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Encyclopedia > Surfing
Hein Cooper at Banzai Pipeline, December 1981
Hein Cooper at Banzai Pipeline, December 1981

Surfing is a surface water sport. Surfing is a water sport involving riding a breaking wave. ... Image File history File links Buttons_pipe. ... Image File history File links Buttons_pipe. ... The Banzai Pipeline, or simply Pipeline or Pipe, is a surf reef break located off Ehukai Beach Park in Pupukea of O`ahus North Shore. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (900x600, 92 KB) Photo of Oahu North Shore surfer dragging his hand, taken March 2002 by User:Stan Shebs File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Surfing Laird... Surface water sports can be divided into two different types; towed water sports and non-towed surface water sports. ...


The participant is carried along the face of a breaking wave as it approaches shore, usually on a surfboard. In addition to surfboards, surfers make use of kneeboards, body boards (aka boogie boards), kayaks, surf skis, and their own bodies. Surfing-related sports, such as paddleboarding and sea kayaking, do not require waves. Other derivative sports such as kitesurfing and windsurfing rely on wind for power. The Ocean Waves, see I Can Hear the Sea Ocean waves Ocean surface waves are surface waves that occur in the upper layer of the ocean. ... Shore A shore or shoreline is the land at the edge of a large body of water, such as an ocean, sea, or lake. ... // A surfer carries a surfboard along the beach. ... This article is about the surfsport. ... willwill in a tube at EhN North point Bodyboarding is a form of wave riding. ... willwill in a tube at EhN North point Bodyboarding is a form of wave riding. ... Look up kayak in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A surf ski is an elongated open cockpit kayak used for surf lifesaving or flat-water racing. ... Bodysurfing in La Jolla California Bodysurfing is the art and sport of riding a wave without the assistance of any buoyant device such as a surfboard or bodyboard. ... Paddleboarding is a surface water sport in which the participant is propelled by a swimming motion usually on a long surfboard toward along the shore. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Kitesurfing in the Columbia River Gorge Kitesurfers use power kites tethered to harnesses to glide through water and air Kitesurfing, also known as kiteboarding, involves using a power kite to pull a rider through the water on a small surfboard or a kiteboard (a wakeboard-like board). ... A windsurfer with modern gear tilts the rig and carves the board to perform a planing gybe (downwind turn) close to shore in Maui, Hawaii, one of the popular destinations for windsurfing. ...


Two major classifications within the sport reflect differences in surfboard design: longboarding and shortboarding. A longboard. ... Since the late 1960s (when Gordon Clark found the optimum formulation of polypropylene foam), most of the surfboards in common use have been of the shortboard variety between 6 and 8 feet in length, with a pointed nose and a rounded or squarish tail, typically with three skegs but sometimes...


In tow-in surfing (often associated with big wave surfing), the surfer is towed into the wave by a motorized water vehicle, such as a jetski, because standard paddling is often ineffective when trying to match a large wave's higher speed. Tow-in surfing is a surfing technique pioneered by Laird Hamilton, Buzzy Kerbox, Dave Kalama and others in the late 1990s where a surfer is towed into a breaking wave by a partner driving a personal watercraft or a helicopter with an attached tow-line. ... Big wave surfing is a discipline in surfing where riders paddle into waves which are at least 20 feet high, on surf boards known as guns or rhino chasers. The bigger the wave, the faster it travels, and the bigger the surf board needed to catch it. ... Jet ski is the brand name of Kawasaki Heavy Industries personal water craft. ...

Contents

Genesis

The first European record of surfing in Hawaii comes from Lieutenant James King,[1], who completed the journals of Captain James Cook upon Cooks's death in 1779. At the time, surfing had already been an integral part of indigenous Hawaiian culture[2] for generations. Native Hawaiian surfers rode waves lying down, sitting or standing on long, hardwood boards. Surfing is a sport of native Hawaiian life as any major sport is part of western life today, if not more. It permeated from Hawaiian society, including religion and myth. Hawaiian chiefs would demonstrate and confirm their authority by the skills they displayed in the surf. Official language(s) English, Hawaiian Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,931 sq mi (29,311 km²)  - Width n/a miles (n/a km)  - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)  - % water 41. ... This article is about the British explorer. ... 1779 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


Hydrodynamics

Swell is generated when wind blows consistently over a large area of open water, called the wind's fetch. The size of a swell is determined by the strength of the wind, the length of its fetch and its duration. So, surf tends to be larger and more prevalent on coastlines exposed to large expanses of ocean traversed by intense low pressure systems. For other uses, see Swell. ... Fetch is a term for the length of water over which a given wind has blown. ... A large low-pressure system swirls off the southwestern coast of Iceland, illustrating the maxim that nature abhors a vacuum. ...


