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Encyclopedia > Surfactant

Surfactants, also known as tensides, are wetting agents that lower the surface tension of a liquid, allowing easier spreading, and lower the interfacial tension between two liquids. Surface tension is an effect within the surface layer of a liquid that causes that layer to behave as an elastic sheet. ... In physics, surface tension is an effect within the surface layer of a liquid that causes the layer to behave as an elastic sheet. ...

Contents

Etymology

The term surfactant is a blend of "surface active agent". Surfactants are usually organic compounds that are amphiphilic, meaning they contain both hydrophobic groups (their "tails") and hydrophilic groups (their "heads"). Therefore, they are soluble in both organic solvents and water. The term surfactant was coined by Antara Products in 1950. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Portmanteau. ... Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon and hydrogen; therefore, carbides, carbonates, carbon oxides and elementary carbon are not organic (see below for more on the definition controversy... An amphipathic (a. ... In chemistry, hydrophobic or lipophilic species, or hydrophobes, tend to be electrically neutral and nonpolar, and thus prefer other neutral and nonpolar solvents or molecular environments. ... The adjective hydrophilic describes something that likes water (from Greek hydros = water; philos = friend). ...


In Index Medicus and the United States National Library of Medicine, "surfactant" is reserved for the meaning pulmonary surfactant (see "alveoli" link below). For the more general meaning, "surface active agent" is the heading. There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), operated by the United States federal government, is the worlds largest medical library. ...


The most common, biological example of surfactant is that coating the surfaces of the Alveoli, the small air sacs of the lungs that serve as the site of gas exchange.


Operation and effects

A micelle - the lipophilic ends of the surfactant molecules dissolve in the oil, while the hydrophilic charged ends remain outside, shielding the rest of the hydrophobic micelle
A micelle - the lipophilic ends of the surfactant molecules dissolve in the oil, while the hydrophilic charged ends remain outside, shielding the rest of the hydrophobic micelle

Surfactants reduce the surface tension of water by adsorbing at the liquid-gas interface. They also reduce the interfacial tension between oil and water by adsorbing at the liquid-liquid interface. Many surfactants can also assemble in the bulk solution into aggregates. Some of these aggregates are known as micelles. The concentration at which surfactants begin to form micelles is known as the critical micelle concentration or CMC. When micelles form in water, their tails form a core that can encapsulate an oil droplet, and their (ionic/polar) heads form an outer shell that maintains favorable contact with water. When surfactants assemble in oil, the aggregate is referred to as a reverse micelle. In a reverse micelle, the heads are in the core and the tails maintain favorable contact with oil. Image File history File links MicelleSchematic. ... Image File history File links MicelleSchematic. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The adjective hydrophilic describes something that likes water (from Greek hydros = water; philos = friend). ... Adsorption is a process that occurs when a gas or liquid solute accumulates on the surface of a solid or, more rarely, a liquid (adsorbent), forming a molecular or atomic film (the adsorbate). ... Making a saline water solution by dissolving table salt (NaCl) in water This article is about chemical solutions. ... Schematic of a micelle. ...


Surfactants are also often classified into four primary groups; anionic, cationic, non-ionic, and zwitterionic (dual charge). A zwitterion (from German Zwitter — hybrid, hermaphrodite) is a compound with acidic and basic groups in the same molecule. ...


Thermodynamics of the surfactant systems are of great importance, theoretically and practically. This is because surfactant systems represent systems between ordered and disordered states of matter. Surfactant solutions may contain an ordered phase (micelles) and a disordered phase (free surfactant molecules and/or ions in the solution). Thermodynamics (from the Greek θερμη, therme, meaning heat and δυναμις, dynamis, meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics. ... Schematic of a micelle. ... This article is about the electrically charged particle. ...


Ordinary washing up (dishwashing) detergent, for example, will promote water penetration in soil, but the effect would only last a few days (although many standard laundry detergent powders contain levels of chemicals such as sodium and boron, which can be damaging to plants, so these should not be applied to soils). Commercial soil wetting agents will continue to work for a considerable period, but they will eventually be degraded by soil micro-organisms. Some can, however, interfere with the life-cycles of some aquatic organisms, so care should be taken to prevent run-off of these products into streams, and excess product should not be washed down gutters. Laundry detergents are just one of many possible uses for detergents Detergent is a compound, or a mixture of compounds, intended to assist cleaning. ... For sodium in the diet, see Edible salt. ... General Name, Symbol, Number boron, B, 5 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 13, 2, p Appearance black/brown Standard atomic weight 10. ...


Applications and sources

Surfactants play an important role in many practical applications and products, including:

Surfactants are also naturally secreted by type II cells of the lung alveoli in mammals. Laundry detergents are just one of many possible uses for detergents Detergent is a compound, or a mixture of compounds, intended to assist cleaning. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... An emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible substances. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the band, see Adhesive (band). ... An ink is a liquid containing various pigments and/or dyes used for coloring a surface to render an image or text. ... Anti-fog agents, also known as anti-fogging agents and treatments, prevent the condensation of water on a surface in the form of small droplets which resemble fog. ... Laxatives are foods, compounds, or drugs taken to induce bowel movements, most often taken to treat constipation. ... A herbicide is a pesticide used to kill unwanted plants. ... It has been suggested that ovicide be merged into this article or section. ... Fire extinguisher A fire extinguisher is a device used to put out a fire, often in an emergency situation. ... The alveoli (singular:alveolus), tiny hollow sacs which are continuous with the airways, are the sites of gas exchange with the blood. ... Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary...


