1888 – November 20, 1978) was an influential pre-Surrealist Greek-Italian painter born in Volos, Greece, to a Genovese mother and a Sicilian father. ... Max Ernst (2 April 1891 - 1 April 1976) was a German painter, sculptor, graphic artist, and poet, considered one of the chief representatives of Dadaism and Surrealism. ... Pedestal Table in the Studio, (1922) André-Aimé-René Masson (January 4, 1896 – October 28, 1987) was a French artist. ... For other uses, see Man Ray (disambiguation). ...


Bureau of Surrealist Research

The Bureau of Surrealist Research (Centrale Surréaliste) was the Paris office where the Surrealist writers and artists gathered to meet, hold discussions, and conduct interviews with the goal of investigating speech under trance. Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


Expansion

André Masson. Automatic Drawing. 1924. Ink on paper, 23.5 x 20.6 cm. Museum of Modern Art, New York.
André Masson. Automatic Drawing. 1924. Ink on paper, 23.5 x 20.6 cm. Museum of Modern Art, New York.

The movement in the mid-1920s was characterized by meetings in cafes where the Surrealists played collaborative drawing games and discussed the theories of Surrealism. The Surrealists developed techniques such as automatic drawing. (See Surrealist techniques and games.) Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Pedestal Table in the Studio, (1922) André-Aimé-René Masson (January 4, 1896 – October 28, 1987) was a French artist. ... This article is about the museum in New York City. ... Automatic drawing (distinguished from drawn expression of mediums) was developed by the surrealists, as a means of expressing the subconscious. ... Surrealism in art, poetry, and literature utilizes numerous unique techniques and games to provide inspiration. ...


Breton initially doubted that visual arts could even be useful in the Surrealist movement since they appeared to be less malleable and open to chance and automatism. This caution was overcome by the discovery of such techniques as frottage, and decalcomania. Headline text Automatism is a surrealist technique involving spontaneous writing, drawing, or the like practiced without conscious aesthetic or moral self-censorship. ... Surrealism in art, poetry, and literature utilizes numerous unique techniques and games to provide inspiration. ... In art, frottage (from French frotter to rub) is a surrealist and automatic method of creative production developed by Max Ernst. ... Decalcomania is a surrealist technique originated by Oscar Dominguez (and called by him decalcomania with no preconceived object) in 1936 in which gouache is spread thinly on a sheet of paper or other surface (glass has been used), which is then pressed onto another surface such as a canvas. ...


Soon more visual artists joined Surrealism including Giorgio de Chirico, Salvador Dalí, Enrico Donati, Alberto Giacometti, Valentine Hugo, Méret Oppenheim, Toyen, Grégoire Michonze, and Luis Buñuel. Though Breton admired Pablo Picasso and Marcel Duchamp and courted them to join the movement, they remained peripheral.[5] Giorgio de Chirico (July 10, 1888 – November 20, 1978) was an influential pre-Surrealist Greek-Italian painter born in Volos, Greece, to a Genovese mother and a Sicilian father. ... Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, 1st Marquis of Púbol (May 11, 1904 – January 23, 1989), was a Spanish surrealist painter of Catalan descent born in Figueres, Catalonia (Spain). ... Donatis, Eclipse Annee 2000, mixed media on canvas, 1992. ... Photograph of Alberto Giacometti by Henri Cartier-Bresson Woman with Her Throat Cut, a floor sculpture by Alberto Giacometti, 1932 (cast 1949), Museum of Modern Art, (New York City) Three Men Walking II, by Alberto Giacometti, Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1949 Alberto Giacometti (October 10, 1901 – January 11, 1966) was... Valentine Hugo (1897 – 1968) was an artist. ... Méret Oppenheim (1913–1985) was a German-born Swiss Dada and Surrealist artist, and photographer. ... Two Girls with Flowers lithograph, 1932 Marie ÄŒermínová (September 21, 1902, Prague – November 9, 1980, Paris), known as Toyen, was a Czech painter, draftsman and illustrator, a member of the surrealist movement. ... Grégoire Michonze, oil on canvas Grégoire Michonze (1902-1982) (variant last name Michonznic) was a Russian-French painter, born in 1902 in Kishineff (Bessarabia), Russia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Picasso redirects here. ... Marcel Duchamp (pronounced ) (July 28, 1887 – October 2, 1968) was a French artist (he became an American citizen in 1955) whose work and ideas had considerable influence on the development of post-World War II Western art, and whose advice to modern art collectors helped shape the tastes of the...


More writers also joined, including former Dada leader Tristan Tzara, René Char, Georges Sadoul, André Thirion and Maurice Heine. Tristan Tzara () (April 16, 1896 – December 25, 1963) was a Romanian poet and essayist. ... René Char (1907 - 1988) René Char (June 14, 1907 - February 19, 1988) was a 20th century poet. ... Georges Sadoul (born Nancy 1904, died Paris 1967) was a French journalist and cinema writer. ...


In 1925 an autonomous Surrealist group formed in Brussels becoming official in 1926. The group included the musician, poet and artist E.L.T. Mesens, painter and writer René Magritte, Paul Nougé, Marcel Lecomte, Camille Goemans, and André Souris. In 1927 they were joined by the writer Louis Scutenaire. They corresponded regularly with the Paris group, and in 1927 both Goemans and Magritte moved to Paris and frequented Breton’s circle.[3] The Treachery of Images (La trahison des images) (1928–1929) René François Ghislain Magritte (November 21, 1898 – August 15, 1967) was a Belgian surrealist artist. ... Paul Nougé (1895 - 1967) was a Belgian poet and philosopher. ... André Souris (1899-1970) was a Belgian composer and writer associated with the Surrealist movement. ... Louis Scutenaire was a poet, anarchist, surrealist and civil servant. ...


The artists, with their roots in Dada and Cubism, the abstraction of Wassily Kandinsky and Expressionism, and Post-Impressionism, also reached to older "bloodlines" such as Hieronymus Bosch, and the so-called primitive and naive arts. DaDa is a concept album by Alice Cooper, released in 1983. ... Georges Braque, Woman with a guitar, 1913 Cubism was a 20th century art movement, pioneered by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, that revolutionized European painting and sculpture, and inspired related movements in music and literature. ... Wassily Kandinsky (Russian: Василий Кандинский, first name pronounced as [vassi:li]) (December 16 [O.S. December 4] 1866 – December 13, 1944) was a Russian painter, printmaker and art theorist. ... The Scream by Edvard Munch (1893) which inspired 20th century Expressionists Portrait of Eduard Kosmack by Egon Schiele Rehe im Walde by Franz Marc Elbe Bridge I by Rolf Nesch On White II by Wassily Kandinsky, 1923. ... Camille Pissarro, Haying at Eragny, 1889, Private Collection Post-Impressionism is the term coined by the British artist and art critic Roger Fry in 1910, to describe the development of European art since Manet. ... Hieronymus Bosch, (latinized, actually Jheronimus Bosch; his real name Jeroen van Aken) (c. ...


André Masson's automatic drawings of 1923, are often used as the point of the acceptance of visual arts and the break from Dada, since they reflect the influence of the idea of the unconscious mind. Another example is Alberto Giacometti's 1925 Torso, which marked his movement to simplified forms and inspiration from preclassical sculpture. Pedestal Table in the Studio, (1922) André-Aimé-René Masson (January 4, 1896 – October 28, 1987) was a French artist. ... Automatic drawing (distinguished from drawn expression of mediums) was developed by the surrealists, as a means of expressing the subconscious. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Photograph of Alberto Giacometti by Henri Cartier-Bresson Woman with Her Throat Cut, a floor sculpture by Alberto Giacometti, 1932 (cast 1949), Museum of Modern Art, (New York City) Three Men Walking II, by Alberto Giacometti, Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1949 Alberto Giacometti (October 10, 1901 – January 11, 1966) was...


However, a striking example of the line used to divide Dada and Surrealism among art experts is the pairing of 1925's Little Machine Constructed by Minimax Dadamax in Person (Von minimax dadamax selbst konstruiertes maschinchen)[6] with The Kiss (Le Baiser)[7] from 1927 by Ernst. The first is generally held to have a distance, and erotic subtext, whereas the second presents an erotic act openly and directly. In the second the influence of Miró and the drawing style of Picasso is visible with the use of fluid curving and intersecting lines and colour, where as the first takes a directness that would later be influential in movements such as Pop art. Max Ernst (2 April 1891 - 1 April 1976) was a German painter, sculptor, graphic artist, and poet, considered one of the chief representatives of Dadaism and Surrealism. ... Joan Miró i Ferrà (April 20, 1893 – December 25, 1983) was a Catalan (Spanish) painter, sculptor, and ceramist born in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain to the family of a goldsmith and watchmaker. ... Picasso redirects here. ... Just What Is It That Makes Today’s Homes So Different, So Appealing? (1956) is one of the earliest works to be considered pop art. ...

Giorgio de Chirico The Red Tower (La Tour Rouge) 1913
Giorgio de Chirico The Red Tower (La Tour Rouge) 1913

Giorgio de Chirico, and his previous development of Metaphysical art, was one of the important joining figures between the philosophical and visual aspects of Surrealism. Between 1911 and 1917, he adopted an unornamented depictional style whose surface would be adopted by others later. The Red Tower (La tour rouge) from 1913 shows the stark colour contrasts and illustrative style later adopted by Surrealist painters. His 1914 The Nostalgia of the Poet (La Nostalgie du poete)[8] has the figure turned away from the viewer, and the juxtaposition of a bust with glasses and a fish as a relief defies conventional explanation. He was also a writer, and his novel Hebdomeros presents a series of dreamscapes with an unusual use of punctuation, syntax and grammar designed to create a particular atmosphere and frame around its images. His images, including set designs for the Ballets Russes, would create a decorative form of visual Surrealism, and he would be an influence on the two artists who would be even more closely associated with Surrealism in the public mind: Salvador Dalí and Magritte. He would, however, leave the Surrealist group in 1928. The Red Tower by Giorgio de Chirico. ... The Red Tower by Giorgio de Chirico. ... Giorgio de Chirico (July 10, 1888 – November 20, 1978) was an influential pre-Surrealist Greek-Italian painter born in Volos, Greece, to a Genovese mother and a Sicilian father. ... Giorgio de Chirico (July 10, 1888 – November 20, 1978) was an influential pre-Surrealist Greek-Italian painter born in Volos, Greece, to a Genovese mother and a Sicilian father. ... Metaphysical art is art based on the interpretation of dreams. ... Léon Bakst: Firebird, Ballerina, 1910 There was also the Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo from 1932 to 1963 The Ballets Russes was a ballet company established in 1909 by the Russian impresario Serge Diaghilev and resident first in the Théâtre Mogador and Théâtre du Châtelet, Paris... Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, 1st Marquis of Púbol (May 11, 1904 – January 23, 1989), was a Spanish surrealist painter of Catalan descent born in Figueres, Catalonia (Spain). ... The Treachery of Images (La trahison des images) (1928–1929) René François Ghislain Magritte (November 21, 1898 – August 15, 1967) was a Belgian surrealist artist. ...


In 1924, Miro and Masson applied Surrealism theory to painting explicitly leading to the La Peinture Surrealiste exhibition. Joan Miró i Ferrà (April 20, 1893 – December 25, 1983) was a Catalan (Spanish) painter, sculptor, and ceramist born in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain to the family of a goldsmith and watchmaker. ... Pedestal Table in the Studio, (1922) André-Aimé-René Masson (January 4, 1896 – October 28, 1987) was a French artist. ...


Breton published Surrealism and Painting in 1928 which summarized the movement to that point, though he continued to update the work until the 1960s.


Major exhibitions in the 1920s

  • 1925 - La Peinture Surrealiste - The first ever Surrealist exhibition at Gallerie Pierre in Paris. Displayed works by Masson, Man Ray, Klee, Miró, and others. The show confirmed that Surrealism had a component in the visual arts (though it had been initially debated whether this was possible), techniques from Dada, such as photomontage were used.
  • Galerie Surréaliste opened on March 26, 1926 with an exhibition by Man Ray.

Pedestal Table in the Studio, (1922) André-Aimé-René Masson (January 4, 1896 – October 28, 1987) was a French artist. ... For other uses, see Man Ray (disambiguation). ... “Klee” redirects here. ... Joan Miró i Ferrà (April 20, 1893 – December 25, 1983) was a Catalan (Spanish) painter, sculptor, and ceramist born in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain to the family of a goldsmith and watchmaker. ... An imaginary world composed of photorealistic inanimate, human, and plant objects spurs a psychological impact upon the viewer. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Man Ray (disambiguation). ...

Writing continues

René Magritte "This is not a pipe." The Treachery Of Images 1928-9
René Magritte "This is not a pipe." The Treachery Of Images 1928-9

The first Surrealist work, according to leader Breton, was Magnetic Fields (Les Champs Magnétiques) (may-june 1919). Littérature contained automatist works and accounts of dreams. The magazine and the portfolio both showed their disdain for literal meanings given to objects and focused rather on the undertones, the poetic undercurrents present. Not only did they give emphasis to the poetic undercurrents, but also to the connotations and the overtones which "exist in ambiguous relationships to the visual images." Magrittes The Betrayal of Images (1928-9) Also known as The Treachery of Images, Ceci nest pas une pipe. Date 1928-29. ... Magrittes The Betrayal of Images (1928-9) Also known as The Treachery of Images, Ceci nest pas une pipe. Date 1928-29. ... The Treachery of Images (La trahison des images) (1928–1929) René François Ghislain Magritte (November 21, 1898 – August 15, 1967) was a Belgian surrealist artist. ... The Treachery Of Images (La trahison des images 1928-29) is a painting by Belgian Surrealist painter René Magritte, famous for its inscription Ceci nest pas une pipe ( (help· info)) or this is not a pipe. ... André Breton André Breton (French IPA: ) (February 19, 1896 – September 28, 1966) was a French writer, poet, and surrealist theorist, and is best known as the main founder of surrealism. ... Les Champs Magnétiques (The Magnetic Fields) is a novel by André Breton and Philippe Soupault. ...