Local wind conditions affect wave quality, since the ridable surface of a wave can become choppy in blustery conditions. Ideal surf conditions include a light to moderate strength "offshore" wind, since this blows into the front of the wave.

The factor which most determines wave shape is the topography of the seabed directly behind and immediately beneath the breaking wave. The contours of the reef or sand bank influence wave shape in two respects. Firstly, the steepness of the incline is proportional to the resulting upthrust. When a swell passes over a sudden steep slope, the force of the upthrust causes the top of the wave to be thrown forward, forming a curtain of water which plunges to the wave trough below. Secondly, the alignment of the contours relative to the swell direction determines the duration of the breaking process. When a swell runs along a slope, it continues to peel for as long as that configuration lasts. When swell wraps into a bay or around an island, the breaking wave gradually diminishes in size, as the wave front becomes stretched by diffraction. For specific surf spots, the state of the ocean tide can play a significant role in the quality of waves or hazards of surfing there. Tidal variations vary greatly among the various global surfing regions, and the effect the tide has on specific spots can vary greatly among the spots within each area. Locations such as Bali, Panama, and Ireland experience 2-3 meter tide fluctuations, whereas in Hawaii the difference between high and low tide is typically less than one meter. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (790x904, 472 KB) I shot the picture myself. ... Bathymetry is the underwater equivalent to topography. ... A reef surrounding an islet. ... Sand bars in the Mississippi River at Arkansas and Mississippi A bar is a linear shoaling landform feature within a body of water. ... The intensity pattern formed on a screen by diffraction from a square aperture Diffraction refers to various phenomena associated with wave propagation, such as the bending, spreading and interference of waves passing by an object or aperture that disrupts the wave. ...


In order to know a surf break one must be sensitive to each of these factors. Each break is different, since the underwater topography of one place is unlike any other. At beach breaks, even the sandbanks change shape from week to week, so it takes commitment to get good waves (a skill dubbed "broceanography" by a few California surfers). That's why surfers have traditionally regarded surfing to be more of a lifestyle than a sport. Of course, you can sometimes be lucky and just turn up when the surf is pumping. But, it is more likely that you will be greeted with the dreaded: "You should have been here yesterday." Nowadays, however, surf forecasting is aided by advances in information technology, whereby mathematical modelling graphically depicts the size and direction of swells moving around the globe. Surf forecasting is a new branch of meteorology developed by tech savvy surfers, who have drawn on numerical weather prediction to assess surf conditions. ...


The regularity of swell varies across the globe and throughout the year. During winter, heavy swells are generated in the mid-latitudes, when the north and south polar fronts shift toward the Equator. The predominantly westerly winds generate swells that advance eastward. So, waves tend to be largest on west coasts during the winter months. However, an endless train of mid-latitude cyclones causes the isobars to become undulated, redirecting swells at regular intervals toward the tropics. In meteorology, a Polar Front is the boundary between the polar cell and the Ferrel cell in each hemisphere. ... A mid-latitude cyclone or extratropical cyclone is a weather phenomenon associated with atmospheric low pressure that takes place in the temperate region between the tropical and polar regions. ... The word isobar derives from the two ancient Greek words, ισος (isos), meaning equal, and βαρος (baros), meaning weight. In meteorology, an isobar is a line of equal or constant pressure on a graph, plot, or map; an isopleth of pressure. ...


East coasts also receive heavy winter swells when low pressure cells form in the sub-tropics, where their movement is inhibited by slow moving highs. These lows produce a shorter fetch than polar fronts, however they can still generate heavy swells, since their slower movement increases the duration of a particular wind direction. After all, the variables of fetch and duration both influence how long the wind acts over a wave as it travels, since a wave reaching the end of a fetch is effectively the same as the wind dying off. In meteorology, an anticyclone is a weather phenomenon associated with atmospheric high pressure. ... Fetch is a term for the length of water over which a given wind has blown. ...


During summer, heavy swells are generated when cyclones form in the tropics. Tropical cyclones form over warm seas, so their occurrence is influenced by El Niño & La Niña cycles. Their movements are unpredictable. They can even move westward, which is unique for a large scale weather system. In 1979, Tropical Cyclone Kerry wandered for 3 weeks across the Coral Sea and into Queensland, before dissipating. This article is about weather phenomena. ... El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a global coupled ocean-atmosphere phenomenon. ... The Pre-1980 Southern Hemisphere tropical cyclone seasons ran year-round from July 1 to June 30, reaching their peaks mid-February to early March. ... Map of the Coral Sea Islands A political map of the South Pacific. ...


