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Encyclopedia > Surah of Wilaya and Nurayn

Part of a series on the
Qur'an

The Qurān [1] (Arabic: ‎, literally the recitation; also called ‎ The Noble Qurān; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...

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There are two verses named Surah of Wilaya and Nurayn that are claimed to be included in the Qur'an. A Mushaf is a Arabic word that literarly means cover, as in a book cover. ... Sura (sometimes spelled as Surah) ( ) is an Arabic term literally meaning to enclose something, or to surround it with a wall. ... Ayah ( ‎ , plural Ayat ‎ ) is the Arabic word for sign or miracle. ... Quran reading is the reading (tartil, tajwid, or taghbir) aloud, reciting, chanting, or singing of portions of the Quran. ... TajwÄ«d (تجويد) is an Arabic word meaning proper pronunciation during recitation, as well as recitation at a moderate speed. ... Tarteel (Arabic: ترتيل ) is an Arabic term that is wide in meaning but is commonly translated in reference to the Quran as recitation. ... A manzil (منزل, plural manazil, منازل) is one of seven parts of roughly equal length into which the Quran is divided for the purpose of reciting the entire text in one week. ... A juz (جزء, plural ajza, اجزاء) is one of thirty parts of roughly equal length into which the Quran is divided for the purpose of reciting the entire text in one month. ... A hizb (حزب , plural ahzab,احزاب) is one half of a juz and thus comprises roughly one 60th of the text of the Quran. ... Hafiz or Hafez (Arabic: حافظ قرآن حافظ), literally meaning guardian, is a term used by Muslims for people who have completely memorized the Quran. ... Qari, literally meaning reader, is a person who recites the Quran with some sort of recitation rule (tajweed). ... Definition - Revenue per Available Seat Mile. ... Translations of the Qurán are interpretations of the holy book of Islam in languages other than Arabic. ... This is a sub-article to Translation of the Quran. ... Regarding the origin and development of the Quran, Islamic scholars proceed with the assumption that the Quran is a divine, uncreated text which is exactly the same today as when it was revealed to the Islamic prophet Muhammad. ... The Madinan suras of the Quran are those suras which were revealed at Madina, after Muhammads hijra from Makka, when the Muslims were establishing a state rather than being, as at Makka, an oppressed minority. ... The Makkan suras are the chronologically earlier suras of the Quran that were revealed at Makka. ... A tafsir ( (Arabic: تفسير) tafsÄ«r, Arabic explanation) is Quranic exegesis or commentary. ... Some of the Quranic verses are said to be revealed pertaining to some specific person. ... Justice, truth-telling, various virtues and sins the prohibition of purjury in the Quran are repeated many times: // And eat up not one another’s property unjustly (in any illegal way e. ... Asbāb al-nuzÅ«l, an Arabic term meaning occasions of revelation, is a a secondary genre of Qurānic exegesis (tafsir) directed at establishing the context in which specific verses of the Qurān were revealed. ... Naskh, an Arabic word meaning abrogation, is a technical term for a major genre of Islamic exegesis dealing with the problem of seemingly contradictory verses in the Quran. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Tahrif (Arabic: ‎ corruption, forgery; the stem-II verbal noun of the consonantal root , to make oblique) is an Arabic term used by Muslims with regard to words, and more specifically with regard to what Jews and Christians are supposed to have done to their respective Scriptures. ... Bakkah (Arabic: ‎) is a place mentioned in surah 3:96 of the Quran. ... A tree diagram of the Quranic initial letters, labelled with the respective numbers of occurrences. ... An esoteric interpretation of the Qur’an is an interpretation of the Qur’an which includes attribution of esoteric or mystic meanings to the text by the interpretater and in this aspect its method is different from the conventional exegesis of the Qur’an called tafsir. ... Quran and Sunnah is an often quoted Islamic term regarding the sources of Islam. ... Ibn Baz was a follower of the Muslim scholars Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab and Ibn Taymiyya; he belonged to that current of Muslim thought sometimes called Salafism and sometimes called Wahabbism. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... This is a sub-article to Shia Islam and Quran The Shia view of the Quran has some differences from the Sunni view. ... This is a sub-article to Criticism of Islam and Quran. ... Quran desecration means insulting the Quran, the holy book of Islam, by defiling or disfacing it. ... For the novel by Salman Rushdie, see The Satanic Verses. ... Tanazzulat, or descents (Arabic تنزلات, plural of Tanazzul, تنزل), refers to the act of descent of the pre-existing Quran through different Realms. ... The Qisas al-anbiya (قصص الأنبياء) or Stories of the Prophets refers to various collections of tales adapted from the Quran. ... Beit Al Quran, Hoora Beit Al Quran (Arabic: بيت القرآن) means House of Quran in Arabic. ... The Qurān [1] (Arabic: ‎, literally the recitation; also called ‎ The Noble Qurān; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...