Because Surrealist writers seldom, if ever, appear to organize their thoughts and the images they present, some people find much of their work difficult to parse. This notion however is a superficial comprehension, prompted no doubt by Breton's initial emphasis on automatic writing as the main route toward a higher reality. But — as in Breton's case itself — much of what is presented as purely automatic is actually edited and very "thought out". Breton himself later admitted that automatic writing's centrality had been overstated, and other elements were introduced, especially as the growing involvement of visual artists in the movement forced the issue, since automatic painting required a rather more strenuous set of approaches. Thus such elements as collage were introduced, arising partly from an ideal of startling juxtapositions as revealed in Pierre Reverdy's poetry. And — as in Magritte's case (where there is no obvious recourse to either automatic techniques or collage) the very notion of convulsive joining became a tool for revelation in and of itself. Surrealism was meant to be always in flux — to be more modern than modern — and so it was natural there should be a rapid shuffling of the philosophy as new challenges arose. Pierre Reverdy (13 September 1889 - 17 June 1960) was a French poet associated with surrealism and cubism. ... The Treachery of Images (La trahison des images) (1928–1929) René François Ghislain Magritte (November 21, 1898 – August 15, 1967) was a Belgian surrealist artist. ...


Surrealists revived interest in Isidore Ducasse, known by his pseudonym "Le Comte de Lautréamont" and for the line "beautiful as the chance meeting on a dissecting table of a sewing machine and an umbrella", and Arthur Rimbaud, two late 19th century writers believed to be the precursors of Surrealism. Comte de Lautréamont is a pseudonym for Isidore Lucien Ducasse (Montevideo, Uruguay, April 4, 1846 - Paris, November 24, 1870), a French poet and writer. ... Rimbaud redirects here. ...


Examples of Surrealist literature are Crevel's Mr. Knife Miss Fork (1931), Aragon's Irene's Cunt (1927), Breton's Sur la route de San Romano (1948), Peret's Death to the Pigs (1929), and Artaud's Le Pese-Nerfs (1926). René Crevel - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Louis Aragon (October 3, 1897 - December 24, 1982), French historian, poet and novelist. ... André Breton André Breton (French IPA: ) (February 19, 1896 – September 28, 1966) was a French writer, poet, and surrealist theorist, and is best known as the main founder of surrealism. ... Benjamin Péret (1899-1959) was a French poet and surrealist. ... Antonin Artaud Antoine Marie Joseph Artaud, better known as Antonin Artaud (born September 4, 1896, in Marseille; died March 4, 1948 in Paris) was a French playwright, poet, actor and director. ...


La Révolution surréaliste continued publication into 1929 with most pages densely packed with columns of text, but also included reproductions of art, among them works by de Chirico, Ernst, Masson and Man Ray. Other works included books, poems, pamphlets, automatic texts and theoretical tracts. Cover of the first issue of La Révolution surréaliste, December 1924. ... Giorgio de Chirico (July 10, 1888 – November 20, 1978) was an influential pre-Surrealist Greek-Italian painter born in Volos, Greece, to a Genovese mother and a Sicilian father. ... Max Ernst (2 April 1891 - 1 April 1976) was a German painter, sculptor, graphic artist, and poet, considered one of the chief representatives of Dadaism and Surrealism. ... Pedestal Table in the Studio, (1922) André-Aimé-René Masson (January 4, 1896 – October 28, 1987) was a French artist. ... For other uses, see Man Ray (disambiguation). ...


Films by Surrealists

Still from the opening of Un chien andalou by Luis Buñuel and Dalí.
Still from the opening of Un chien andalou by Luis Buñuel and Dalí.
Main article: List of surrealist films

Early films by Surrealists include: Image File history File links From Luis Buñuels Un chien andalou. ... Image File history File links From Luis Buñuels Un chien andalou. ... Un Chien Andalou (English: An Andalusian Dog) is a 16-minute[1] surrealist film made in France in 1928 by Spanish writer/directors Luis Buñuel and Salvador Dalí, and released in 1929 in Paris. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Salvador Dalí as photographed in 1934 by Carl Van Vechten Salvador Felip Jacint Dalí Domènech (May 11, 1904 – January 23, 1989) was an important Catalan-Spanish painter, best known for his surrealist works. ...

Entracte is French for between the acts. It can have the meaning of a pause between two parts of a stage production, synonym to intermission, but is more often used to indicate that part of a theatre production that is performed between acts as an intermezzo or interlude. ... René Clair (November 11, 1898 – March 15, 1981) was a French filmmaker. ... La Coquille et le clergyman (English: The Seashell and the Clergyman) is considered by many to be the first surrealist film. ... Germaine Dulac, born 17 November 1882 in Amiens, France, died 20 July 1942, was a French film director and early film theorist. ... Antonin Artaud Antoine Marie Joseph Artaud, better known as Antonin Artaud (born September 4, 1896, in Marseille; died March 4, 1948 in Paris) was a French playwright, poet, actor and director. ... Un Chien Andalou (English: An Andalusian Dog) is a 16-minute[1] surrealist film made in France in 1928 by Spanish writer/directors Luis Buñuel and Salvador Dalí, and released in 1929 in Paris. ... LÉtoile de Mer (English: The Starfish) is a 1928 film directed by Man Ray. ... For other uses, see Man Ray (disambiguation). ... LÂge dOr (The Golden Age) is a 1930 surrealist film directed by Luis Buñuel and written by Buñuel and Salvador Dalí. The film was financed to the tune of a million francs by the nobleman Vicomte de Noailles, who commissioned a film every year for his... Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, 1st Marquis of Púbol (May 11, 1904 – January 23, 1989), was a Spanish surrealist painter of Catalan descent born in Figueres, Catalonia (Spain). ... The Blood of a Poet (French: Le Sang dun Poete)is a 1930 film directed by Jean Cocteau. ... Jean Maurice Eugène Clément Cocteau (5 July 1889 – 11 October 1963) was a French poet, novelist, dramatist, designer, boxing manager and filmmaker. ...

Music by Surrealists

Main article: Surrealist music

In the 1920s several composers were influenced by Surrealism, or by individuals in the Surrealist movement. Among them were Bohuslav Martinů, André Souris, and Edgard Varèse, who stated that his work Arcana was drawn from a dream sequence.[citation needed] Souris in particular was associated with the movement: he had a long relationship with Magritte, and worked on Paul Nouge's publication Adieu Marie. Portrait of Martinů Bohuslav Martinů ( ; December 8, 1890—August 28, 1959) was a Czech composer. ... André Souris (1899-1970) was a Belgian composer and writer associated with the Surrealist movement. ... Edgard Victor Achille Charles Varèse (December 22, 1883 – November 6, 1965) was a French-born composer. ... René François Ghislain Magritte (November 21, 1898 - August 15, 1967) was a Surrealist artist, born in Lessines, Belgium. ... Paul Nougé (1895 - 1967) was a Belgian poet and philosopher. ...


Germaine Tailleferre of the French group Les Six wrote several works which could be considered to be inspired by Surrealism[citation needed], including the 1948 Ballet Paris-Magie (scenario by Lise Deharme), the Operas La Petite Sirène (book by Philippe Soupault) and Le Maître (book by Eugène Ionesco).[citation needed] Tailleferre also wrote popular songs to texts by Claude Marci, the wife of Henri Jeanson, whose portrait had been painted by Magritte in the 1930s. Germaine Tailleferre (April 19, 1892 - November 7, 1983) was a French composer and the only female member of the famous Group Les Six. ... Le Groupe des Six, 1922, by Jacques-Emile Blanche. ... Lise Deharme (née Hirtz) (1898-1979), was a French writer associated with the Surrealist movement. ...


Even though Breton by 1946 responded rather negatively to the subject of music with his essay Silence is Golden, later Surrealists have been interested in—and found parallels to—Surrealism in the improvisation of jazz and the blues. Surrealists such as Paul Garon have written articles and full-length books on the subject. Jazz and blues musicians have occasionally reciprocated this interest. For example, the 1976 World Surrealist Exhibition included performances by Honeyboy Edwards. For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... Blues music redirects here. ... Paul Garon is an author, writer, and editor, noted for his meditations on surrealist works, and also a noted scholar on blues as a musical and cultural movement. ... The World Surrealist Exhibition was held at Gallery Black Swan in Chicago in 1976. ... David Honeyboy Edwards on cover of APO CD 2010 David Honeyboy Edwards (born June 28, 1915 in Shaw, Mississippi, United States) is a Delta blues guitarist and singer. ...


Surrealism and international politics

Surrealism as a political force developed unevenly around the world, in some places more emphasis was on artistic practices, in other places political and in other places still, Surrealist praxis looked to supersize both the arts and politics. During the 1930s the Surrealist idea spread from Europe to North America, South America, Central America, the Caribbean, and throughout Asia. As both an artistic idea and as an ideology of political change. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... North American redirects here. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...


Politically, Surrealism was ultra-leftist, communist, or anarchist. The split from Dada has been characterised as a split between anarchists and communists, with the Surrealists as communist. Breton and his comrades supported Leon Trotsky and his International Left Opposition for a while, though there was an openness to anarchism that manifested more fully after World War II. Some Surrealists, such as Benjamin Peret, Mary Low, and Juan Breá, aligned with forms of left communism. Dalí supported capitalism and the fascist dictatorship of Francisco Franco but cannot be said to represent a trend in Surrealism in this respect; in fact he was considered, by Breton and his associates, to have betrayed and left Surrealism. Péret, Low, and Breá joined the POUM during the Spanish Civil War. This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Anarchism is a generic term describing various political philosophies and social movements that advocate the elimination of hierarchy and imposed authority. ... Leon Trotsky (Russian:  , Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (), was a Ukrainian-born Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ... This article is part of the Communism series. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Benjamin Péret (1899-1959) was a French poet and surrealist. ... Left Communism is a term describing a whole range of communist viewpoints which oppose the political ideas of the Bolsheviks from a position which is asserted to be more authentically Marxist and proletarian than the views held by the Communist International after its first two Congresses. ... Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, 1st Marquis of Púbol (May 11, 1904 – January 23, 1989), was a Spanish surrealist painter of Catalan descent born in Figueres, Catalonia (Spain). ... Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde (December 4, 1892 - November 20, 1975), commonly known as Francisco Franco (pronounced ) or Francisco Franco y Bahamonde was leader of Spain from October 1936, as regent of Kingdom of Spain from 1947 until his death in 1975. ... A POUM poster urges Workers: to victory! A POUM poster appeals to peasants: Peasants: the land is yours The Workers Party of Marxist Unification (POUM, Spanish: Partido Obrero de Unificación Marxista; Catalan: Partit Obrer dUnificació Marxista) was a Spanish communist political party formed during the Second Republic, and... Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ...


Breton’s followers, along with the Communist Party, were working for the "liberation of man." However, Breton’s group refused to prioritize the proletarian struggle over radical creation such that their struggles with the Party made the late 1920s a turbulent time for both. Many individuals closely associated with Breton, notably Louis Aragon, left his group to work more closely with the Communists. In modern usage, the term communist party is generally used to identify any political party which has adopted communist ideology. ... The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is called a proletarian. ... Louis Aragon (October 3, 1897 - December 24, 1982), French historian, poet and novelist. ...


Surrealists have often sought to link their efforts with political ideals and activities. In the Declaration of January 27, 1925,[9] for example, members of the Paris-based Bureau of Surrealist Research (including André Breton, Louis Aragon, and, Antonin Artaud, as well as some two dozen others) declared their affinity for revolutionary politics. While this was initially a somewhat vague formulation, by the 1930s many Surrealists had strongly identified themselves with communism. The foremost document of this tendency within Surrealism is the Manifesto for a Free Revolutionary Art,[10] published under the names of Breton and Diego Rivera, but actually co-authored by Breton and Leon Trotsky.[11] Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Diego Rivera (December 8, 1886 – November 24, 1957, born Diego María de la Concepción Juan Nepomuceno Estanislao de la Rivera y Barrientos Acosta y Rodríguez in Guanajuato, Gto. ... Leon Trotsky (Russian:  , Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (), was a Ukrainian-born Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ...


However, in 1933 the Surrealists’ assertion that a 'proletarian literature' within a capitalist society was impossible led to their break with the Association des Ecrivains et Artistes Révolutionnaires, and the expulsion of Breton, Éluard and Crevel from the Communist Party.[3]


In 1925, the Paris Surrealist group and the extreme left of the French Communist Party came together to support Abd-el-Krim, leader of the Rif uprising against French colonialism in Morocco. In an open letter to writer and French ambassador to Japan, Paul Claudel, the Paris group announced: This does not cite any references or sources. ... Time Magazine, August 17, 1925 Abd el-Krim (c. ... RIF may refer to: Reading Is Fundamental, an organization promoting childrens literacy Reconnaissance in Force, a type of military operation used specifically to probe an enemys disposition Reduction in Force, a large-scale ending of employment Renju International Federation, Renju is the professional variant of board game Gomoku... Cover of Time Magazine(March 21, 1927) Paul Claudel (August 6, 1868 – February 23, 1955) was a French poet, dramatist and diplomat, and the younger brother of the sculptor Camille Claudel. ...