The quest for perfect surf has given rise to a field of tourism based on the surfing adventure. Yacht charters and surf camps offer surfers access to the high quality surf found in remote, tropical locations, where tradewinds ensure offshore conditions. Since winter swells are generated by mid-latitude cyclones, their regularity coincides with the passage of these lows. So, the swells arrive in pulses, each lasting for a couple of days, with a couple of days between each swell. Since bigger waves break in a different configuration, a rising swell is yet another variable to consider when assessing how to approach a break. The trade winds are a pattern of wind found in bands around Earths equatorial region. ... A mid-latitude cyclone or extratropical cyclone is a weather phenomenon associated with atmospheric low pressure that takes place in the temperate region between the tropical and polar regions. ...


Wave intensity classification

The geometry of tube shape can be represented as a ratio between length and width. A perfectly cylindrical vortex has a ratio of 1:1, while the classic almond-shaped tube is nearer 3:1. When width exceeds length, the tube is described as "square".
The geometry of tube shape can be represented as a ratio between length and width. A perfectly cylindrical vortex has a ratio of 1:1, while the classic almond-shaped tube is nearer 3:1. When width exceeds length, the tube is described as "square".

Classification parameters Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Calabi-Yau manifold Geometry (Greek γεωμετρία; geo = earth, metria = measure) is a part of mathematics concerned with questions of size, shape, and relative position of figures and with properties of space. ... Vortex created by the passage of an aircraft wing, revealed by coloured smoke A vortex (pl. ...

  • Tube shape defined by length to width ratio
    • Square: <1:1
    • Round: 1-2:1
    • Almond: >2:1
  • Tube speed defined by angle of peel line
    • Fast: 30°
    • Medium: 45°
    • Slow: 60°
Wave intensity table
Fast Medium Slow
Square The Cobra Teahupoo Shark Island
Round Speedies, Gnaraloo Banzai Pipeline
Almond Lagundri Bay, Superbank Jeffreys Bay, Bells Beach Angourie Point

G-Land is an internationally renowned surfbreak situated on the Bay of Grajagan, East Java, about half a day by road from the popular tourist destinations of Bali. ... Teahupoo (pronounced Cho-pu) is a world-renowned surfing location off the south-east of the island of Tahiti, French Polynesia, southern Pacific Ocean. ... Shark Island is a dangerous reef break about 100 metres off Cronulla Beach, New South Wales. ... G-Land is an internationally renowned surfbreak situated on the Bay of Grajagan, East Java, about half a day by road from the popular tourist destinations of Bali. ... Gnaraloo is a legendary surfing spot on the coast of Western Australia, situated 160 kilometres north of the city of Carnarvon. ... The Banzai Pipeline, or simply Pipeline or Pipe, is a surf reef break located off Ehukai Beach Park in Pupukea of O`ahus North Shore. ... Lagundri Bay is a horseshoe shaped bay at the southern end of the island of Nias. ... Snapper Rocks is a small rocky outcrop on the northern side of Point Danger at the southern end of Queenslands Gold Coast. ... Jeffreys Bay Beach Jeffreys Bay (Afrikaans: Jeffreysbaai) ( ) is a town located in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. ... Bells Beach Bells Beach ( ) is an internationally famous surf beach in Victoria, Australia, located 100 km south-west of Melbourne, on the Great Ocean Road near the towns of Torquay and Jan Juc. ...

Artificial reefs

The value of good surf has even prompted the construction of artificial reefs and sand bars to attract surf tourism. Of course, there is always the risk that one's holiday coincides with a "flat spell". Wave pools aim to solve that problem, by controlling all the elements that go into creating perfect surf, however there are only a handful of wave pools that can simulate good surfing waves, owing primarily to construction and operation costs and potential liability. Construction in place of an artificial reef from hollow tile blocks An artificial reef is a man-made, underwater structure, typically built for the purpose of promoting marine life in areas of generally featureless bottom. ... A wave pool in use. ...


The availability of free model data from the NOAA has allowed the creation of several surf forecasting websites. An example of 500 mb geopotential height prediction from a numerical weather prediction model Numerical weather prediction is the science of predicting the weather using mathematical models of the atmosphere. ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Surf forecasting is a new branch of meteorology developed by tech savvy surfers, who have drawn on numerical weather prediction to assess surf conditions. ...


Surfers and surf culture

Main article: Surf culture
A surfer memorial service, Huntington Beach Pier, Orange County, California.
A surfer memorial service, Huntington Beach Pier, Orange County, California.

Surfers represent a diverse culture based on riding the naturally occurring process of ocean waves. Some people practice surfing as a recreational activity while others demonstrate extreme devotion to the sport by making it the central focus of their lives. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1152x864, 1478 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Surfing Surf culture User:Alex LaPointe ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1152x864, 1478 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Surfing Surf culture User:Alex LaPointe ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the 1914 Charlie Chaplin film, see Recreation (film). ...


