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Encyclopedia > Surabaya
Surabaya
The heroic monument
The heroic monument
Official seal of Surabaya
Seal
Surabaya (Indonesia)
Surabaya
Location of Surabaya in Indonesia
Coordinates: 7°14′0″S 112°44′0″E / -7.23333, 112.73333
Country Indonesia
Province East Java
Area
 - Total 459.50 km² (177.4 sq mi)
Elevation m (16 ft)
Population (2007)
 - Total 4,840,237
Time zone WIB (UTC+7)
Website: surabaya.go.id

Surabaya (formerly Soerabaja) is Indonesia's second-largest city, and the capital of the province of East Java. It is located on the northern shore of eastern Java at the mouth of the Mas River and at the side of the Madura Strait. Known as the city of heroes, because of its heroic role in the history of Indonesia. In 2007, the population of the city is approximately 5 million. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... File links The following pages link to this file: Surabaya ... Image File history File links Indonesia_blank_map. ... Image File history File links Red_pog2. ... East Java (Indonesian: Jawa Timur) is a province of Indonesia. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Elevation histogram of the surface of the Earth – approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered with water. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... In Indonesia, the keeping of standard time is divided into three time zones: Indonesian Western Standard Time (Indonesian: Waktu Indonesia Barat/WIB) (UTC+7) WIB is observed in islands of Sumatra, Java, provinces of West Kalimantan and Central Kalimantan Indonesian Central Standard Time (Waktu Indonesia Tengah/WITA) (UTC+8) WITA... UTC+7 is used in: Laos Thailand Cambodia Vietnam External links Find cities currently in UTC+7 Category: ... The province (Indonesian: provinsi) is the highest tier of local government subnational entity in Indonesia. ... East Java (Indonesian: Jawa Timur) is a province of Indonesia. ... This article is about the Java island. ... The Madura Strait (Selat Madura) is a narrow stretch of water that separates the Indonesian islands of Java and Madura. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


The city is one of the busiest ports in the country. Its principal exports include sugar, tobacco and coffee. It has a large shipyard, and numerous specialized naval schools. This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely traded commodity. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ... For other uses, see Coffee (disambiguation). ... Small shipyard in Klaksvík (Faroe Islands), reparing fishing vessels Fish ladder and shipyard in Grave, the Netherlands Construction hall of Schichau Seebeck Shipyard, Bremerhaven Gdynia Shipyard Shipyards and dockyards are places which repair and build ships. ...

Contents

Etymology

Surabaya is commonly said to derive its name from the words sura or suro (shark) and baya or boyo (crocodile), two creatures which, in a local myth, fought each other in order to gain the title of "the strongest and most powerful animal" in the area according to a Jayabaya prophecy. This prophecy tells about a big fight between a giant white shark and a giant white crocodile in seizing the city upstream. Now the two animals are used as the city's logo, the two facing each other while circling the city's monument, the Tugu Pahlawan (Heroes' monument). This folk etymology, though embraced enthusiastically by city leaders, is somewhat dubious. Alternate derivations proliferate: e.g. from the Javanese sura ing baya, meaning "bravely facing danger". Some people consider this Jayabaya prophecy as a great war between Surabaya native people and invaders in 1945, while another story is about two heroes that fought each other in order to be the king of the city. The two heroes were Sura and Baya. For other uses, see Shark (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Crocodile (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ... Sri Mapanji Jayabaya reigned over the kingdom of Kediri in East Java from 1135 to 1157 AD. He reunified Java after a split that occurred with the death of his predecessor Airlangga. ...


History

Map of Surabaya from an 1897 English travel guide
Map of Surabaya from an 1897 English travel guide

In the fifteenth and sixteenth century, Surabaya was a sultanate and a major political and military power in eastern Java. It entered a conflict with, and was later captured by, the more powerful Sultanate of Mataram in 1625 under Sultan Agung. It was one of Mataram's fiercest campaigns, in which they had to conquer Surabaya's allies, Sukadana and Madura and to lay siege to the city before capturing it. With this conquest, Mataram then controlled almost the whole of Java, with the exception of the Sultanate of Banten and the Dutch settlement of Batavia. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (895x1364, 335 KB) Summary Map of Surabaya, Indonesia, from Guide to the Dutch East Indies by Dr. J.F. van Bemmelen and G.B. Hoover, Luzac & Co, London 1897. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (895x1364, 335 KB) Summary Map of Surabaya, Indonesia, from Guide to the Dutch East Indies by Dr. J.F. van Bemmelen and G.B. Hoover, Luzac & Co, London 1897. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Sultan (disambiguation). ... Mataram was the last major independent Javanese empire on Java before the island was colonized by the Dutch. ... Events March 27 - Prince Charles Stuart becomes King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... Sultan Agung of Mataram Ruler of Mataram, 1613-1645. ... Madura is an Indonesian island off the northeastern coast of Java, near the port of Surabaya. ... A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... The Banten Sultanate (Indonesian: Kasultanan Banten) was a sultanate in Banten, founded in the sixteenth century. ... Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ...