"We Surrealists pronounced ourselves in favour of changing the imperialist war, in its chronic and colonial form, into a civil war. Thus we placed our energies at the disposal of the revolution, of the proletariat and its struggles, and defined our attitude towards the colonial problem, and hence towards the colour question."

The anticolonial revolutionary and proletarian politics of "Murderous Humanitarianism" (1932) which was drafted mainly by Rene Crevel, signed by André Breton, Paul Éluard, Benjamin Peret, Yves Tanguy, and the Martiniquan Surrealists Pierre Yoyotte and J.M. Monnerot perhaps makes it the original document of what is later called 'black Surrealism',[12] although it is the contact between Aimé Césaire and Breton in the 1940s in Martinique that really lead to the communication of what is known as 'black Surrealism'. René Crevel (1900 – 1935) was a writer involved with the surrealist movement. ... André Breton André Breton (French IPA: ) (February 19, 1896 – September 28, 1966) was a French writer, poet, and surrealist theorist, and is best known as the main founder of surrealism. ... It appears that this entire article has been copied and pasted from http://www. ... Benjamin Péret (1899-1959) was a French poet and surrealist. ... Indefinite Divisibility 1942 Raymond Georges Yves Tanguy (January 5, 1900 – January 15, 1955) was a surrealist painter. ... Aimé Fernand David Césaire (25 June 1913 - 17 April 2008) was a French poet, author politician. ...


Anticolonial revolutionary writers in the Négritude movement of Martinique, a French colony at the time, took up Surrealism as a revolutionary method - a critique of European culture and a radical subjective. This linked with other Surrealists and was very important for the subsequent development of Surrealism as a revolutionary praxis. The journal Tropiques, featuring the work of Cesaire along with René Ménil, Lucie Thésée, Aristide Maugée and others, was first published in 1940.[13] Négritude is a literary and political movement developed in the 1930s by a group that included the future Senegalese President Léopold Sédar Senghor, Martinican poet Aimé Césaire, and Léon Damas. ... René Ménil (1907-2004) was a French surrealist writer and philosopher who lived on the island of Martinique. ...


It is interesting to note that when in 1938 André Breton traveled with his wife the painter Jacqueline Lamba to Mexico to meet Trotsky; staying as the guest of Diego Rivera's former wife Guadalupe Marin; he met Frida Kahlo and saw her paintings for the first time. Breton declared Kahlo to be an "innate" Surrealist painter.[14] Diego Rivera (December 8, 1886 – November 24, 1957, born Diego María de la Concepción Juan Nepomuceno Estanislao de la Rivera y Barrientos Acosta y Rodríguez in Guanajuato, Gto. ... Frida Kahlo (July 6, 1907 – July 13, 1954) was a Mexican painter, who has achieved great international popularity. ...


Internal politics

In 1929 the satellite group around the journal Le Grand Jeu, including Roger Gilbert-Lecomte, Maurice Henry and the Czech painter Josef Sima, was ostracized. Also in February, Breton asked Surrealists to assess their "degree of moral competence", and theoretical refinements included in the second manifeste du surréalisme excluded anyone reluctant to commit to collective action: Leiris, Limbour, Morise, Baron, Queneau, Prévert, Desnos, Masson and Boiffard. They moved to the periodical Documents, edited by Georges Bataille, whose anti-idealist materialism produced a hybrid Surrealism exposed the base instincts of humans.[3][15] Roger Gilbert-Lecomte (b. ... Josef Sima (1891-1971) was a renowned Czech painter. ... The Surrealist Manifesto was written by the French writer André Breton and published in 1924. ... Michel Leiris (1901-1990) was a French surrealist writer and ethnographer. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Raymond Queneau (February 21, 1903 – October 25, 1976) was a French poet and novelist. ... Jacques Prévert (pronounced in French) was a French poet and screenwriter who was born on February 4, 1900 in Neuilly-sur-Seine and died on April 11, 1977 in Omonville-la-Petite. ... Robert Desnos (July 4, 1900 - June 8, 1945) was a French surrealist poet. ... Pedestal Table in the Studio, (1922) André-Aimé-René Masson (January 4, 1896 – October 28, 1987) was a French artist. ... Jacques-André Boiffard (1902-1961) was a medical student until 1924 when he met André Breton through Pierre Naville, a Surrealist writer, and childhood friend. ... Documents was a late 1920s-era Surrealist journal edited and masterminded by Georges Bataille. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Other members were ousted over the years for a variety of infractions, both political and personal, and others left of to pursue creativity of their own style.


Golden age

Throughout the 1930s, Surrealism continued to become more visible to the public at large. A Surrealist group developed in Britain and, according to Breton, their 1936 London International Surrealist Exhibition was a high water mark of the period and became the model for international exhibitions. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, 1st Marquis of Púbol (May 11, 1904 – January 23, 1989), was a Spanish surrealist painter of Catalan descent born in Figueres, Catalonia (Spain). ... La persistencia de la memoria (1931) or The Persistence of Memory is quite possibly the most famous painting by artist Salvador Dalí. The painting has also been popularly known as Soft Watches, Droopy Watches, The Persistence of Time or Melting Clocks. ... Eileen Agar (1899-1991) Emmy Bridgwater (1906-1999) David Gascoyne (1916-2001) Humphrey Jennings (1907-1950) Conroy Maddox (1912-2005) ELT Mesens (1903-1971) Roland Penrose (1900-1984) Toni del Renzio Julian Trevelyan (1910-1988) John Tunnard (1900-1971) Simon Watson Taylor (1923-2005) The Group was involved in the... The International Surrealist Exhibition was held from 11 June to 4 July 1936 at the New Burlington Galleries in London. ...


Dalí and Magritte created the most widely recognized images of the movement. Dalí joined the group in 1929, and participated in the rapid establishment of the visual style between 1930 and 1935. Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, 1st Marquis of Púbol (May 11, 1904 – January 23, 1989), was a Spanish surrealist painter of Catalan descent born in Figueres, Catalonia (Spain). ... The Treachery of Images (La trahison des images) (1928–1929) René François Ghislain Magritte (November 21, 1898 – August 15, 1967) was a Belgian surrealist artist. ...


Surrealism as a visual movement had found a method: to expose psychological truth by stripping ordinary objects of their normal significance, in order to create a compelling image that was beyond ordinary formal organization, in order to evoke empathy from the viewer.


1931 marked a year when several Surrealist painters produced works which marked turning points in their stylistic evolution: Magritte's Voice of Space (La Voix des airs)[1] is an example of this process, where three large spheres representing bells hang above a landscape. Another Surrealist landscape from this same year is Yves Tanguy's Promontory Palace (Palais promontoire), with its molten forms and liquid shapes. Liquid shapes became the trademark of Dalí, particularly in his The Persistence of Memory, which features the image of watches that sag as if they are melting. Indefinite Divisibility 1942 Raymond Georges Yves Tanguy (January 5, 1900 – January 15, 1955) was a surrealist painter. ... La persistencia de la memoria (1931) or The Persistence of Memory is quite possibly the most famous painting by artist Salvador Dalí. The painting has also been popularly known as Soft Watches, Droopy Watches, The Persistence of Time or Melting Clocks. ...


The characteristics of this style - a combination of the depictive, the abstract, and the psychological - came to stand for the alienation which many people felt in the modern period, combined with the sense of reaching more deeply into the psyche, to be "made whole with one's individuality". For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ...


From 1936 through 1938 Wolfgang Paalen, Gordon Onslow Ford and Roberto Matta joined the group. Paalen contributed Fumage and Onslow Ford Coulage as new pictorial automatic techniques. Wolfgang Paalen (1905 - 1959) was a painter who successfully practiced various styles, including fumage, also published strongly documented philosophical essays. ... Gordon Onslow Ford (December 26, 1912 - November 9, 2003) was the last surviving member of the 1930s Paris surrealist group surrounding André Breton. ... Invasion of the Night, oil on canvas, 1940, SFMOMA. Roberto Sebastian Matta Echaurren (1911-2002), usually known as Matta, was one of Chiles best-known painters. ... Fumage is a surrealist technique invented by Wolfgang Paalen in which impressions are made by the smoke of a candle or kerosene lamp on a piece of paper or canvas. ... Surrealism in art, poetry, and literature utilizes numerous unique techniques and games to provide inspiration. ...


Long after personal, political and professional tensions fragmented the Surrealist group, Magritte and Dalí continued to define a visual program in the arts. This program reached beyond painting, to encompass photography as well, as can be seen from a Man Ray self portrait, whose use of assemblage influenced Robert Rauschenberg's collage boxes. For other uses, see Man Ray (disambiguation). ... Robert Rauschenberg, Canyon, 1959. ...

Max Ernst, L'Ange du Foyeur ou le Triomphe du Surréalisme. 1937. Oil on canvas, 114 x 146 cm. Private collection.
Max Ernst, L'Ange du Foyeur ou le Triomphe du Surréalisme. 1937. Oil on canvas, 114 x 146 cm. Private collection.

During the 1930s Peggy Guggenheim, an important American art collector, married Max Ernst and began promoting work by other Surrealists such as Tanguy and the British artist John Tunnard. Image File history File links L'Ange_du_Foyeur. ... Image File history File links L'Ange_du_Foyeur. ... Max Ernst (2 April 1891 - 1 April 1976) was a German painter, sculptor, graphic artist, and poet, considered one of the chief representatives of Dadaism and Surrealism. ... Peggy Guggenheim (August 26, 1898 – December 23, 1979) was an American art collector. ... Max Ernst (2 April 1891 - 1 April 1976) was a German painter, sculptor, graphic artist, and poet, considered one of the chief representatives of Dadaism and Surrealism. ... Indefinite Divisibility 1942 Raymond Georges Yves Tanguy (January 5, 1900 – January 15, 1955) was a surrealist painter. ... John Tunnard (May 7, 1900 - December 18, 1971), was a British artist and designer. ...


Major exhibitions in the 1930s

  • 1936 - London International Surrealist Exhibition is organised in London by the art historian Herbert Read, with an introduction by André Breton.
  • 1936 - Museum of Modern Art in New York shows the exhibition Fantastic Art, Dada and Surrealism.
  • 1938 - A new International Surrealist Exhibition was held at the Beaux-arts Gallery, Paris, with more than 60 artists from different countries, and showed around 300 paintings, objects, collages, photographs and installations. The Surrealists wanted to create an exhibition which in itself would be a creative act and called on Marcel Duchamp to do so. At the exhibition's entrance he placed Salvador Dalí's Rainy Taxi (an old taxi rigged to produce a steady drizzle of water down the inside of the windows, and a shark-headed creature in the driver's seat and a blond mannequin crawling with live snails in the back) greeted the patrons who were in full evening dress. Surrealist Street filled one side of the lobby with mannequins dressed by various Surrealists. He designed the main hall to seem like subterranean cave with 1,200 coal bags suspended from the ceiling over a coal brazier with a single light bulb which provided the only lighting,[2] so patrons were given flashlights with which to view the art. The floor was carpeted with dead leaves, ferns and grasses and the aroma of roasting coffee filled the air. Much to the Surrealists' satisfaction the exhibition scandalized the viewers.[5]

The International Surrealist Exhibition was held from 11 June to 4 July 1936 at the New Burlington Galleries in London. ... Sir Herbert Edward Read, MC, DSO (1893–1968) was an English anarchist poet, and critic of literature and art. ... André Breton André Breton (French IPA: ) (February 19, 1896 – September 28, 1966) was a French writer, poet, and surrealist theorist, and is best known as the main founder of surrealism. ... This article is about the museum in New York City. ... Marcel Duchamp (pronounced ) (July 28, 1887 – October 2, 1968) was a French artist (he became an American citizen in 1955) whose work and ideas had considerable influence on the development of post-World War II Western art, and whose advice to modern art collectors helped shape the tastes of the... Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, 1st Marquis of Púbol (May 11, 1904 – January 23, 1989), was a Spanish surrealist painter of Catalan descent born in Figueres, Catalonia (Spain). ...