The sport has become so popular that surfing now represents a multi-billion dollar industry. Some people make a career out of surfing by receiving corporate sponsorships, competing in contests, or marketing and selling surf related products, such as equipment and clothing. Other surfers separate themselves from any and all commercialism associated with surfing. These soul surfers, as they are often called, practice the sport purely for personal enjoyment and many even find a deeper meaning through involving themselves directly with naturally occurring wave patterns and subscribe to ecological philosophies, or ecosophies.[citation needed] Commercialism, in its original meaning, is the practices, methods, aims, and spirit of commerce or business. ... The philosopher Socrates about to take poison hemlock as ordered by the court. ... Ecosophy, also ecophilosophy, is a neologism made by contracting the phrase ecological philosophy. ...


On September 2, 2007, in Brazil, 84 surfers caught the same wave (from Australia, South Africa, Portugal, Britain and the US, to beat the former record of 73 surfers on a wave). But while 300 turned up in Cornwall and Capetown, the Brazilian waxheads won. With only 120 people, surfers in Santos, south-east of Sao Paulo, smashed the South African record.[3] See World Wide Web for surfing the web; see also Wind surfing Surfing at Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii. ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... Cape Town and the Cape of Good Hope Cape Town (Afrikaans, Dutch: Kaapstad; Xhosa: eKapa or SaseKapa), is one of South Africas three capital cities serving as the legislative capital (executive capital and Bloemfontein the judicial capital). ... Santos, originally Portuguese or Spanish for Saints (singular Santo), may mean a great number of different things: // Santos is a common surname in Spanish, as well as Portuguese. ... This article is about the Brazilian state, São Paulo. ...


Maneuvers

Surfing begins with the surfer eyeing a rideable wave on the horizon and then staying ahead of the crest until the surfboard is planing down the wave face, at which point the surfer "pops up." A common problem for beginners is not even being able to catch the wave in the first place, due to faulty positioning and coordination, and conversely, one sign of a good surfer is being able to catch a difficult wave that other surfers cannot, with better positioning and coordination/balance [citation needed].


Once the wave has started to carry the surfer forward, the surfer quickly jumps to his or her feet and proceeds to ride down the face of the wave, sometimes staying just ahead of the breaking part (white water) of the wave (in a place often referred to as "the pocket" or "the curl"), sometimes riding out beyond the pocket toward the shoulder of the wave. This is a difficult process in total, where often everything seems to be happening nearly simultaneously, making it hard for the uninitiated to follow the steps.

Surfers' skills are tested not only in their ability to control their board in challenging conditions and/or catch and ride challenging waves, but also by their ability to execute various maneuvers such as turning and carving. Some of the common turns have become recognizable tricks such as the "cutback" (turning back toward the breaking part of the wave), the "floater" (riding on the top of the breaking curl of the wave), and "off the lip" (banking off the top of the wave). A newer addition to surfing has been the progression of the "air" where a surfer is able to propel oneself off the wave and re-enter. Some of these maneuvers are now executed to extreme degrees, as with off-the-lips where a surfer over-rotates his turn and re-enters backward, or airs done in the same fashion, recovering either with re-rotation or continuing the over-rotation to come out with his nose forward again. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


"Tube riding" is when a surfer maneuvers into a position where the wave curls over the top of him or her, forming a "tube" (or "barrel"), with the rider inside the hollow cylindrical portion of the wave. This difficult and sometimes dangerous procedure is arguably the most coveted and sought after goal in surfing.


"Hanging Ten" and "Hanging Five" are moves usually specific to longboarding. Hanging Ten refers to having both feet on the front end of the board with all ten of the surfer's toes off the edge, also known as noseriding. Hanging Five is having just one foot near the front, and five toes off the edge. There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

Look up Transwiki:List of surfing terms in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ...