Classification

A surfactant can be classified by the presence of formally charged groups in its head. A nonionic surfactant has no charge groups in its head. The head of an ionic surfactant carries a net charge. If the charge is negative, the surfactant is more specifically called anionic; if the charge is positive, it is called cationic. If a surfactant contains a head with two oppositely charged groups, it is termed zwitterionic. A zwitterion (from German Zwitter — hybrid, hermaphrodite) is a compound with acidic and basic groups in the same molecule. ...


Some commonly encountered surfactants of each type include:

An anion is an ion with negative charge. ... R-phrases S-phrases , , , Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Related strong acids Selenic acid Hydrochloric acid Nitric acid Related compounds Hydrogen sulfide Sulfurous acid Peroxymonosulfuric acid Sulfur trioxide Oleum Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... It has been suggested that Sulfonic acid/Temp be merged into this article or section. ... Structure of a carboxylic acid The 3D structure of the carboxyl group A space-filling model of the carboxyl group Carboxylic acids are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group, which has the formula -C(=O)OH, usually written -COOH or -CO2H. [1] Carboxylic acids are Bronsted... Sodium dodecyl sulfate (or sulphate) (SDS or NaDS) (C12H25NaO4S), also known as sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), is an ionic surfactant that is used in household products such as toothpastes, shampoos, shaving foams and bubble baths for its thickening effect and its ability to create a lather. ... Ammonium Lauryl Sulfate (ALS) is the common name for ammonium dodecyl sulfate (CH3(CH2)10CH2OSO3NH4). ... Sodium laureth sulfate, or sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES), is a detergent and surfactant found in many personal care products (soaps, shampoos, toothpaste etc. ... A collection of decorative soaps used for human hygiene purposes. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. ... For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ... A cation is an ion with positive charge. ... Categories: Chemistry stubs ... Cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) , aka hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide, or 1-Hexadecanaminium, N,N,N-trimethyl-, bromide[1] ([2]) is one of the components of the antiseptic cetrimide[3]. It is a cationic surfactantCitation needed. ... Cetylpyridinium chloride is a cationic quaternary ammonium compound in some types of mouthwash such as Crest Pro-Health. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... R-phrases , , S-phrases , , RTECS number BO3150000 Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Benzalkonium chloride (alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride) is a mixture of alkylbenzyl dimethylammonium chlorides of various alkyl chain lengths. ... Skeletal structure of benzethonium chloride Benzethonium chloride, also called hyamine, is a synthetic quaternary ammonium compound used as a germicide and an antimicrobial agent in cosmetics and personal care products like eg. ... A zwitterion (from German Zwitter — hybrid, hermaphrodite) is a compound with acidic and basic groups in the same molecule. ... In chemistry, an amphoteric substance is one that can react with either an acid or base (more generally, the word describes something made of, or acting like, two components). ... Cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) is a zwitterionic surfactant with a quaternary ammonium cation in its molecule. ... Poloxamers, also known by the trade name Pluronics[1], are the nonionic block copolymers composed of a central hydrophobic chain of polyoxypropylene (poly-propylene oxide) flanked by two hydrophilic chains of polyoxyethylene (poly-ethylene oxide). ... Fatty alcohols are aliphatic alcohols derived from natural fats and oils, originating in plants, but also synthesized in animals and algae. ... Cetyl alcohol, also known as 1-hexadecanol, is a solid organic compound and a member of the alcohol class of compounds. ... Oleyl alcohol is an alcohol coming from inedible beef fat, chemical formula C18H36O. It is an non-ionic, unsaturated fatty alcohol. ... Cocamide MEA Cocamide MEA, or cocamide monoethanolamine, is a pale yellow viscous clear to amber liquid, or solid flakes. ... Cocamide DEA is a diethanolamide made by reacting fatty acids in coconut oils with diethanolamine. ... Cocamide TEA Cocamide TEA, or cocamide triethanolamine, is a triethanolamide made by reacting fatty acids in coconut oils with triethanolamine. ...

See also

  • Anti-fog

  Results from FactBites:
 
Surfactant - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (466 words)
Surfactants are wetting agents that lower the surface tension of a liquid, allowing easier spreading, and lower the interfacial tension between two liquids.
Surfactants are usually organic compounds that are amphipathic, meaning they contain both hydrophobic groups (their "tails") and hydrophilic groups (their "heads").
Surfactants reduce the surface tension of water by adsorbing at the liquid-gas interface.
Pulmonary surfactant - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (795 words)
The proteins and lipids that comprise surfactant have both a hydrophilic region and a hydrophobic region.
By adsorbing to the air-water interface of alveoli with the hydrophilic headgroups in the water and the hydrophobic tails facing towards the air, the main lipd component of surfactant, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, reduces surface tension.
The remaining 10% of surfactant is comprised of proteins.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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