World War II and the Post War period

Yves Tanguy Indefinite Divisibility 1942
Yves Tanguy Indefinite Divisibility 1942

World War II created havoc not only for the general population of Europe but especially for the European artists and writers that opposed Fascism, and Nazism. Many important artists fled to North America, and relative safety in the United States. The art community in New York City in particular was already grappling with Surrealist ideas and several artists like Arshile Gorky, Jackson Pollock, Robert Motherwell, and Roberto Matta, converged closely with the surrealist artists themselves, albeit with some suspicion and reservations. Ideas concerning the unconscious and dream imagery were quickly embraced. By the Second World War, the taste of the American avant-garde swung decisively towards Abstract Expressionism with the support of key taste makers, including Peggy Guggenheim, Leo Steinberg and Clement Greenberg. However, it should not be easily forgotten that Abstract Expressionism itself grew directly out of the meeting of American (particularly New York) artists with European Surrealists self-exiled during WWII. In particular, Arshile Gorky and Wolfgang Paalen influenced the development of this American art form, which, as Surrealism did, celebrated the instantaneous human act as the well-spring of creativity. The early work of many Abstract Expressionists reveals a tight bond between the more superficial aspects of both movements, and the emergence (at a later date) of aspects of Dadaistic humor in such artists as Rauschenberg sheds an even starker light upon the connection. Up until the emergence of Pop Art, Surrealism can be seen to have been the single most important influence on the sudden growth in American arts, and even in Pop, some of the humor manifested in Surrealism can be found, often turned to a cultural criticism. Download high resolution version (600x709, 59 KB)Indefinite Divisibility by Yves Tanguy, 1942. ... Download high resolution version (600x709, 59 KB)Indefinite Divisibility by Yves Tanguy, 1942. ... Indefinite Divisibility 1942 Raymond Georges Yves Tanguy (January 5, 1900 – January 15, 1955) was a surrealist painter. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... North American redirects here. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Vostanik Manoog Adoyan, (better known as Arshile Gorky) (April 15, 1904 – July 21, 1948) was an Armenian painter who had a seminal influence on Abstract Expressionism. ... Controversy swirls over the alleged sale of No. ... Robert Motherwell, 1971 Robert Motherwell (January 24, 1915 – July 16, 1991) was an American abstract expressionist painter and printmaker. ... Invasion of the Night, oil on canvas, 1940, SFMOMA. Roberto Sebastian Matta Echaurren (1911-2002), usually known as Matta, was one of Chiles best-known painters. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... A work similar to Marcel Duchamps Fountain Avant garde (written avant-garde) is a French phrase, one of many French phrases used by English speakers. ... Jackson Pollock, No. ... Peggy Guggenheim (August 26, 1898 – December 23, 1979) was an American art collector. ... Leo Steinberg (born 1920) is an American art historian. ... Clement Greenberg (January 16, 1909 - May 7, 1994) was an influential American art critic closely associated with the abstract art movement in the United States. ... Vostanik Manoog Adoyan, (better known as Arshile Gorky) (April 15, 1904 – July 21, 1948) was an Armenian painter who had a seminal influence on Abstract Expressionism. ... Wolfgang Paalen (1905 - 1959) was a painter who successfully practiced various styles, including fumage, also published strongly documented philosophical essays. ... Dadaism or Dada is a post-World War I cultural movement in visual art as well as literature (mainly poetry), theatre and graphic design. ... Rauschenberg may refer to: Robert Rauschenberg, an American visual artist Rauschenberg, a small town in the Marburg-Biedenkopf district of Hesse, in southwest Germany Rauschenberg Castle, located near the town Spelled differently, there is also: Rauscen, a German town in East Prussia, now known as Svetlogorsk, Kaliningrad This is a... Just What Is It That Makes Today’s Homes So Different, So Appealing? (1956) is one of the earliest works to be considered pop art. ...


The Second World War overshadowed, for a time, almost all intellectual and artistic production. In 1940 Yves Tanguy married American Surrealist painter Kay Sage. In 1941, Breton went to the United States, where he co-founded the short-lived magazine VVV with Max Ernst, Marcel Duchamp, and the American artist David Hare. However, it was the American poet, Charles Henri Ford, and his magazine View which offered Breton a channel for promoting Surrealism in the United States. The View special issue on Duchamp was crucial for the public understanding of Surrealism in America. It stressed his connections to Surrealist methods, offered interpretations of his work by Breton, as well as Breton's view that Duchamp represented the bridge between early modern movements, such as Futurism and Cubism, to Surrealism. Wolfgang Paalen left the group in 1942 due to political/philosophical differences with Breton, founding his journal Dyn. Indefinite Divisibility 1942 Raymond Georges Yves Tanguy (January 5, 1900 – January 15, 1955) was a surrealist painter. ... I Saw Three Cities 1944 Katherine Linn Sage (June 25, 1898 - June 26, 1963), usually known as Kay Sage, was a Surrealist artist and poet. ... VVV may refer to: VVV (journal), a surrealist publication VVV Venlo, a Dutch football team Categories: | ... Max Ernst (2 April 1891 - 1 April 1976) was a German painter, sculptor, graphic artist, and poet, considered one of the chief representatives of Dadaism and Surrealism. ... David Hare (March 10, 1917 – December 21, 1992) was an American artist, associated with the Surrealist movement. ... Charles Henri Ford (February 10, 1913 - September 27, 2002) was an American novelist, poet, filmmaker, photographer, and collage artist best known for his brilliant editorship of the Surrealist magazine View in New York City in the 1940s, and as the partner of the artist Pavel Tchelitchew. ... View was an American literary and art magazine published from 1940 to 1947 by artist and writer Charles Henri Ford, and writer and film critic Parker Tyler. ... Futurism was a 20th century art movement. ... Georges Braque, Woman with a guitar, 1913 Cubism was a 20th century art movement, pioneered by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, that revolutionized European painting and sculpture, and inspired related movements in music and literature. ... Wolfgang Paalen (1905 - 1959) was a painter who successfully practiced various styles, including fumage, also published strongly documented philosophical essays. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Though the war proved disruptive for Surrealism, the works continued. Many Surrealist artists continued to explore their vocabularies, including Magritte. Many members of the Surrealist movement continued to correspond and meet. While Dalí may have been excommunicated by Breton, he neither abandoned his themes from the 1930s, including references to the "persistence of time" in a later painting, nor did he become a depictive pompier. His classic period did not represent so sharp a break with the past as some descriptions of his work might portray, and some, such as Thirion, argued that there were works of his after this period that continued to have some relevance for the movement.


During the 1940s Surrealism's influence was also felt in England and America. Mark Rothko took an interest in biomorphic figures, and in England Henry Moore, Lucian Freud, Francis Bacon and Paul Nash used or experimented with Surrealist techniques. However, Conroy Maddox, one of the first British Surrealists whose work in this genre dated from 1935, remained within the movement, and organized an exhibition of current Surrealist work in 1978 in response to an earlier show which infuriated him because it did not properly represent Surrealism. Maddox's exhibition, titled Surrealism Unlimited, was held in Paris and attracted international attention. He held his last one-man show in 2002, and died three years later. Magritte's work became more realistic in its depiction of actual objects, while maintaining the element of juxtaposition, such as in 1951's Personal Values (Les Valeurs Personneles)[3] and 1954's Empire of Light (L’Empire des lumières).[4] Magritte continued to produce works which have entered artistic vocabulary, such as Castle in the Pyrenees (La Chateau des Pyrenees),[5] which refers back to Voix from 1931, in its suspension over a landscape. Mark Rothkos painting 1957 # 20 (1957) Mark Rothko born Marcus Rothkowitz (September 25, 1903–February 25, 1970) was a Russian-born American painter and printmaker who is classified as an abstract expressionist, although he rejected not only the label but even being an abstract painter. ... Biomorphism was an art movement of the 20th century. ... Reclining Figure (1951) outside the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, is characteristic of Moores sculptures, with an abstract female figure intercut with voids. ... Lucian Michael Freud, OM, CH (born 8 December 1922) is a British painter and printmaker. ... Francis Bacon (28 October 1909 – 28 April 1992) was an Irish figurative painter. ... The Ypres Salient at Night, 1917 - 1918, Imperial War Museum. ... The Strange Country, 1940, Tate Gallery. ...


Other figures from the Surrealist movement were expelled. Several of these artists, like Roberto Matta (by his own description) "remained close to Surrealism."[5] Invasion of the Night, oil on canvas, 1940, SFMOMA. Roberto Sebastian Matta Echaurren (1911-2002), usually known as Matta, was one of Chiles best-known painters. ...


Many new artists explicitly took up the Surrealist banner for themselves. Dorothea Tanning and Louise Bourgeois continued to work, for example, with Tanning's Rainy Day Canape from 1970. Duchamp continued to produce sculpture in secret including an installation with the realistic depiction of a woman viewable only through a peephole. Tannings Etched Murmurs (etching) 1984 Dorothea Tanning (born 25 August 1910) is an American painter, printmaker, sculptor and writer. ... Louise Bourgeois (born December 25, 1911, Paris) is an artist and sculptor, whose work has been strongly influenced by the surrealists, abstract expressionism and minimalism. ...


Breton continued to write and espouse the importance of liberating of the human mind, as with the publication The Tower of Light in 1952. Breton's return to France after the War, began a new phase of Surrealist activity in Paris, and his critiques of rationalism and dualism found a new audience. Breton insisted that Surrealism was an ongoing revolt against the reduction of humanity to market relationships, religious gestures and misery and to espouse the importance of liberating of the human mind.


Major exhibitions of the 1940s, '50s and '60s

  • 1942 - First Papers of Surrealism - New York - The Surrealists again called on Duchamp to design an exhibition. This time he wove a 3-dimensional web of string throughout the rooms of the space, in some cases making it almost impossible to see the works.[6] He made a secret arrangement with an associate's son to bring his friends to the opening of the show, so that when the finely dressed patrons arrived they found a dozen children in athletic clothes kicking and passing balls, and skipping rope. His design for the show's catalog included "found", rather than posed, photographs of the artists.[5]
  • 1947 - International Surrealist Exhibition - Paris
  • 1959 - International Surrealist Exhibition - Paris
  • 1960 - Surrealist Intrusion in the Enchanters' Domain - New York

Post Breton Surrealism

Roberto Matta. Elle Loge La Folie, oil on canvas, 1970.
Roberto Matta. Elle Loge La Folie, oil on canvas, 1970.

There is no clear consensus about the end, or if there was an end, to the Surrealist movement. Some art historians suggest that WWII effectively disbanded the movement. However, art historian Sarane Alexandrian (1970) states, "the death of André Breton in 1966 marked the end of Surrealism as an organized movement." There have also been attempts to tie the obituary of the movement to the 1989 death of Salvador Dalí[citation needed]. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1575x475, 143 KB) Summary This image is of a drawing, painting, print, or other two-dimensional work of art, and the copyright for it is most likely owned by either the artist who produced the image, the person who commissioned the... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1575x475, 143 KB) Summary This image is of a drawing, painting, print, or other two-dimensional work of art, and the copyright for it is most likely owned by either the artist who produced the image, the person who commissioned the... Invasion of the Night, oil on canvas, 1940, SFMOMA. Roberto Sebastian Matta Echaurren (1911-2002), usually known as Matta, was one of Chiles best-known painters. ... Sarane Alexandrian is a French philosopher, essayist, and art critic. ...


In the 1960s, the artists and writers grouped around the Situationist International were closely associated with Surrealism. While Guy Debord was critical of and distanced himself from Surrealism, others, such as Asger Jorn, were explicitly using Surrealist techniques and methods. The events of May 1968 in France included a number of Surrealist ideas, and among the slogans the students spray-painted on the walls of the Sorbonne were familiar Surrealist ones. Joan Miró would commemorate this in a painting titled May 1968. There were also groups who associated with both currents and were more atttached to Surrealism, such as the Revolutionary Surrealist Group. The Situationist International (SI) was a small group of international political and artistic agitators with roots in Marxism, Lettrism and the early 20th century European artistic and political avant-gardes. ... Guy Ernest Debord (December 28, 1931, in Paris – November 30, 1994, in Champot) was a writer, film maker, hypergraphist and founding member of the groups Lettrist International and Situationist International (SI). ... Asger Jorn (March 3, 1914 - May 1, 1973) was born in Vejrum, Jutland, Denmark under the name Oluf Jørgensen. ... A May 1968 poster: Be young and shut up, with stereotypical silhouette of General de Gaulle. ... Joan Miró i Ferrà (April 20, 1893 – December 25, 1983) was a Catalan (Spanish) painter, sculptor, and ceramist born in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain to the family of a goldsmith and watchmaker. ...


In Europe and all over the world since the 1960s, artists have combined Surrealism with what is believed to be a classical 16th century technique called mischtechnik, a kind of mix of egg tempera and oil paint rediscovered by Ernst Fuchs, a contemporary of Dalí, and now practiced and taught by many followers, including Robert Venosa and Chris Mars. The former curator of the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, Michael Bell, has called this style "veristic Surrealism," which depicts with meticulous clarity and great detail a world analogous to the dream world. Other tempera artists, such as Robert Vickrey, regularly depict Surreal imagery. Mischtechnik (mixed technique) is a method of painting where egg tempera is used to build up volume, and is then glazed with oil paints mixed with resin, producing a jewel-like effect. ... Egg tempera is a type of paint used by artists. ... Ernst Fuchs (born February 13, 1930) is an Austrian visionary painter, draftsman, printmaker, sculptor, architect, stage designer, composer, poet, singer and one of the founders of the Vienna School of Fantastic Realism. ... Robert Venosa is an Spanish American painter who lives in Boulder, Colorado. ... Chris Mars was the drummer for seminal Minneapolis punk/pop/rock band, The Replacements. ... San Francisco Museum of Modern Art (2004). ... A 1367 tempera on wood by Niccolò Semitecolo. ... Robert Vickrey (born 1926) is a Massachusetts-based artist and author who specializes in the ancient medium of egg tempera. ...


During the 1980s, behind the Iron Curtain, Surrealism again entered into politics with an underground artistic opposition movement known as the Orange Alternative. The Orange Alternative was created in 1981 by Waldemar Fydrych (alias 'Major'), a graduate of history and art history at the University of Wrocław. They used Surrealist symbolism and terminology in their large scale happenings organized in the major Polish cities during the Jaruzelski regime, and painted Surrealist graffiti on spots covering up anti-regime slogans. Major himself was the author of a "Manifesto of Socialist Surrealism". In this manifesto, he stated that the socialist (communist) system had become so Surrealistic that it could be seen as an expression of art itself. Warsaw Pact countries to the east of the Iron Curtain are shaded red; NATO members to the west of it — blue. ... Orange Alternative (PomaraÅ„czowa Alternatywa) is a name for an underground anarchist movement which was started and led by Waldemar Fydrych (sometimes misspelled as Frydrych), known then as Major (Commander of the Festung Breslau), in Wroclaw in 1983. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Motto: Miasto spotkaÅ„ (the meeting place) Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Lower Silesian Powiat city county Gmina WrocÅ‚aw Established 10th century City Rights 1262 Government  - Mayor RafaÅ‚ Dutkiewicz Area  - City 292. ... Term of Office from July 19, 1989 until December 22, 1990 Profession Officer Political Party PZPR First Lady Barbara Jaruzelska Date of Birth July 6, 1923 Place of Birth Kurów near Puławy, Poland Date of Death Place of Death Wojciech Witold Jaruzelski (VOY-chekh VEE-told ya-ru-ZEL-skee...