Common terms

  • Regular/Natural foot - Right foot on back of board
  • Goofy foot - Left foot on back of board
  • Take off - the start of a ride
  • Drop in - dropping into (engaging) the wave, most often as part of standing up
  • Drop in on, cut off, or "burn" - taking off on a wave in front of someone closer to the peak (considered inappropriate)
  • Duck dive - pushing the board underwater, nose first, and diving through an oncoming wave instead of riding it
  • Snaking/Back-Paddling - paddling around someone to get into the best position for a wave (in essence, stealing it)
The Surf Museum, Oceanside, California
The Surf Museum, Oceanside, California
  • Bottom turn - the first turn at the bottom of the wave
  • Shoulder - the unbroken part of the wave
  • Cutback - a turn cutting back toward the breaking part of the wave
  • Fade - on take off, aiming toward the breaking part of the wave, before turning sharply and surfing in the direction the wave is breaking towards
  • Over the falls - When a surfer falls and the wave carries him in a circular motion with the lip of the wave, also referred to as the "wash cycle", being "pitched over" and being "sucked over" because the wave sucks you off of the bottom of the reef and sucks you "over the falls."
  • Pump - an up/down carving movement that generates speed along a wave
  • Stall - slowing down from weight on the tail of the board or a hand in the water
  • Floater - riding up on the top of the breaking part of the wave
  • Hang-five/hang-ten - putting five or ten toes respectively over the nose of a longboard
  • Hang Heels - Facing backwards and putting the surfers' heels over the edge of a longboard.
  • Re-entry - hitting the lip vertically and re-rentering the wave in quick succession.
  • Switch-foot - having equal ability to surf regular foot or goofy foot -- like being ambidextrous
  • Tube riding/Getting barreled - riding inside the curl of a wave
  • Carve - turns (often accentuated)
  • Pearl- A nose-dive.
  • Off the Top - a turn on the top of a wave, either sharp or carving
  • Snap - a quick, sharp turn off the top of a wave
  • Fins-free snap (or "fins out") - a sharp turn where the fins slide off the top of the wave
  • Air/Aerial - riding the board briefly into the air above the wave, landing back upon the wave, and continuing to ride.
  • Grom/Grommet-kid boarder (usually under 15)

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 567 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1135 × 1199 pixel, file size: 340 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): California Surf Museum ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 567 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1135 × 1199 pixel, file size: 340 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): California Surf Museum ... Cross-dominance, also known as mixed-handedness, is a motor skill manifestation where a person favors one hand for some tasks and the other hand for others, though is not necessarily ambidextrous. ...

Equipment

Waxing a surfboard
Waxing a surfboard

Surfing can be done on various pieces of equipment, including surfboards, bodyboards, wave skis, kneeboards and surf mat. Surfboards were originally made of solid wood and were generally quite large and heavy (often up to 12 feet long and 100 pounds / 45 kg). Lighter balsa wood surfboards (first made in the late 1940s and early 1950s) were a significant improvement, not only in portability, but also in increasing maneuverability on the wave. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 724 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2265 × 1875 pixel, file size: 483 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) US Marine Corps (USMC) Corporal (CPL) Kimberley Thompson, Public Affairs Officer (PAO), stationed at Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) Beaufort, South Carolina (SC), waxes her surfboard... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 724 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2265 × 1875 pixel, file size: 483 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) US Marine Corps (USMC) Corporal (CPL) Kimberley Thompson, Public Affairs Officer (PAO), stationed at Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) Beaufort, South Carolina (SC), waxes her surfboard... // A surfer carries a surfboard along the beach. ... Binomial name Ochroma lagopus Balsa (Ochroma lagopus, synonym ) is a large, fast-growing tree to 30 m tall, native from tropical South America north to southern Mexico. ...


Most modern surfboards are made of polyurethane foam (with one or more wooden strips or "stringers"), fiberglass cloth, and polyester resin. An emerging surf technology is an epoxy surfboard, which are stronger and lighter than traditional fiberglass. Even newer surfboard designs incorporate materials such as carbon fiber and springy 'firewire'. // A surfer carries a surfboard along the beach. ... Carbon fiber composite is a strong, light and very expensive material. ...

An 11-foot long board
An 11-foot long board

Equipment used in surfing includes a leash (to stop a surfer's board from washing to shore after a "wipeout", and to prevent it from hitting other surfers), surf wax and/or traction pads (to keep a surfer's feet from slipping off the deck of the board), and "fins" (also known as "skegs") which can either be permanently attached ("glassed-on") or interchangeable. In warmer climates swimsuits, surf trunks or boardshorts are worn, and occasionally rash guards; in cold water surfers can opt to wear wetsuits, boots, hoods, and gloves to protect them against lower water temperatures. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 385 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2248 × 3496 pixel, file size: 988 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This is an extreme example of a longboard, it is eleven feet long and 4 1/2 inches thick. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 385 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2248 × 3496 pixel, file size: 988 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This is an extreme example of a longboard, it is eleven feet long and 4 1/2 inches thick. ... A surfboard leash is the cord that attaches a surfboard to the surfer. ... For the company called Surfwax, see Surfwax, Inc. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A Rash Guard is a type of athletic shirt made of either lycra or nylon and intended to be worn in the water. ... A surfer in a wetsuit. ...


There are many different surfboard sizes, shapes, and designs in use today. Modern longboards, generally 9 to 10 feet in length, are reminiscent of the earliest surfboards, but now benefit from all the modern innovations of surfboard shaping and fin design. // A surfer carries a surfboard along the beach. ... A longboard. ...