The expanding East Indies Companies took the city over from a weakened Mataram in November 1743. Surabaya became a major trading center under the Dutch colonial government, and hosted the largest naval base in the colony. VOC is a three-letter abbreviation with multiple meanings, as described below: A historic trade organization (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie); see Dutch East India Company A group of chemical compounds; see Volatile Organic Compounds Vehicle operating costs Voice of the customer Creative Voice file, a proprietary audio format developed by Creative... // Events February 14 - Henry Pelham becomes British Prime Minister February 21 - - The premiere in London of George Frideric Handels oratorio, Samson. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In 1917 a revolt occurred amongst the soldiers and sailors of Surabaya, led by the Indies Social Democratic Association. The revolt was firmly crushed and the insurgents given harsh sentences. 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... The Communist Party of Indonesia (in Bahasa Indonesia: Partai Komunis Indonesia, PKI) was a communist party in Indonesia. ...


During World War II Surabaya was captured by the Japanese in 1942, until the Allies bombed it in 1944. After that it was seized by Indonesian nationalists. However, the young nation was soon put into conflict with the Allied-backed Dutch who tried to retake their colony. The Battle of Surabaya was one of the most important battles of the Indonesian revolution. It was started after British Brigadier General Mallaby was killed in October 30, 1945 near Jembatan Merah (the "Red Bridge"). The Allies gave an ultimatum to the Indonesian freedom fighters inside the city to surrender, but this was refused. The ensuing battle took place on 10 November, nowadays celebrated as Heroes' Day (Hari Pahlawan). Because of prolonged international pressure, the Dutch transferred sovereignty of Indonesian in December 1949. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Combatants  Indonesia  United Kingdom  Netherlands Commanders Bung Tomo Brig. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The city

Eastern suburbs of Surabaya, overlooking the Strait of Madura
Eastern suburbs of Surabaya, overlooking the Strait of Madura

As the main seaport and commercial center in the eastern region of Indonesia, Surabaya has become one of the largest cities in Southeast Asia. Today, Surabaya's population is around three million, and the surrounding metropolitan area houses at least 5 million. The areas surrounding Surabaya include Lamongan to the northwest, Gresik to the west, Bangkalan to the northeast, Sidoarjo to the south, and Mojokerto and Jombang to the southwest. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x378, 267 KB) Ringkasan Eastern sub-urban of Surabaya, overlooking Strait of Madura. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x378, 267 KB) Ringkasan Eastern sub-urban of Surabaya, overlooking Strait of Madura. ... Lamongan is a regency (kabupaten) of East Java, Indonesia. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Bangkalan Regency is a regency (Indonesian: kabupaten) of East Java province in Indonesia. ... Sidoarjo is a regency (kabupaten) of East Java, Indonesia. ... Mojokerto is one of the districts in East Java Province, Indonesia. ... Jombang is a regency in East Java, Indonesia. ...


Currently, the Indonesian government is building the Suramadu Bridge between Surabaya and the island of Madura; when completed, it will be the longest bridge in the country. Madura is currently accessible by a ferry service that operates regularly from Surabaya's port, Tanjung Perak (which literally means: "Silver Cape" in Indonesian). The Suramadu Bridge (Jembatan Suramadu), also known as the Surabaya-Madura Bridge, is a cable-stayed bridge currently under construction between Surabaya on the island of Java and the town of Bangkalan on the island of Madura in Indonesia. ... Madura is an Indonesian island off the northeastern coast of Java, near the port of Surabaya. ... The ferryboat Dongan Hills, filled with commuters, about to dock at a New York City pier, circa 1945. ...


Surabaya is home to the Eastern Armada, one of two in the Indonesian Navy. Its strong maritime heritage is also reflected with the Submarine Monument, a real retired Russian submarine, called Pasopati, that was converted into a museum ship in the city centre. Jalaseva Jayamahe On the Sea We Are Glorious The Indonesian Navy (Indonesian: Tentara Nasional Indonesia Angkatan Laut, TNI-AL) is the territorial force responsible for the patrol of Indonesias immense coastline. ... USS Wisconsin, one of three Iowa class battleships opened to the public as a museum, and was one of two Iowas maintained in the US Mothball fleet. ...


Flooding is common in many areas of the city during the rainy season, mostly caused by clogged sewers and inept bureaucracy. The fact that Surabaya is located in a river delta and has a flat and relatively low elevation doesn't help the matter either. Flooding in Amphoe Sena, Ayutthaya Province, Thailand. ... A sewer is an artificial conduit or system of conduits used to remove sewage (human liquid waste) and to provide drainage. ... Nile River delta, as seen from Earth orbit. ...


Surabaya is the location of the only synagogue in Indonesia, although it is currently inactive.[1][2] A synagogue (from , transliterated synagogē, assembly; beit knesset, house of assembly; or beit tefila, house of prayer, shul; , esnoga) is a Jewish house of worship. ...


Surabaya's zoo, opened in 1916, was the first in the world to have successfully bred orangutans in captivity. Giraffes in Sydneys Taronga Zoo A zoological garden, zoological park, or zoo is a facility in which animals are confined within enclosures and displayed to the public, and in which they may also be bred. ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the primate. ...