Surrealistic art also remains popular with museum patrons. The Guggenheim Museum in New York City held an exhibit, Two Private Eyes, in 1999, and in 2001 Tate Modern held an exhibition of Surrealist art that attracted over 170,000 visitors. In 2002 the Met in New York City held a show, Desire Unbound, and the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris a show called La Révolution surréaliste. The front of the Guggenheim Museum from 5th Avenue This article refers to the Guggenheim Museum in the upper east side of Manhattan (New York). ... Tate Modern from the Millennium Bridge Tate Modern from St Pauls Cathedral. ... There is also the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), located in Manhattan. ... Centre Georges Pompidou (constructed 1971–1977 and known as the Pompidou Centre in English) is a complex in the Beaubourg area of the IVe arrondissement of Paris, near Les Halles and the Marais. ...


Impact of Surrealism

While Surrealism is typically associated with the arts, it has been said to transcend them; Surrealism has had an impact in many other fields. In this sense, Surrealism does not specifically refer only to self-identified "Surrealists", or those sanctioned by Breton, rather, it refers to a range of creative acts of revolt and efforts to liberate imagination.


In addition to Surrealist ideas that are grounded in the ideas of Hegel, Marx and Freud, Surrealism is seen by its advocates as being inherently dynamic and as dialectical in its thought. Surrealists have also drawn on sources as seemingly diverse as Clark Ashton Smith, Montague Summers, Horace Walpole, Fantomas, The Residents, Bugs Bunny, comic strips, the obscure poet Samuel Greenberg and the hobo writer and humourist T-Bone Slim. One might say that Surrealist strands may be found in movements such as Free Jazz (Don Cherry, Sun Ra, Cecil Taylor etc.) and even in the daily lives of people in confrontation with limiting social conditions. Thought of as the effort of humanity to liberate imagination as an act of insurrection against society, Surrealism finds precedents in the alchemists, possibly Dante, Hieronymus Bosch, Marquis de Sade, Charles Fourier, Comte de Lautreamont and Arthur Rimbaud. Hegel redirects here. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... Clark Ashton Smith (January 13, 1893-August 14, 1961) was a poet, sculptor, painter and author of fantasy, horror and science fiction short stories. ... Augustus Montague Summers (10 April 1880 - 10 August 1948) was an eccentric British author and clergyman. ... Horatio Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford, more commonly known as Horace Walpole, (September 24, 1717 – March 2, 1797), was a politician, writer and forerunner of the Gothic revival. ... Fantômas, a fictional master criminal and villain, is the subject of a series of early-20th century French detective thrillers. ... For other uses, see Resident. ... Bugs Bunny is an animated rabbit/hare who appears in the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies series of animated films produced by Warner Bros. ... This article is about the comic strip, the sequential art form as published in newspapers and on the Internet. ... Samuel Greenberg (December 13, 1893 – August 16, 1917) was an Austrian-American poet and artist. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Matti Valentine Huhta (c. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... Don Cherry (November 18, 1936–October 19, 1995) was an innovative jazz trumpeter probably best known for his long association with saxophonist Ornette Coleman. ... Sun Ra (Born Herman Poole Blount; legal name Le Sonyr Ra;[1] born May 22, 1914 in Birmingham, Alabama, died May 30, 1993 in Birmingham, Alabama) was an innovative jazz composer, bandleader, piano and synthesizer player, poet and philosopher known for his cosmic philosophy, musical compositions and performances. ... Cecil Percival Taylor (born March 15 or March 25, 1929 in New York City) is an American pianist and poet. ... For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... Dante redirects here. ... Hieronymus Bosch, (latinized, actually Jheronimus Bosch; his real name Jeroen van Aken) (c. ... Portrait of the Marquis de Sade by Van Loo (~1761) Donatien Alphonse François de Sade, better known as the Marquis de Sade (pronounced saad; June 2, 1740 - December 2, 1814), was a French aristocrat best known as a writer of philosophy-laden pornography, as well as a some strictly... This article is about the French utopian socialist philosopher. ... Comte de Lautréamont is a pseudonym for Isidore Lucien Ducasse (Montevideo, Uruguay, April 4, 1846 - Paris, November 24, 1870), a French poet and writer. ... Rimbaud redirects here. ...


Surrealists believe that non-Western cultures also provide a continued source of inspiration for Surrealist activity because some may strike up a better balance between instrumental reason and imagination in flight than Western culture. Surrealism has had an identifiable impact on radical and revolutionary politics, both directly — as in some Surrealists joining or allying themselves with radical political groups, movements and parties — and indirectly — through the way in which Surrealists' emphasize the intimate link between freeing imagination and the mind, and liberation from repressive and archaic social structures. This was especially visible in the New Left of the 1960s and 1970s and the French revolt of May 1968, whose slogan "All power to the imagination" rose directly from French Surrealist thought and practice. The New Left is a term used in different countries to describe left-wing movements that occurred in the 1960s and 1970s. ... A May 1968 poster: Be young and shut up, with stereotypical silhouette of General de Gaulle. ...


Many significant literary movements in the later half of the 20th century were directly or indirectly influenced by Surrealism. This period is known as the Postmodern era; though there's no widely agreed upon central definition of Postmodernism, many themes and techniques commonly identified as Postmodern are nearly identical to Surrealism. Perhaps the writers within the Postmodern era who have the most in common with Surrealism are the playwrights of Theatre of the Absurd. Though not an organized movement, these playwrights were grouped together based on some similarities of theme and technique; these similarities can perhaps be traced to influence from the Surrealists. Eugene Ionesco in particular was fond of Surrealism, claiming at one point that Breton was one of the most important thinkers in history. Samuel Beckett was also fond of Surrealists, even translating much of the poetry into English; he may have had closer ties had the Surrealists not been critical of Beckett's mentor and friend James Joyce. Many writers from and associated with the Beat Generation were influenced greatly by Surrealists. Philip Lamantia and Ted Joans are often categorized as both Beat and Surrealist writers. Many other Beat writers claimed Surrealism as a significant influence. A few examples include Bob Kaufman, Gregory Corso, and Allen Ginsberg. In popular culture much of the stream of consciousness song writing of the young Bob Dylan, c. 1960s and including some of Dylan's more recent writing as well, (c. mid - 1980s-2006) clearly have Surrealist connections and undertones. Magic Realism, a popular technique among novelists of the latter half of the 20th century especially among Latin American writers, has some obvious similarities to Surrealism with its juxtaposition of the normal and the dream-like. The prominence of Magic Realism in Latin American literature is often credited in some part to the direct influence of Surrealism on Latin American artists (Frida Kahlo, for example). Postmodernity (also called post-modernity or the postmodern condition) is a term used by philosophers, social scientists, art critics and social critics to refer to aspects of contemporary art, culture, economics and social conditions that are the result of the unique features of late 20th century and early 21st century... Postmodernism is a term applied to a wide-ranging set of developments in critical theory, philosophy, architecture, art, literature, and culture, which are generally characterized as either emerging from, in reaction to, or superseding, modernism. ... The Theatre of the Absurd, or Theater of the Absurd (French: Le Théâtre de lAbsurde) is a designation for particular plays written by a number of primarily European playwrights in the late 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s, as well as to the style of theatre which has evolved from... Eugène Ionesco (Romanian spelling: Eugen Ionescu) (November 26, 1912 - March 28, 1994) was one of the foremost playwrights of the theater of the absurd. ... Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989) was an Irish dramatist, novelist and poet. ... This article is about the writer and poet. ... Beats redirects here. ... Philip Lamantia (October 23, 1927-March 7, 2005) was a United States poet and lecturer. ... Ted Joans (July 4, 1928 - April 25, 2003), born Theodore Jones, was an American painter, trumpeter and a jazz poet. ... Bob Kaufman (April 18, 1925 – January 12, 1986), born Robert Garnell Kaufman in New Orleans, Louisiana, was an American Beat poet and surrealist inspired by jazz music. ... Gregory Corso (illustration) Gregory Nunzio Corso (March 26, 1930 – January 17, 2001) was an American poet, the fourth member of the canon of Beat Generation writers (with Jack Kerouac, Allen Ginsberg, and William Burroughs). ... Irwin Allen Ginsberg (IPA: ) (June 3, 1926 – April 5, 1997) was an American poet. ... For other uses, see Stream of consciousness (psychology) In literary criticism, stream of consciousness is a literary technique that seeks to portray an individuals point of view by giving the written equivalent of the characters thought processes, either in a loose interior monologue, or in connection to his... This article is about the recording artist. ... This article is about the recording artist. ... Magic realism (or magical realism) is an artistic genre in which magical elements appear in an otherwise realistic setting. ... Frida Kahlo (July 6, 1907 – July 13, 1954) was a Mexican painter, who has achieved great international popularity. ...


Surrealist groups

Surrealist individuals and groups have attempted to carry on with Surrealism after the death of Andre Breton in 1966. The original Paris Surrealist Group was disbanded by member Jean Schuster in 1969. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...


Surrealism and theatre

Surrealist theater depicts the subconscious experience, moody tone and disjointed structure, sometimes imposing a unifying idea.[16]


Antonin Artaud, one of the original Surrealists, rejected Western theatre as a perversion of the original intent of theatre, which he felt should be a religious and mystical experience. He thought that rational discourse comprised "falsehood and illusion," which embodied the worst of discourse. Endeavouring to create a new theatrical form that would be immediate and direct, linking the unconscious minds of performers and spectators, a sort of ritual event,[17] Artaud created the Theatre of Cruelty where emotions, feelings, and the metaphysical were expressed not through text or dialogue but physically, creating a mythological, archetypal, allegorical vision, closely related to the world of dreams.[18] Antonin Artaud Antoine Marie Joseph Artaud, better known as Antonin Artaud (born September 4, 1896, in Marseille; died March 4, 1948 in Paris) was a French playwright, poet, actor and director. ... The Theatre of Cruelty is a concept in Antonin Artauds book Theatre and its Double. ...


These sentiments also led to the Theatre of the Absurd whose inspiration came, in part, from silent film and comedy, as well as the tradition of verbal nonsense in early sound film (Laurel and Hardy, W. C. Fields, the Marx Brothers). The Theatre of the Absurd, or Theater of the Absurd (French: Le Théâtre de lAbsurde) is a designation for particular plays written by a number of primarily European playwrights in the late 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s, as well as to the style of theatre which has evolved from... Laurel and Hardy, in a promotional still from their 1937 feature film Way Out West. ... W. C. Fields (January 29, 1880 – December 25, 1946) was an American juggler, comedian, and actor. ... This article is about the comedian siblings. ...


Surrealism and film

See also, List of surrealist films.

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Surrealism and comedy

Main article: Surrealist humor

This 1970 photograph, a cow with antlers standing on a pole, is an example of surreal humour. ...

Criticism of Surrealism

Feminist

Feminists have in the past critiqued the Surrealist movement, claiming that it is fundamentally a male movement and a male fellowship, despite the occasional few celebrated woman Surrealist painters and poets. They believe that it adopts typical male attitudes toward women, such as worshipping them symbolically through stereotypes and sexist norms. Women are often made to represent higher values and transformed into objects of desire and of mystery.[19] Feminism is a social theory and political movement primarily informed and motivated by the experience of women. ...


One of the pioneers in feminist critique of Surrealism was Xavière Gauthier. Her book Surréalisme et sexualité (1971) inspired further important scholarship related to the marginalization of women in relation to "the avant-garde." However these criticisms are perhaps more so of other avant-garde movements like Situationism, where women had a much more subordinate role to the men. Also, despite the theoretical objectification, Surrealism as a living praxis allowed room for women artists and painters in particular to work and produce work on their own terms. A work similar to Marcel Duchamps Fountain Avant garde (written avant-garde) is a French phrase, one of many French phrases used by English speakers. ... The Situationist International (SI) was a small group of international political and artistic agitators with roots in Marxism, Lettrism and the early 20th century European artistic and political avant-gardes. ...


Freudian

Freud initiated the psychoanalytic critique of Surrealism with his remark that what interested him most about the Surrealists was not their unconscious but their conscious. His meaning was that the manifestations of and experiments with psychic automatism highlighted by Surrealists as the liberation of the unconscious were highly structured by ego activity, similar to the activities of the dream censorship in dreams, and that therefore it was in principle a mistake to regard Surrealist poems and other art works as direct manifestations of the unconscious, when they were indeed highly shaped and processed by the ego. In this view, the Surrealists may have been producing great works, but they were products of the conscious, not the unconscious mind, and they deceived themselves with regard to what they were doing with the unconscious. In psychoanalysis proper, the unconscious does not just express itself automatically but can only be uncovered through the analysis of resistance and transference in the psychoanalytic process.[citation needed] Sigmund Freud His famous couch Sigmund Freud (May 6, 1856 - September 23, 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of the psychoanalytic school of psychology, a movement that popularized the theory that unconscious motives control much behavior. ...