Contents

Etymology

Surat al-nurayn (or al-nurain or al-nuray) (Arabic: سورة النورين ), meaning "the chapter of the light/radiant" Noor may refer to: An Arabic name, common among royalty The Arabic term for light (نور) Queen Noor of Jordan Noor Jahan, a Mughal Empress Noor Jehan, Pakistani actress/singer Noor Actress, actress Princess Noor Inyat Khan, a descendant of Tipu Sultan The city of Noor in northern Iran in the... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ...


Surat al-wilaya (Arabic: سورة الولاية ), meaning "the chapter of mastership" Wali (Arabic ولي, plural Awliya أولياء, Persian/Turkish pronunciation Vali), is an Arabic word, meaning protector or guardian (most literally etymologically near one), also adopted in various other Islamic cultures. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ...


Controversy

Neither Shi'a nor Sunni Muslim believe those surahs are included in the Qur'an, but some have claimed that the Shi'a do indeed believe those surahs to be an authentic part of the Qur'an and include them therein (in what has been dubbed the Shi'a Quran). However, many Shi'a dismiss this as unfounded accusations aimed at accusing Shi'as of believing in the corruption of the Qur'an. No copy of the Quran exists with the addition of these two surahs and there is no mention of them found in any of the earliest codices of the Quran and Hadith. The author of text on the other hand is said to be have been a Parsi according to some academics. [1] On the other hand, M. Momen states that: A codex (Latin for book; plural codices) is a handwritten book from late Antiquity or the Middle Ages. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A Parsi (Gujarati: Pārsī, IPA: ), sometimes spelled Parsee, is a member of the close-knit Zoroastrian community based in the Indian subcontinent. ...

With regards to the question of the text of the Qur'an, it has already been noted that the early Shi'is believed that the Qur'an has been altered and parts of it has been suppressed. The Nawbakhtis are said to have adhered to this view although it went against their usual position of agreeing with Mu'tazili thought. The compiler of the earliest, authoritative collection of Twelver Traditions, al-Kulyani, seems to have given some substance to this view in several of the Traditions that he relates. Ibn Babuya, however, takes the position that the text of the Qur'an is complete and unaltered. Al-Mufid appears to have wavered somewhat on this point during his lifetime. He seems to have accepted the fact that parts of the Qur'an had been excised by the enemies of the Imams in some of his early writings, although he refused even then to state that anything had been added. In his later writings, however, al-Mufid had reinterpreted the concept of omissions from the text of the Qur'an to mean that the text of the Qur'an is complete (although he does allow that the order needs to be changed) but that what has been omitted is the authoritative interpretation of the text by `Ali. In this manner, al-Mufid and most subsequent Shi'i writers were able to fall into line with the rest of the Islamic world in accepting the text of the Qur'an as contained in the recension of `Uthman.[2]

Western Academics such as von Grunebaum view the text as a clear forgery, although many of them haven't subscribed to the idea that the text was indeed a forgery made by a Zoroastrian and not a Shia. [3] Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ...