The modern shortboard began its life in the late 1960s evolving up to today's common "thruster" style shortboard, a three fin design, usually around 6 to 7 feet in length. Since the late 1960s (when Gordon Clark found the optimum formulation of polypropylene foam), most of the surfboards in common use have been of the shortboard variety between 6 and 8 feet in length, with a pointed nose and a rounded or squarish tail, typically with three skegs but sometimes...


Midsize boards, often called funboards, provide more maneuverability than a longboard, with more floatation than a shortboard. While many surfers find that funboards live up to their name, providing the best of both surfing modes, others are critical. "It is the happy medium of mediocrity," writes Steven Kotler. "Funboard riders either have nothing left to prove or lack the skills to prove anything."[4] A funbag is a type of surfboard which, while it may be within the typical length range common to shortboards, has more in common design-wise with a longboard. ...


There are also various niche styles, such as the "Egg", a longboard-style short board, the "Fish", a short and wide board with a split tail and two or four fins, and the "Gun", a long and pointed board specifically designed for big waves.


Dangers

Drowning

A young boy surfer
A young boy surfer

Surfing, like all water sports, carries the inherent danger of drowning. Although a surfboard may assist a surfer in staying buoyant, it cannot be relied on for floatation, as it can be separated from the user.[5] The use of a leash, which is attached at the ankle or knee, keeps the surfer connected to the board for convenience but should not be used as a safeguard to prevent drowning. The established rule is that if you will not be able to handle the water conditions without your board then you should not go in. Drownings have occurred as a result of leashes becoming caught on reef holding the surfer underwater. In very large waves such as Waimea or Mavericks being attached to your board may be undesirable as it can be pulled for long distances in the whitewater, holding the surfer underneath the wave. Surfers will often surf in pairs or groups as a safeguard. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 408 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1220 × 1790 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 408 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1220 × 1790 pixel, file size: 1. ... // A surfer carries a surfboard along the beach. ...


Collisions

A large number of injuries, up to 66%,[6] are caused by impact of either a surfboard nose or fins with the surfer's body. Surfboard fins can cause deep lacerations and cuts as well as bruising due to their shape. While these injuries can be minor, they can open the skin to infection from the sea; groups like SAS campaign for cleaner waters to reduce this risk. Surfers against Sewage is an environmental and health pressure group based in Cornwall, UK. Campaign Surfers Against Sewage campaign for clean, safe recreational waters, free from sewage effluents, toxic chemicals and nuclear waste. ...


There is also a danger of collision from objects under the water surface. These include sand, coral and rocks.[7] Collisions with these objects may cause unconsciousness or even death.


Sealife

Various types of sealife can cause injuries and even fatalities. Depending on the location of the surfing activity, animals such as sharks, stingrays, and jellyfish may be a danger to surfers.[8] Marine biology is the study of animal and plant life within saltwater ecosystems. ... Orders Carcharhiniformes Heterodontiformes Hexanchiformes Lamniformes Orectolobiformes Pristiophoriformes Squaliformes Squatiniformes † Symmoriida Sharks (superorder Selachimorpha) are fish with a full cartilaginous skeleton [1] and a streamlined body. ... Genera Dasyatis Himantura Pastinachus Pteroplatytrygon Taeniura Urogymnus See text for species. ... For other uses, see Jellyfish (disambiguation). ...