Situationist

While some individuals and groups on the core and fringes of the Situationist International were Surrealists themselves, others were very critical of the movement, or indeed what remained of the movement in the late 1950s and '60s. The Situationist International could therefore be seen as a break and continuation of the Surrealist praxis.[citation needed] The Situationist International (SI) was a small group of international political and artistic agitators with roots in Marxism, Lettrism and the early 20th century European artistic and political avant-gardes. ...


Timeline of Membership

Year Membership
1919 Andre Breton, Louis Aragon, and Philippe Soupault started Littérature, began an association with Dada.
1922 Breton appropriated the term "Surrealism" as a group -- which now included Paul Éluard, Benjamin Péret, Man Ray, Jacques Baron, René Crevel, Robert Desnos, Georges Limbour, Roger Vitrac, and Joseph Delteil -- organized under Breton and pulled away from the influence of Tristan Tzara and the Dadaists. Marcel Duchamp frequently associated with this group but never officially joined.
1924 The year the first Surrealist Manifesto was published, members also included Antonin Artaud, Andre Masson, Raymond Queneau, Joan Miró, Max Morise, Pierre Naville, Mathias Lübeck, Jacques-André Boiffard and Georges Malkine. Giorgio de Chirico briefly associated with the group but never joined.
1925 Jacques Prévert, Yves Tanguy, Pierre Brasseur, Marcel Duhamel, and Michel Leiris joined the group.
1926 Rene Magritte, E. L. T. Mesens, and others started a Surrealist group in Belgium. Pablo Picasso associated with the Surrealists but never officially joined.
1927 Soupault, Artaud, and Vitrac were kicked out of the group.
1929 For various reasons, including the political direction Breton was taking Surrealism, several members -- Prévert, Baron, Desnos, Leiris, Limbour, Masson, Queneau, Morise, Boiffard -- broke with the group and organized under Georges Bataille. However, several new members joined: Salvador Dalí, Luis Buñuel, Alberto Giacometti, René Char, and Lee Miller. Breton also reconciled with Tzara. When the second Surrealist Manifesto was published, it was signed by Aragon, Ernst, Buñuel, Char, Crevel, Dali, Eluard, Ernst, Péret, Tanguy, Tzara, Maxime Alexandre, Joe Bousquet, Camille Goemans, Paul Nougé, Francis Ponge, Marco Ristitch, Georges Sadoul, André Thirion, and Albert Valentin. Federico García Lorca was friends with Dalí and Buñuel and is often called a Surrealist though he never officially joined the group; he broke contact with Dalí and Buñuel in 1929 when he interpreted their film, Un chien andalou (An Andalusian Dog), as an attack on him.
1932 Aragon and Sadoul left the Surrealists because of the conflict between Communism and Surrealism and their dedication to the Communist party. Meret Oppenheim, Victor Brauner, Roger Caillois, Georges Hugnet, Jehan Mayoux, Henri Pastoureau, Guy Rosey, Claude Cahun and J. M. Monnerot joined the group.
1934 Óscar Domínguez, Dora Maar, Richard Oelze, Giséle Prassinos, Kurt Seligmann, and Brion Gysin joined the group.
1935 Wolfgang Paalen, Pierre Mabille, and Jacques-B. Brunius joined the group. Hans Bellmer's work was published in Minotaure. Brion Gysin was expelled.
1936 Joseph Cornell debuted Rose Hobart. Though Cornell was influenced by the Surrealists and friendly with many of them, he never officially joined the group. Dalí's negative criticism of Rose Hobart further inspired Cornell to distance himself.
1937 Kay Sage met Tanguy, and Leonora Carrington met Ernst. Also, Remedios Varo settled in Paris with Peret.
1938 Breton had a falling out with Eluard but reconciled with Masson. Also, Breton met Frida Kahlo in Mexico; she is often called a Surrealist though she never officially joined. Roberto Matta, Gordon Onslow Ford and Bellmer joined the group.
1939 Dali was kicked out of the group for multiple reasons including his apparent support of Francisco Franco, his commercialism, and his abrasive personality. Breton referred to him from that point on as "Avida Dollars", and the group essentially referred to him as if he were dead. Caillois and Hugnet also left the group.
1940 Wifredo Lam joined the group.
1941 Breton met Aimé Césaire in Martinique.
1942 Breton, Duchamp, Ernst, Calas, and Carrington gained a following in New York with the publication of VVV. Newer members included Dorothea Tanning, Enrico Donati, Charles Duits, David Hare, Robert Lebel, Isabelle and Patrick Waldberg. Other artists directly influenced by the Surrealists in New York include Robert Motherwell, William Baziotes, Alexander Calder, and Frederick Kiesler.
1943 The View published the poetry of 15-year-old Philip Lamantia who later became acquainted with Breton and others in New York.
1944 Breton and Matta met with Arshile Gorky. Seligman left the group.
1948 Matta, blamed for Gorky's suicide, was kicked out of the group.
1951 In what was called "The Carrouges affair", Michel Carrouges, a writer associated with the Surrealists, was found to be a practicing Catholic and was expelled. Maurice Henry, Jacques Hérold, Marcel Jean, Robert Lebel, Patrick Waldberg, and Henri Pastoureau were also expelled.
1954 Ernst received the Grand Prix of the Venice Biennale and was subsequently expelled from the group.
1959 Jean Benoît and Mimi Parent joined the group.
1960 Ted Joans met Breton in Paris.

Andr Breton (February 18, 1896 - September 28, 1966) was a French writer, poet, and Surrealist theoretician. ... Louis Aragon (October 3, 1897 - December 24, 1982), French historian, poet and novelist. ... Philippe Soupault (August 2, 1897 – March 12, 1990) was a French writer and poet, novelist, critic, and political activist. ... DaDa is a concept album by Alice Cooper, released in 1983. ... It appears that this entire article has been copied and pasted from http://www. ... Benjamin Péret (1899-1959) was a French poet and Surrealist. ... For other uses, see Man Ray (disambiguation). ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... René Crevel - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Robert Desnos (July 4, 1900 - June 8, 1945) was a French surrealist poet. ... Roger Vitrac (1899–1952) was a French surrealist playwright and poet. ... Tristan Tzara () (April 16, 1896 – December 25, 1963) was a Romanian poet and essayist. ... Marcel Duchamp (pronounced ) (July 28, 1887 – October 2, 1968) was a French artist (he became an American citizen in 1955) whose work and ideas had considerable influence on the development of post-World War II Western art, and whose advice to modern art collectors helped shape the tastes of the... The Surrealist Manifesto was written by the French writer André Breton and published in 1924. ... Antonin Artaud Antoine Marie Joseph Artaud, better known as Antonin Artaud (born September 4, 1896, in Marseille; died March 4, 1948 in Paris) was a French playwright, poet, actor and director. ... Andr -Aim -Ren Masson (January 4, 1896 - October 28, 1987) was a French artist. ... Raymond Queneau (February 21, 1903 – October 25, 1976) was a French poet and novelist. ... Joan Miró i Ferrà (April 20, 1893 – December 25, 1983) was a Catalan (Spanish) painter, sculptor, and ceramist born in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain to the family of a goldsmith and watchmaker. ... Pierre Naville (Paris, 1904 — Paris, 1993) was a French writer and sociologist. ... Jacques-André Boiffard (1902-1961) was a medical student until 1924 when he met André Breton through Pierre Naville, a Surrealist writer, and childhood friend. ... Georges Malkine, Self-portrait Georges Alexandre Malkine (1898-1970) was the only painter to sign the Surrealist Manifesto of 1924; the other signatories were, for the most part, writers. ... Giorgio de Chirico (July 10, 1888 – November 20, 1978) was an influential pre-Surrealist Greek-Italian painter born in Volos, Greece, to a Genovese mother and a Sicilian father. ... Jacques Prévert (pronounced in French) was a French poet and screenwriter who was born on February 4, 1900 in Neuilly-sur-Seine and died on April 11, 1977 in Omonville-la-Petite. ... Indefinite Divisibility 1942 Raymond Georges Yves Tanguy (January 5, 1900 – January 15, 1955) was a surrealist painter. ... Pierre Brasseur, really Pierre-Albert Espinasse (born December 22, 1905 in Paris; died August 14, 1972 in Brunico, Italy) was a French actor. ... Marcel Duhamel is a French actor and screenwriter, founder of the Série noire publishing imprint. ... Michel Leiris (1901-1990) was a French surrealist writer and ethnographer. ... René François Ghislain Magritte (November 21, 1898 - August 15, 1967) was a Surrealist artist, born in Lessines, Belgium. ... ELT Mesens (Edouard Léon Théodore) (1903 – 1971) was a Belgian artist and writer associated with the Surrealist movement. ... Picasso redirects here. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, 1st Marquis of Púbol (May 11, 1904 – January 23, 1989), was a Spanish surrealist painter of Catalan descent born in Figueres, Catalonia (Spain). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Photograph of Alberto Giacometti by Henri Cartier-Bresson Woman with Her Throat Cut, a floor sculpture by Alberto Giacometti, 1932 (cast 1949), Museum of Modern Art, (New York City) Three Men Walking II, by Alberto Giacometti, Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1949 Alberto Giacometti (October 10, 1901 – January 11, 1966) was... René Char (1907 - 1988) René Char (June 14, 1907 - February 19, 1988) was a 20th century poet. ... Lee Miller Elizabeth Lee Miller (23 April 1907 - 21 July 1977) was an American photographer. ... Joe Bousquet (Narbonne, 1897- Carcassonne 1950), was a celebrated French surrealist poet, who was permanently paralysed by enemy fire in 1918. ... Paul Nougé (1895 - 1967) was a Belgian poet and philosopher. ... Francis Jean Gaston Alfred Ponge (March 27, 1899 - August 6, 1988) was a French essayist and poet. ... Georges Sadoul (born Nancy 1904, died Paris 1967) was a French journalist and cinema writer. ... Federico García Lorca Federico García Lorca (June 5, 1898 – August 19, 1936) was a Spanish poet and dramatist, also remembered as a painter, pianist, and composer. ... Méret Oppenheim (1913–1985) was a German-born Swiss Dada and Surrealist artist, and photographer. ... Victor Brauner: Self-portrait with a plucked eye, 1931 Victor Brauner (June 15, 1903 - March 12, 1966) was a Romanian Jewish painter, the brother of Harry Brauner (a known folklorist who was a political prisoner in Communist Romania, and who later married Lena Constante). ... Roger Caillois (March 3, 1913 - December 21, 1978), was a French intellectual whose idiosyncratic work brought together literary criticism, sociology, and philosophy by focusing on subjects as diverse as gems and the sacred. ... Claude Cahun (25 October 1894 – 8 December 1954) was a French photographer and writer. ... Oscar M. Domínguez (1906-1957) was a Spanish surrealist painter. ... Henriette Theodora Markovitch alias Dora Maar (November 22, 1907 – July 16, 1997) was a French photographer and painter of Croatian descent, best known for being a lover and muse of Pablo Picasso. ... Kurt Seligmann (1900-1962) was a Swiss-American Surrealist painter and engraver. ... Brion Gysin (January 19, 1916 - July 13, 1986) was a painter, writer, sound poet, and performance artist born outside of London, Taplow, Buckinghamshire. ... Wolfgang Paalen (1905 - 1959) was a painter who successfully practiced various styles, including fumage, also published strongly documented philosophical essays. ... La Poupée, by Hans Bellmer, currently located at the Centre Georges Pompidou, museum of modern art in Paris, France. ... Brion Gysin (January 19, 1916 - July 13, 1986) was a painter, writer, sound poet, and performance artist born outside of London, Taplow, Buckinghamshire. ... A photograph of Joseph Cornell Joseph Cornell Untitled (Dieppe) c. ... I Saw Three Cities 1944 Katherine Linn Sage (June 25, 1898 - June 26, 1963), usually known as Kay Sage, was a Surrealist artist and poet. ... Leonora Carrington (born April 6, 1917 in Clayton Green, Lancashire, England - ) is a British-born Mexican novelist and surrealist painter. ... Useless Science or the Alchemist, 1955 Remedios Varo Uranga (December 16, 1908 - October 8, 1963) was a surrealist painter. ... Frida Kahlo (July 6, 1907 – July 13, 1954) was a Mexican painter, who has achieved great international popularity. ... Invasion of the Night, oil on canvas, 1940, SFMOMA. Roberto Sebastian Matta Echaurren (1911-2002), usually known as Matta, was one of Chiles best-known painters. ... Gordon Onslow Ford (December 26, 1912 - November 9, 2003) was the last surviving member of the 1930s Paris surrealist group surrounding André Breton. ... Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde (December 4, 1892 - November 20, 1975), commonly known as Francisco Franco (pronounced ) or Francisco Franco y Bahamonde was leader of Spain from October 1936, as regent of Kingdom of Spain from 1947 until his death in 1975. ... Lams, La Jungla (The Jungle), Gouache on paper, mounted on canvas, 1943. ... Aimé Fernand David Césaire (25 June 1913 - 17 April 2008) was a French poet, author politician. ... This article is about the state. ... Tannings Etched Murmurs (etching) 1984 Dorothea Tanning (born 25 August 1910) is an American painter, printmaker, sculptor and writer. ... Donatis, Eclipse Annee 2000, mixed media on canvas, 1992. ... David Hare (March 10, 1917 – December 21, 1992) was an American artist, associated with the Surrealist movement. ... Robert Lebel (born September 21, 1905 in Quebec City, Quebec, died September 20, 1999) was a Canadian ice hockey administrator who served as president of both the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association and the International Ice Hockey Federation. ... Robert Motherwell, 1971 Robert Motherwell (January 24, 1915 – July 16, 1991) was an American abstract expressionist painter and printmaker. ... William Baziotes (1912 – 1963) was an American painter influenced by Surrealism and was a contributor to Abstract Expressionism. ... For other persons named Alexander Calder, see Alexander Calder (disambiguation). ... Frederick Kiesler (Born 1890 Vienna- 1965 New York) was an architect and artist. ... Philip Lamantia (October 23, 1927-March 7, 2005) was a United States poet and lecturer. ... Vostanik Manoog Adoyan, (better known as Arshile Gorky) (April 15, 1904 – July 21, 1948) was an Armenian painter who had a seminal influence on Abstract Expressionism. ... Robert Lebel (born September 21, 1905 in Quebec City, Quebec, died September 20, 1999) was a Canadian ice hockey administrator who served as president of both the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association and the International Ice Hockey Federation. ... Jean Benoît is an artist who studied art at the Ecole des Beaux Arts de Montréal where he met Mimi Parent whom he married in 1948. ... Mimi Parent (September 8, 1924 - June 14, 2005), born Marie Parent in Montreal, was a Canadian surrealist artist. ... Ted Joans (July 4, 1928 - April 25, 2003), born Theodore Jones, was an American painter, trumpeter and a jazz poet. ...