These surahs have also been used in argument against Muslims by Christian apologetics to prove that the Qur'an has been altered, although many such apologetics have switched their stance from "this proves the Quran was altered" to "this proves that others can bring verses similar to the Quran."[4] St. Clare Tisdal writes on the matter though, essentially saying that both of these claims are erroneous:

"The reader (of the original Arabic especially) is irresistibly led to the conclusion that the whole of these additions, - with the possible exception of Sura al-Nurain, - are forgeries. The style is imitated from the Koran, but not always very successfully. There are some grammatical errors, unless these are due to the transcriber. Occasionally the meaning which the context shews to be that in which a word is used is later than the time to which the Koran belongs. The verses are largely, however, centos of Koranic passages taken from their context. The amount of repetition shews the writer's determination to prove what he wished to prove at all costs."

These are the qoutations of some of the most authentic Shi'a scholars: Shaikh Saduq: Mohammad ibn-Ali ibn-e Babuyeh , ( who is known as Sheikh Saduq and ibn-e Babuyeh) (306- 381 A.H) in Qom. ...

"Our belief is that the Qur’an is what is between the two covers and it is what is in people’s hands, nothing more. Whosoever attributes to us that we say rather than this is a liar[5]."

Sayyed Murtaza:

"The knowledge of authentic transmission of the Qur’an is like the knowledge of great countries and events, prominent accidents, famous books and written Arabic poetry for care is intensified and causes are available to properly transmit and guard it, and it reached such an extent that nothing else has ever reached. The Qur’an was, during the lifetime of Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him), compiled and arranged until the Prophet (peace be upon him) assigned a group of Companions (Sahaba) to memorize it. It was displayed and recited before the Prophet (peace be upon him) and some Companions as Abdullah Ibn Mas’ood and Ubai Ibn Ka’b recited the whole Qur’an many times before the Prophet (peace be upon him). All this indicates that it was compiled and arranged, neither amputated nor scattered ……. Who disagreed among the Imamiyyah and Al-Hashawiyyah (two Shi’ite sects) are not to be considered for disagreement is attributed to some traditionists who related weak reports whom they believed to be true. However, such reports cannot refute what is already known and agreed upon its authenticity[6]. Twelvers ( Ithnāˤashariyyah) are those Shiˤa Muslims who believe there were twelve Imāms, as distinct from Ismaili & Zaidi Shiite Muslims, who believe in a different number of Imams or in a different path of succession. ...

Shaikh Tusi or Sheikh-ut-Ta’fa (i.e., Authority of the Sect):

"Talking about it being increased or decreased is unacceptable because increasing is agreed upon its falsehood. As for decreasing, different Muslim sects are apparently against it and this matches the authentic belief of our sect and was affirmed by Al-Murtada (may Allah be pleased with him). This is explicit in various reports, however, some reports were related about decreasing parts of it and moving parts from place to place, but they are loner reports and do not indicate decisive knowledge. So, it prior to ignore them and quit being preoccupied with them because they cannot be interpreted. Even if they were authentic, it would not be against what is between the two covers for its authenticity is well known and none among the Ummah objects to or rejects it. Our reports agree upon reading it, holding by it and displaying any disagreement in branches before it, whatever agrees with it is accepted and whatever disagrees is rejected. An irrefutable tradition is reported on authority of the Prophet (peace be upon him) that he says: “I’m leaving in you the two weights (Ath-Thuqlain) by whom if you hold by, you will never be lost: Allah’s Book and my family, the inhabitants of my house. They will never separate till they join me in the Hawd”. This indicates that it is present every time because he cannot command us to hold by it if it is corrupted[7]"

However, all the Qur'ans published in all the Shi'a countries such as Iran are the same as those published in Sunni countries. Shi’ites recite the Qur’an according to the Qira’t of Hafs on authority of ‘Asim which is the prevalent Qira’t in the Islamic world. [8]


More on both the Islamic (Shia and Sunni) as well as non-Islamic academic perspectives: M S M Saifullah, "Surah al-Walayah & Surah al-Nurayn: Their Authenticity & Literary Style" Islamic-Awareness.org


Surat al-wilaya

  • Translation of the text:

On the name of the all merciful God


1. You who are believers, believe in the prophet and the saint (patron, God-man) "which is Ali Bin Abi Taleb, Mohammed cousin" which we sent, they will guide you to the strait path.