Famous surf breaks

See also: List of surfing areas

This is a list of areas associated with surfing. ... The Banzai Pipeline, or simply Pipeline or Pipe, is a surf reef break located off Ehukai Beach Park in Pupukea of O`ahus North Shore. ... Bells Beach Bells Beach ( ) is an internationally famous surf beach in Victoria, Australia, located 100 km south-west of Melbourne, on the Great Ocean Road near the towns of Torquay and Jan Juc. ... Bondi Beach Bondi Beach (with a long i) is a hugely popular beach and suburb of Sydney, Australia. ... Seal Point Cape St. ... Polyphemus the Cyclops. ... Municipality Mafra Area 12. ... Fort Point is a location at the south entrance to San Francisco Bay. ... G-Land is an internationally renowned surfbreak situated on the Bay of Grajagan, East Java, about half a day by road from the popular tourist destinations of Bali. ... Gold Coast may refer to: // Gold Coast (British colony), British colony on the Gulf of Guinea in west Africa Brandenburger Gold Coast, former German colony Danish Gold Coast, former Danish colony Dutch Gold Coast, former Dutch colony Portuguese Gold Coast, former Portuguese colony Swedish Gold Coast, former Swedish colony Gold... Hossegor is a commune in France. ... Huntington Bay is a village located in Suffolk County, New York. ... Jeffreys Bay Beach Jeffreys Bay (Afrikaans: Jeffreysbaai) ( ) is a town located in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. ... Kirra is a beach-side suburb of the Gold Coast in Queensland, Australia. ... Mavericks or Mavericks is a world-famous surfing location in Northern California. ... Máncora is a town and beach resort in the Piura Region, in northwestern Peru. ... Fistral Beach is a major surfing beach of Britain, located in Newquay, Cornwall. ... Porthtowan is a small village in the Carrick district of Cornwall, England, UK and is an exclusive Summer tourist destination which lies within the Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape World Heritage Site. ... Puerto Escondido (literally: Hidden Port) is a port city in the Mexican state of Oaxaca. ... Rincon (Spanish, angle or corner) is a surf spot located at the Ventura and Santa Barbara County line in Southern California, USA. Also known as the Queen of the Coast, Rincon is one of the most recognized surf spots in California and known around the world for its long, peeling... Snapper Rocks is a small rocky outcrop on the northern side of Point Danger at the southern end of Queenslands Gold Coast. ... Superbank is a joint venture retail bank in New Zealand operated by St George Bank in association with the New Zeland grocery retailer Foodstuffs. ... Big Winter Solstice Swell at Swamis, Encinitas, CA Swamis is a notable surfing spot located in Encinitas, California. ... Teahupoo (pronounced Cho-pu) is a world-renowned surfing location off the south-east of the island of Tahiti, French Polynesia, southern Pacific Ocean. ... A trestle is a bridge that consists of a number of short spans, supported by splayed vertical elements and is usually for railroad use. ... Waimea Bay is located on the North Shore of O‘ahu in the Hawaiian Islands at the mouth of the Waimea River. ... Watergate Bay is a bay located between Newquay and Padstow in Cornwall. ... Map sources for Saltburn-by-the-Sea at grid reference NZ6621 Saltburn-by-the-Sea pier and cliff lift Saltburn-By-The-Sea is a seaside resort in the unitary authority of Redcar and Cleveland, England. ... Perranporth is a popular surfing tourist destination on the north coast of Carrick, Cornwall in England, UK, six miles south-west of the surf resorts of Newquay and six miles east of Porthtowan. ...

Notable surfers

Surfing in Hawaii
Surfing in Hawaii
Main article: List of surfers
2005 World Tour Top 10 Vans Triple Crown Standings 2007
  • Kelly Slater (USA) 7962 (World Champion: 1992, 1994-98, 2005-06)
  • Andy Irons (USA) 7860 (World Champion: 2002-04)
  • Mick Fanning (Aus) 6650
  • Damien Hobgood (USA) 6148
  • Phillip MacDonald (Aus) 6060
  • Trent Munro (Aus) 5748
  • Taj Burrow (Aus) 5512
  • Nathan Hedge (Aus) 5426
  • CJ Hobgood (USA) 5248 (World Champion: 2001)
  • Taylor Knox (USA)
Outside the contest context All-time top female surfers (not necessarily in contests)

Download high resolution version (1126x750, 153 KB)Surfing in Hawaii. ... Download high resolution version (1126x750, 153 KB)Surfing in Hawaii. ... The format for each entry is: Name (birth-death), Nationality, optional brief reason for fame - maybe including link. ... The world surfing champion is a title awarded annually to the best competition surfer for the year, today based on points earned for placings at events on the Association of Surfing Professionals (ASP) ASP World Tour. ... Kelly Slater in 2003 Kelly Slater (b. ... Andy Irons (born 24 July 1978) is a professional surfer. ... Mick Fanning is a professional surfer from Australia. ... Damien Hobgood (born July 6, 1979) is a professional surfer from Satellite Beach, Florida. ... Taj Burrow on Seven News after his win in the Rip Curl Pro. ... Andy Irons (born 24 July 1978) is a professional surfer. ... Taj Burrow on Seven News after his win in the Rip Curl Pro. ... Bruce Irons (born November 16, 1979) is a talented Regularfoot surfer from Hanalei, Kauai and younger brother of three-time world champion Andy Irons. ... Kelly Slater in 2003 Kelly Slater (b. ... Corky Carroll was a professional American surfer and is considered a pioneer in the sport by becoming the first real professional surfer as well as being the first to receive endorsements. ... Miki Da Cat Dora, aka The Black Knight (1936- January 3, 2002) was an iconic Malibu surfer in 1950s and 1960s. ... Gerry Lopez, aka Mr. ... Greg Noll (born February 11, 1937) is known as a pioneer of big wave surfing. ... Edward Ryan Makua Hanai Aikau (May 4, 1946 – March 17, 1978) was a well-known Hawaiian lifeguard and surfer. ... Laird Hamilton (born Laird John Zerfas on March 2, 1964 in San Francisco) is an American big-wave surfer and former male model. ... АRobert Edward Machado (better known simply as Rob Machado) (b. ... Alan Stokes (19 January 1981) is a British professional surfer and surf model from Newquay, Cornwall. ... Rochelle Ballard According to imdb [[1]] Rochelle Ballard was born on February 13, 1971 in Montebello, CA She is a professional surfer who appeared in several movies, most notably Step Into Liquid, and Blue Crush She surfs for Team ONeill on the surfing World Championship Tour She also co... Layne Beachley born May 24, 1972) is a professional surfer from Manly in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. ... Lynne Boyer is a two-time world surfing champion from the United States. ... Bethany Hamilton Bethany Meilani Hamilton (born February 8, 1990) is an American surfer. ... Joyce Hoffman is prominent surfer and considered a womans pioneer in the sport of surfing. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Sofia Mulanovich (born June 24, 1983 in Punta Hermosa, Lima, Peru) is a Peruvian surfer of Serbo-Croatian descent. ... Margo Oberg is a three-time world surfing champion from the United States. ... Rell Sunn, full name Rell Kapoliokaehukai Sunn (born 1950 – died January 2, 1998 in Mākaha, Hawaii) was an American world surfing champion. ... Freida Zamba is a four-time world surfing champion from the United States. ... Chelsea Georgeson (born October 15, 1983)[1] is an Australian surfer who won the world title in 2005. ... Samantha Cornish (born October 10, 1980) is a professional surfer from New South Wales, Australia. ...