See also

Techniques and humor An art period is a phase in the development of the work of an artist, groups of artists or art movement. ... See also Western art, History of painting, History of art, Art history, Painting, Outline of painting history Jan Vermeer, Girl with a Pearl Earring, known as the Mona Lisa of the North 1665-1667 Édouard Manet, The Balcony 1868 The history of Western painting represents a continuous, though disrupted, tradition... The Chicago Surrealist Group was founded in July, 1966 by Franklin and Penelope Rosemont, after their 1965 trip to Paris in which they met André Breton and attended meetings of the Paris Surrealist Group. ... Peggy Guggenheim (August 26, 1898 – December 23, 1979) was an American art collector. ... Fantastic art is a loosely defined art genre. ... Two famous undecidable figures, the Penrose triangle and devils pitchfork. ... Photography, Jerry Uelsmann Digital Art, George Grie Fine Art, HR Giger Neosurrealism in architecture Neosurrealism in pop-art Neosurrealism or Neo-Surrealism is a term that has been given to the reappearance of well-known surrealism movement in the late 1970s. ... Magic realism (or magical realism) is an artistic genre in which magical elements appear in an otherwise realistic setting. ... Social criticism analyzes (problematic) social structures and aims at practical solutions by specific measures, radical reform or even revolutionary change. ... Simulated reality is the idea that reality could be simulated — often computer-simulated — to a degree indistinguishable from true reality. ... Visionary art is art that purports to transcend the physical world and portray a wider vision of awareness including spiritual or mystical themes, or is based in such experiences. ... The Bodley Gallery was a prominent art gallery in New York City from the 1940s through the 1980s. ...

Surrealist publications This photograph, a cow with antlers standing on a pole, is an example of surreal humour. ... Surrealism in art, poetry, and literature utilizes numerous unique techniques and games to provide inspiration. ...

  • Acéphale, a surrealist review created by Georges Bataille, published from 1936 to 1939
  • Documents, a surrealist journal edited by Georges Bataille from 1929 to 1930
  • Minotaure, a primarily surrealist-oriented publication founded by Albert Skira, published in Paris from 1933 to 1939
  • La Révolution surréaliste, a seminal Surrealist publication founded by André Breton, published in Paris from 1924 to 1929
  • View, an American art magazine, primarily covering avant-garde and surrealist art, published from 1940 to 1947
  • VVV, a New York journal published by emigré European surrealists from 1942 through 1944

André Masson’s cover for the first issue of Acéphale. ... Documents was a late 1920s-era Surrealist journal edited and masterminded by Georges Bataille. ... Minotaure (1933 to 1939) was a primarily Surrealist-oriented publication founded by Albert Skira in Paris. ... In 1933, publisher Albert Skira contacted Andre Breton about a new journal, which he planned to be the most luxurious art and literary review the Surrealists had seen, featuring a slick format with many color illustrations. ... Cover of the first issue of La Révolution surréaliste, December 1924. ... View was an American literary and art magazine published from 1940 to 1947 by artist and writer Charles Henri Ford, and writer and film critic Parker Tyler. ... VVV was a journal devoted to the dissemination of Surrealism. ... This article is about the state. ...

References

  1. ^ In 1917, Guillaume Apollinaire coined the term "Surrealism" in the program notes describing the ballet Parade which was a collaborative work by Jean Cocteau, Erik Satie, Pablo Picasso and Léonide Massine: "From this new alliance, for until now stage sets and costumes on one side and choreography on the other had only a sham bond between them, there has come about, in Parade, a kind of super-realism ('sur-réalisme'), in which I see the starting point of a series of manifestations of this new spirit ('esprit nouveau')."
  2. ^ Breton, "Vaché is surrealist in me," in Surrealist Manifesto.
  3. ^ a b c d Dawn Ades, with Matthew Gale: "Surrealism", The Oxford Companion to Western Art. Ed. Hugh Brigstocke. Oxford University Press, 2001. Grove Art Online. Oxford University Press, 2007. Accessed March 15, 2007, http://www.groveart.com/
  4. ^ Dalí, Salvador, Diary of a Genius quoted in The Columbia World of Quotations (1996)
  5. ^ a b c d Tomkins, Calvin, Duchamp: A Biography. Henry Holt and Company, Inc, 1996. ISBN 0-8050-5789-7
  6. ^ Link to Guggenheim collection with reproduction of the painting and further information.
  7. ^ Link to Guggenheim collection with reproduction of the painting and further information.
  8. ^ Link to Guggenheim collection with reproduction of the painting and further information.
  9. ^ Modern History Sourcebook: A Surrealist Manifesto, 1925
  10. ^ http://www.generation-online.org/c/fcSurrealism1.html
  11. ^ Lewis, Helena. Dada Turns Red. 1990. University of Edinburgh Press. A history of the uneasy relations between Surrealists and Communists from the 1920s through the 1950s.
  12. ^ Kelley, Robin D.G. A Poetics of Anticolonialism. Nov. 1999.
  13. ^ Kelley, Robin D.G. "Poetry and the Political Imagination: Aimé Césaire, Negritude, & the Applications of Surrealism". July 2001
  14. ^ Frida Kahlo, Paintings, Chronology, Biography, Bio
  15. ^ Surrealist Art from Centre Pompidou. Accessed March 20, 2007
  16. ^ Samuel Beckett Terms
  17. ^ Artaud and Semiotics
  18. ^ The Theatre Of The Absurd
  19. ^ Greer, Germaine, "Double vision: Surrealism's women thought they were celebrating sexual emancipation. But were they just fulfilling men's erotic fantasies?", Guardian Unlimited, March 5, 2007. (Accessed March 25, 2007).

André Breton Guillaume Apollinaire Guillaume Apollinaire (August 26, 1880 – November 9, 1918) was a poet, writer, and art critic. ... Parade is a ballet with music by Erik Satie and a one-act scenario by Jean Cocteau. ... Jean Maurice Eugène Clément Cocteau (5 July 1889 – 11 October 1963) was a French poet, novelist, dramatist, designer, boxing manager and filmmaker. ... Selfportrait of Erik Satie. ... Picasso redirects here. ... Leonid Fyodorovich Myasin (August 9, 1896–March 15, 1979) was a Russian choreographer and ballet dancer. ... The Surrealist Manifesto was written by the French writer André Breton and published in 1924. ... Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, 1st Marquis of Púbol (May 11, 1904 – January 23, 1989), was a Spanish surrealist painter of Catalan descent born in Figueres, Catalonia (Spain). ... Calvin Tomkins (1925 - ) is an author and art critic for The New Yorker magazine. ... Robin D.G. Kelley (b. ... Robin D.G. Kelley (b. ... The Pompidou Centres famous external skeleton of service pipes. ... Germaine Greer (born January 29, 1939) is an Australian-born writer, broadcaster and retired academic, widely regarded as one of the most significant feminist voices of the 20th century. ... Guardian Unlimited is a British website owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... André Breton André Breton (French IPA: ) (February 19, 1896 – September 28, 1966) was a French writer, poet, and surrealist theorist, and is best known as the main founder of surrealism. ...

  • Breton, André, Manifestoes of Surrealism containing the first, second and introduction to a possible third manifesto, the novel The Soluble Fish, and political aspects of the Surrealist movement. ISBN 0-472-17900-4 .
  • Breton, André, What is Surrealism?: Selected Writings of André Breton. ISBN 0-87348-822-9 .
  • Breton, André, Conversations: The Autobiography of Surrealism (Gallimard 1952) (Paragon House English rev. ed. 1993). ISBN 1-56924-970-9.
  • Breton, André, The Abridged Dictionary of Surrealism, reprinted in:
    • Bonnet, Marguerite, ed. (1988). Oeuvres complètes, 1:328. Paris: Éditions Gallimard.

Other sources

  • Alexandrian, Sarane. Surrealist Art London: Thames & Hudson, 1970.
  • Appollinaire, Guillaume 1917, 1991. Program note for Parade, printed in Oeuvres en prose complètes, 2:865-866, Pierre Caizergues and Michel Décaudin, eds. Paris: Éditions Gallimard.
  • Brotchie, Alastair and Gooding, Mel, eds. A Book of Surrealist Games Berkeley, CA: Shambhala, 1995. ISBN 1-57062-084-9.
  • Caws, Mary Ann Surrealist Painters and Poets: An Anthology 2001, MIT Press.
  • Durozoi, Gerard, History of the Surrealist Movement Translated by Alison Anderson University of Chicago Press. 2004. ISBN 0-226-17411-5.
  • Lewis, Helena. Dada Turns Red. Edinburgh, Scotland: University of Ednburgh Press, 1990.
  • Lewis, Helena. The Politics Of Surrealism 1988
  • Low Mary, Breá Juan, Red Spanish Notebook, City Light Books, Sans Francisco, 1979, ISBN 087286-132-5 [7]
  • Melly, George Paris and the Surrealists Thames & Hudson. 1991.
  • Moebius, Stephan. Die Zauberlehrlinge. Soziologiegeschichte des Collège de Sociologie. Konstanz: UVK 2006. About the College of Sociology, its members and sociological impacts.
  • Nadeau, Maurice. History of Surrealism Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press, 1989. ISBN 0-674-40345-2.

Henri Rousseau: La Muse inspirant le poète (1909). ... Mary Ann Caws (born 1933) is an American author, art historian and literary critic. ... The College of Sociology was a loosely-knit group of French intellectuals, named after the informal discussion series that they organized. ...

External links

André Breton writings

Overview websites

The Pompidou Centres famous external skeleton of service pipes. ...

Surrealism and politics

  • The radical politics of Surrealism, 1919-1950, an article looking at Surrealisms connections to anarchist, socialist and working class politics.
  • "Herbert Marcuse and the Surrealist Revolution", an article from Arsenal/Surrealist Subversion.
  • "How the Surrealists sold out," The Guardian, 28 March 2007.
  • (French) Benjamin Péret.