2. A prophet and a saint "belong to" each other, and I am the all knowing, the experienced.


3. Those who do (obey) God's covenant they "deserve" comforting paradises.


4. And those who if it read to them our verses, they contradict it.


[Meaning: If somebody (unknown) were to read the verses (from the Qur'an) to them, they would reject it.]


5. They have a great (big) place in Hell, if they called in the day of judgement: where is the unfair, the contradictory for the messengers ?!


6. The messengers don't leave them "without" the truth, and God "will not allow them" to win (appear, show) till a short time.


7. Praise your lord "and" thank "him", and Ali "Ali Bin Abi Taleb, Mohammed cousin" "one" from the witnesses.


Surat al–nurayn

The translation of the text reads: "O you who believe, believe in the two lights. He has revealed them unto you, warning you against the torture of the Great Day -- two lights emanating from one another, for I am the All-Hearing and the All-Knowing. Truly those who fulfill Allah's pledge and his Apostle's verses shall be rewarded with Paradise. Those who disbelieve by breaking their covenant and what they have pledged to do before the Apostle shall be thrown into hell, for they did injustice to themselves and disobeyed the supporter of the Apostle. Therefore, they shall be caused to drink from the Hamim River in hell. Truly Allah is the light of heaven and the earth as he wills, and he has chosen his angels and apostles and made believers of those whom he created. All do whatever he wills. There is no god but him -- the Merciful and the Compassionate. Those who came before them cheated their apostles, and so I have stricken them with my cunningness vehemently and painfully. O Apostle! Preach my admonition, for they shall know. Those who fulfill their pledge to you are likened to me to be rewarded by Paradise. Truly Ali is one of the pious. We have sent Moses and Aaron, being appointed his successor, yet they disobeyed Aaron. Be of good patience! They will become old. We have given you judgment, just as we did to other apostles before you. We have appointed a guardian to you from them, that they might return. Truly Ali is devout, lying prostrate at night, warning as regards the Last Day, and hoping for the mercy of his Lord. Say: "Should those who act unjustly be treated equally, while they know my torture?"


References

  1. ^ "Dabestan-E-Madaheb", Encyclopaedia Iranica, 1993, op. cit., pp. 533-534; Also see M. M. Marcinkowski, "Some Reflections On Alleged Twelver Shi'ite Attitude Towards The Integrity Of The Qur'an", The Muslim World, 2001, Volume 91, p. 142.
  2. ^ M. Momen, An Introduction To Shi'i Islam: The History and Doctrines of Twelver Shi'ism, 1985, George Ronald: Oxford, p. 173
  3. ^ "Note For The Study Of A Shi'i Qur'an", Journal of Semitic Studies, 1991, p. 282
  4. ^ http://answering-islam.org/Quran/Miracle/index.html
  5. ^ Is the Qur’an Corrupted? Sheikh As-Sadouq, "Al-I'tiqadat", Volume 1, page 57.
  6. ^ At-Tabarasi, "Majma'-ul-Bayan", Volume 1, page 15
  7. ^ "Tafsir-us-Safi", Volume 1, page 55
  8. ^ [http://www.geocities.com/noorullahwebsite/shiites.html Is the Qur’an Corrupted? Shi’ites’ View]

See also

Tahrif (Arabic: ‎ corruption, forgery; the stem-II verbal noun of the consonantal root , to make oblique) is an Arabic term used by Muslims with regard to words, and more specifically with regard to what Jews and Christians are supposed to have done to their respective Scriptures. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ...

External links

  • Is the Qur’an Corrupted?Shi’ites’ View

 
 

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