Notes

See also

The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... // Nobody knows when, or precisely where, surfing originated. ... Surf forecasting is a new branch of meteorology developed by tech savvy surfers, who have drawn on numerical weather prediction to assess surf conditions. ... The world surfing champion is a title awarded annually to the best competition surfer for the year, today based on points earned for placings at events on the Association of Surfing Professionals (ASP) ASP World Tour. ... It has been suggested that World championship tour (WCT) surfing be merged into this article or section. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Surf music is a genre of popular music associated with surf culture. ... River surfing was pioneered by Jon Imhoff in 1989 on the Shotover River in Queenstown, New Zealand. ... Lake surfing is a form of surfing that takes place primarily on the Great Lakes, where a large surface area and strong storms, particularly in the fall and winter, can produce large waves. ... Surf Ski Carnival in Alexandra Heads. ... SLSC stands for Surf Life Saving Club and are institutions at Australias beaches. ... Nippers in surf lifesaving are young Surf Lifesavers aged between 7 and 13 years old. ... This page aims to list articles related to surfing and surf culture. ... This is a list of areas associated with surfing. ... The format for each entry is: Name (birth-death), Nationality, optional brief reason for fame - maybe including link. ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... Thermohaline circulation Oceanography (from Ocean + Greek γράφειν = write), also called oceanology or marine science, is the branch of Earth Sciences that studies the Earths oceans and seas. ... Categories: Physics stubs | Physical oceanography | Waves ... The Triple Crown of Surfing has been won only once -- by the fictional Jeff Spicoli, a character in Fast Times at Ridgemont High in 1982. ...

References

  1. ^ History of Surfing Surfing for Life
  2. ^
  3. ^ SMH, Record breakers: Ready, set - now pucker up for Bosnia
  4. ^ Kotler, Steven (June 13, 2006). West of Jesus: Surfing, Science, and the Origins of Belief. Bloomsbury. ISBN 1596910518. 
  5. ^ Ocean Safety
  6. ^ The Dangers of Surfing
  7. ^ Hard Bottom Surf Dangers
  8. ^ Surf Dangers Animals

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Surfing

  Results from FactBites:
 
Surfing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2784 words)
Surfing is a surface water sport that involves the participant being carried by a breaking wave.
Tow-in surfing involves the use of motorised craft to tow the surfer onto the wave; it is associated with surfing huge waves that are extremely difficult, if not impossible, to catch by paddling alone.
These include the bathymetry of the surf break, the direction and size of the swell, the direction and strength of the wind and the ebb and flow of the tide.
surfing: Definition and Much More From Answers.com (3473 words)
Surfing is an increasingly popular recreational activity in which individuals paddle into a waves, jump to their feet, and are propelled across the water by the force of the wave.
Surfing's appeal probably derives from an unusual confluence of elements: adrenaline, skill, and high paced maneuvering are set against a naturally unpredictable backdrop—an organic environment that is, by turns, graceful and serene, violent and formidable.
This is the holy grail of surfing, where the surfer maneuvers into a position where the wave curls over the top of him or her, forming a "tube" (or "barrel"), with the rider inside the cylindrical portion of the wave.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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