For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... Modernity is a term used to describe the condition of being related to modernism. ... Modern history describes the history of the Modern Times, the era after the Middle Ages. ... Modernism in musicis characterized by a desire for or belief in progressand science, surrealism, anti-romanticism, politicaladvocacy, general intellectualism, and/or a breaking with tradition or common practice. ... Modernist literature is the literary form of Modernism and especially High modernism; it should not be confused with modern literature, which is the history of the modern novel and modern poetry as one. ... Mountebanks ... Dejeuner sur lHerbe by Pablo Picasso At the Moulin Rouge: Two Women Waltzing by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, 1892 The Scream by Edvard Munch, 1893 I and the Village by Marc Chagall, 1911 Fountain by Marcel Duchamp, 1917 Campbells Soup Cans 1962 Synthetic polymer paint on thirty-two... Modern dance is often performed in bare feet. ... Modern architecture, not to be confused with contemporary architecture, is a term given to a number of building styles with similar characteristics, primarily the simplification of form and the elimination of ornament. ... Romantics redirects here. ... Postmodernism is a term applied to a wide-ranging set of developments in critical theory, philosophy, architecture, art, literature, and culture, which are generally characterized as either emerging from, in reaction to, or superseding, modernism. ... Also see articles: History of painting, Western painting Clio, muse of heroic poetry and history, by Pierre Mignard, 17th century. ... International Gothic is a subset of Gothic art developed in Burgundy, Bohemia and northern Italy in the late 1300s and early 1400s. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and Wife by Jan van Eyck (1434). ... In Parmigianinos Madonna with the Long Neck (1534-40), Mannerism makes itself known by elongated proportions, affected poses, and unclear perspective. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... A style of 18th century French art and interior design, Rococo style rooms were designed as total works of art with elegant and ornate furniture, small sculptures, ornamental mirrors, and tapestry complementing architecture, reliefs, and wall paintings. ... Late Baroque classicizing: G. P. Pannini assembles the canon of Roman ruins and Roman sculpture into one vast imaginary gallery (1756) Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that... Romantics redirects here. ... For other uses, see Realism (disambiguation). ... Persephone, by Dante Gabriel Rossetti. ... Birth of Venus, Alexandre Cabanel, 1863 Academic art is a style of painting and sculpture produced under the influence of European academies or universities. ... This article is about the art movement. ... Camille Pissarro, Haying at Eragny, 1889, Private Collection Post-Impressionism is the term coined by the British artist and art critic Roger Fry in 1910, to describe the development of European art since Manet. ... Neo-Impressionism is a term coined by the French art critic Félix Fénéon in 1887[1] to characterise the late-19th century art movement led by Georges Seurat and Paul Signac, who first exhibited their work in 1884 at the exhibition of the Société des Artistes... Chromoluminarism is a technique used by Neo-impressionists such Georges Seurat (1859-1891). ... Detail from Seurats La Parade (1889), showing the contrasting dots of paint used in pointillism. ... The Yellow Christ (Le Christ jaune) 1889, oil on canvas Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, New York Cloisonnism is a style of post-Impressionist painting with bold forms separated by dark contours. ... Nabis (or Les Nabis; the prophets, from the Hebrew term for prophet) was a group of young post-impressionist avant-garde Parisian artists of the 1890s that influenced the fine arts and graphic arts in France at the turn of the 20th century. ... Synthetism is a style of painting that developed out of Cloisonnism. ... Thomas Cole (1801-1848) View from Mount Holyoke, Northampton, Massachusetts, after a Thunderstorm or The Oxbow 1836 The Hudson River School was a mid-19th century American art movement by a group of landscape painters, whose aesthetic vision was influenced by romanticism. ... 20th Century Art begins with Impressionism through to contemporary art. ... Dejeuner sur lHerbe by Pablo Picasso At the Moulin Rouge: Two Women Waltzing by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, 1892 The Scream by Edvard Munch, 1893 I and the Village by Marc Chagall, 1911 Fountain by Marcel Duchamp, 1917 Campbells Soup Cans 1962 Synthetic polymer paint on thirty-two... Georges Braque, Woman with a guitar, 1913 Cubism was a 20th century art movement, pioneered by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, that revolutionized European painting and sculpture, and inspired related movements in music and literature. ... The Scream by Edvard Munch (1893) which inspired 20th century Expressionists Portrait of Eduard Kosmack by Egon Schiele Rehe im Walde by Franz Marc Elbe Bridge I by Rolf Nesch On White II by Wassily Kandinsky, 1923. ... Jackson Pollock, No. ... Kazimir Malevich, Black square 1915 Abstract art is now generally understood to mean art that does not depict objects in the natural world, but instead uses color and form in a non-representational way. ... The Neue Künstlervereinigung München, abbreviated NKVM, (German:Munich New Artists Association) formed in 1909 in Munich. ... Cover of Der Blaue Reiter almanac. ... Die Brücke (The Bridge) was a group of German expressionist artists formed in Dresden in 1905. ... DaDa is a concept album by Alice Cooper, released in 1983. ... Henri Matisse, Portrait of Madame Matisse (The green line), 1905, Statens Museum for Kunst, Copenhagen, Denmark Henri Matisse, La Danse (second version), 1909 Hermitage Museum, St. ... Vitebsk Railway Station one of the finest examples of Art Nouveau architecture. ... For information about British gothic rock band, see Bauhaus (band). ... De Stijl redirects here. ... Asheville City Hall. ... Just What Is It That Makes Today’s Homes So Different, So Appealing? (1956) is one of the earliest works to be considered pop art. ... Futurism was a 20th century art movement. ... This term is not to be confused with supremacism. ... Color Field painting is an abstract style that emerged in the 1950s after Abstract Expressionism and is largely characterized by abstract canvases painted primarily with large areas of solid color. ... For other uses, see Minimalism (disambiguation). ... Installation art uses sculptural materials and other media to modify the way we experience a particular space. ... Lyrical Abstraction is an important American abstract art movement that emerged in New York City, Los Angeles, Washington DC and then Toronto and London during the 1960s - 1970s. ... Postmodern art is a term used to describe art which is thought to be in contradiction to some aspect of modernism, or to have emerged or developed in its aftermath. ... Joseph Kosuth, One and Three Chairs (1965) Conceptual art is art in which the concept(s) or idea(s) involved in the work take precedence over traditional aesthetic and material concerns. ... The Spiral Jetty from atop Rozel Point, in mid-April 2005. ... This article is about Performance art. ... Video art is a type of art which relies on moving pictures and is comprised of video and/or audio data. ... Neo-expressionism was a style of modern painting that emerged in the late 1970s and dominated the art market until the mid-1980s. ... Adolf Wölflis Irren-Anstalt Band-Hain, 1910 The term Outsider Art was coined by art critic Roger Cardinal in 1972 as an English synonym for Art Brut (which literally translates as Raw Art or Rough Art), a label created by French artist Jean Dubuffet to describe art created... Cover Art by Mark Ryden Cover Art by Joe Coleman Todd Schorr, Futility in the Face of a Hostile World, 2003. ... New media art (also known as media art) is a generic term used to describe art related to, or created with, a technology invented or made widely available since the mid-20th Century. ... The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living by Damien Hirst (1991). ... The logo on the Stuckism International web site Stuckism is an art movement that was founded in 1999 in Britain by Billy Childish and Charles Thomson to promote figurative painting in opposition to conceptual art. ... As defined in the glossary of Nicolas Bourriauds book Relational Aesthetics, Relational (Art) is: a set of artistic practices which take as their theoretical and practical point of departure the whole of human relations and their social context, rather than an independent and private space. ... Videogame art involves the use of patched or modified computer and video games or the repurposing of existing games or game structures. ... This is a list of poetry groups and movements that have pages in Wikipedia. ... Akhmatova Orphans (Ахматовские сироты) were a group of Russian poets from Saint Petersburg. ... Beats redirects here. ... // The Black Arts Movement is commonly known as the artistic branch of the Black Power movement. ... The Black Mountain poets, sometimes called the Projectivist poets, were a group of mid 20th century American avant-garde or postmodern poets centered around Black Mountain College. ... The British Poetry Revival is the general name given to a loose poetic movement in Britain that took place in the 1960s and 1970s. ... The British Army presence in Egypt in World War II had as a side-effect the concentration of a group of Cairo poets. ... Cavalier poets is a broad description of a school of poets, who came from the classes that supported King Charles I during the English Civil War. ... Chhayavaad refers to the romantic upsurge in the Hindi literature particularly poetry, which began in early 19th century. ... Churchyard Poets or Graveyard Poets is a critical term applied in retrospect to a number of English poets of the 1750s to the 1790s who wrote in the vein of Thomas Grays Elegy in a Country Churchyard (1750). ... Confessionalism is a label formally applied to a style of American poetry which emerged in the 1950s and 1960s. ... Créolité is a literary movement first developed in the 1980s by Martinican writers Patrick Chamoiseau, Jean Bernabé and Raphaël Confiant. ... Cyclic Poets are epic poets who followed Homer and wrote poems and songs about the Trojan war. ... Cover of the first edition of the publication, Dada. ... Deep image is a term coined by Jerome Rothenberg and Robert Kelly in the second issue of Trobar, and was used to describe poetry written by him and by Robert Kelly, Diane Wakoski and Clayton Eshleman. ... The Della Cruscans were a set of English sentimental poetasters, the leaders of them hailing from Florence, that appeared in England towards the close of the 18th century, and that for a time imposed on many by their extravagant panegyrics of one another, the founder of the set being one... Dolce Stil Novo (Italian for The Sweet New Style) is the name given to the most important literary movement of 13th century Italy. ... The Dymock poets were a literary group of the early 20th century, who made their home in the Gloucestershire village of Dymock. ... A group of Ecuadorian poets born between 1905 and 1920 representing the neosymbolism or lyrical vanguard movement. ... Flarf Poetry is an avant garde, modernist poetry movement of the late 20th century and the early 21st century. ... The Free Academy was founded in 1999 in Tel Aviv, Israel. ... The Fugitives were a group of poets and literary scholars who came together at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee around 1920. ... Garip (Turkish: strange or peculiar) was a group of Turkish poets. ... // Background The Generation of 98 (also called Generation of 1898 or, in Spanish, Generación del 98 or Generación de 1898) was a group of novelists, poets, essayists, and philosophers active in Spain at the time of the Spanish-American War (1898). ... The Generation of 27 (Spanish Generación del 27) was an influential group of poets that arose in Spanish literary circles between 1923 and 1927, essentially out of a shared desire to experience and work with avant-garde forms of art and poetry. ... The Georgian poets were, by the strictest definition, those whose works appeared in a series of five anthologies named Georgian Poetry, published by Harold Monro and edited by Edward Marsh. ... The Goliards were a group of clergy who wrote bibulous, satirical Latin poetry in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. ... Philip Hobsbaum (born 29 June 1932) is an academic, poet and critic. ... The Harlem Renaissance was named after the anthology The New Negro, edited by Alain Locke in 1925. ... The Harvard Aesthetes is a name given to a group of poets attending Harvard University in a period roughly 1912-1919. ... Ezra Pound was one of the prime movers of Imagism. ... The Jindyworobak Movement was a nationalistic Australian literary movement whose white members sought to promote indigenous Australian ideas and customs, particularly in poetry. ... The Lake Poets all lived in the Lake District of England at the turn of the nineteenth century. ... The Language poets (or L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E poets, after the magazine that bears that name) are an avant garde group or tendency in United States poetry that emerged in the late 1960s and early 1970s; its central figures are all actively writing, teaching, and performing... Martian poetry. ... The metaphysical poets were a loose group of British lyric poets of the 17th century, who shared an interest in metaphysical concerns and a common way of investigating them. ... The Misty Poets are a group of Chinese poets who reacted against the restrictions of the Cultural Revolution. ... Mountebanks ... The Movement was a term coined by J. D. Scott, literary editor of The Spectator, in 1954 to describe a group of writers including Kingsley Amis, Philip Larkin, Donald Davie, D.J. Enright, John Wain, Elizabeth Jennings, Thom Gunn, and Robert Conquest. ... Négritude is a literary and political movement developed in the 1930s by a group that included the future Senegalese President Léopold Sédar Senghor, Martinican poet Aimé Césaire, and Léon Damas. ... The New American Poetry 1945-1960 was a poetry anthology edited by Donald Allen, and published in 1960. ... The New Apocalyptics were a poetry grouping in the UK in the 1940s, taking their name from the anthology The New Apocalypse (1939), which was edited by J. F. Hendry (1912-1986) and Henry Treece. ... New Formalism is a late-twentieth and early twenty-first century movement in American poetry that has promoted a return to metrical and rhymed verse. ... The New York School (synonymous with abstract expressionist painting) was an informal group of American poets, painters, dancers, and musicians active in the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s in New York City. ... William Carlos Williams (1883-1963), who was the only poet to be published as both an Objectivist and an Imagist The Objectivist poets were a loose-knit group of second-generation Modernists who emerged in the 1930s. ... Others was a group of avante-garde artists in New York formed after World War I. Poet Alfred Kreymborg and artist Man Ray founded the group, centered in Ridgefield, NJ. Through the group, American writers and artists came into contact and found collaboration with emigree artists who had fled from... Parnassianism (or less commonly parnasism) was a literary style characteristic of certain French poetry during the positivist period of the 19th century, occurring between romanticism and symbolism. ... The Pléiade was a group of 16th-century French poets whose principal members were Pierre de Ronsard, Joachim du Bellay and Jean-Antoine de Baïf. ... The Rhymers Club was a group of London-based poets, founded in 1890 by W. B. Yeats and Ernest Rhys. ... Founded in 1922 as the Rochester, NY chapter of the Poetry Society of America, Rochester Poets is the areas oldest, ongoing literary organization. ... The term San Francisco Renaissance is used as a global designation for a range of poetic activity centred around that city and which brought it to prominence as a hub of the American poetic avant-garde. ... The Scottish version of modernism, the Scottish literary renaissance was begun by Hugh MacDiarmid in the 1920s when he abandoned his English language poetry and began to write in Lallans. ... In a literary context, the term Sicilian School identifies a small community of Sicilian, and to a lesser extent, mainland Italian poets gathered around Frederick II, most of them belonging to his court, the Magna Curia. ... The phrase Sons of Ben is a mildly problematic term applied to followers of Ben Jonson in English poetry and drama in the first half of the seventeenth century. ... The Southern Agrarians (also known as the Vanderbilt Agrarians or Nashville Agrarians) were a group of twelve American writers and poets with roots in the Southern United States who joined together to publish an agrarian manifesto, a collection of essays entitled Ill Take My Stand in 1930. ... The term spasmodic, certainly with some derogatory as well as humorous intention, was applied by William Edmonstoune Aytoun to a group of British poets of the Victorian era. ... Poezja śpiewana (meaning sung poetry in Polish) is a broad and inprecise music genre, used mostly in Poland to describe songs consisting of a poem (most often a ballad) and music written specially for that text. ... The Uranians were a relatively obscure group of pederastic poets who flourished between 1870 and 1930, particularly among the graduates of Oxford and Cambridge. ...


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surrealism - Encyclopedia.com (1205 words)
surrealism, literary and art movement influenced by Freudianism and dedicated to the expression of imagination as revealed in dreams, free of the conscious control of reason and free of convention.
Surrealism's subversive enemy within; The Hayward Gallery's new exhibition promises startling revelations but they fizzle out in the first room.
The Pope of Surrealism was Andre Breton, not a painter, not...
Welcome to Surrealist.com - Surrealism, Surrealist & Surrealism Artist and Surrealist & Surrealism Art. A comprehensive ... (183 words)
A history of surrealism, surreal art, and the artists involved in the surrealist art movement.
Surrealism was developed by the 20th-century literary and artistic movement.
Surrealism grew principally out of the earlier Dada movement, which before World War I produced works of anti-art that deliberately defied reason; but Surrealism emphasis was not on negation but on positive expression.
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