Other points of interest include:

  • Grand Mosque of Surabaya, the largest mosque in East Java
  • Cheng Ho Mosque, the first mosque in Indonesia built with a Chinese style architecture
  • Jales Veva Jaya Mahe Monument, a large, admiral-like statue which commemorates the Indonesian Navy
  • Mpu Tantular Museum, has a large collection of ancient Javanese artifacts

Surabaya has 31 subdistricts. They are: Genteng, Bubutan, Tegalsari, Simokerto, Tambaksari, Gubeng, Krembangan, Semampir, Pabean Cantikan, Wonokromo, Sawahan, Tandes, Karang Pilang, Wonocolo, Rungkut, Sukolilo, Kenjeran, Benowo, Lakarsantri, Mulyorejo, Tenggilis Mejoyo, Gunung Anyar, Jambangan, Gayungan, Wiyung, Dukuh Pakis, Asem Rowo, Sukomanunggal, Bulak, Pakal and Sambikerep.[3] A modern illustration of Zheng He, by an unidentified artist. ... For other uses, see Admiral (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In archaeology, an artifact or artefact is any object made or modified by a human culture, and often one later recovered by some archaeological endeavor. ... A subdistrict (kecamatan) is a subdivision of a regency (kabupaten) or city (kota) in Indonesia. ...


Surabays consists of 163 villages.[4] A village (kelurahan/desa) is the lowest level of administrative division in Indonesia. ...


Transport

The city is served by Juanda International Airport. The Airport is located in Sidoarjo Region, not in Surabaya City. Juanda International Airport (Indonesian: ) (IATA: SUB, ICAO: WARR), is an airport located in Sidoarjo, a small town near Surabaya, East Java. ... Sidoarjo is a regency (kabupaten) of East Java, Indonesia. ...


Demographics

Surabaya is the second most populous city in Indonesia, after Jakarta. The city is highly urbanized, due to the many industries located in the city, and as a result, there is also a large slum area. As the main education centre, Surabaya has been the home for many students from around Indonesia, thus they have created their own community. Also, Surabaya is the main commercial regionally, hence many outsiders live in Surabaya. Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ...


Ethnicity

Most of its population are of Javanese descent. Madurese is largest minority, from nearby Madura Island and eastern part of East Java. Notable minorities include Chinese Indonesians and Arab Indonesians. The Javanese are an ethnic group native to the Indonesian island of Java. ... The Madurese are an ethnic group originally from the island of Madura but now found in many parts of Indonesia, where they are the third-largest ethnic group by population. ... For other uses, see Madura (disambiguation). ... Chinese Indonesians (Mandarin: Yìndùníxīyà Huárén (Traditional: 印度尼西亞華人, Simplified: 印度尼西亚华人) Hakka: Thong ngin, Min: Teng lang, Indonesian: Tionghoa Indonesia, or (derisively) Cina totok) are ethnically Chinese people living in Indonesia, as a result of centuries of overseas Chinese migration. ...


Language

Most citizens speak a unique dialect of Javanese called Surabayan. This dialect is noted for equality and directness in speech. The usage of register is less strict than the Central Javan dialect. The Surabaya dialect is actively promoted in local media, such as in local TV shows, radio and traditional dramas called Ludruk. The Madurese language influences the Surabayan dialect of Javanese spoken in the streets. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Register or registration may mean: Registration (or licensing) is required of a number of occupations and professions where maintenance of standards is required to protect public safety. ... Central Java (Indonesian: Jawa Tengah) is a province of Indonesia. ... Madurese is the spoken language of people from Madura island in Indonesia; it is also spoken on Kangean Islands, Sapudi Islands, and in parts of province of East Java. ...


Religion

Islam is the main religion in Surabaya. Other religions include Christianity,Catholic, Hinduism, Konghucu, Buddhism, and relegions of jawa (kejawen). For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages)[1] is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Zong Xu - The emblem of MATAKIN. Established in 1955, The Supreme Council for Kongzi Religion in Indonesia (Majelis Tinggi Agama Konghucu Indonesia or MATAKIN), is a religious organization to promote the development of the teaching of Confucius. ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ...


Sports

Surabaya have a soccer team, Persebaya Surabaya. Persebaya Surabaya (Persatuan Sepakbola Surabaya) is an Indonesian soccer team located in Surabaya, East Java. ...


Education

Surabaya has several major universities and other institutions with religious or technical specialties. One of them is Airlangga University (Unair), the oldest and largest public university in eastern Java, with eleven departments in a variety of fields, including an especially well-regarded medical school and psychology department Airlangga University is one of the oldest state universities in Indonesia. ...


The Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember is one of the country's most selective technology institutions, and is well-known for its robotics, mechanical engineering, and marine engineering programs. Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, (November 10 Institute of Technology, ITS), is a technological institution located in Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia. ...


As one of the Indonesian military's major naval ports, Surabaya is the site of the national Naval Military Academy. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Sister relationships

Surabaya has sister relationships with a number of towns worldwide: Sign denoting twin towns of Neckarsulm, Germany Town twinning is a concept whereby towns or cities in geographically and politically distinct areas are paired with the goal of fostering human contact and cultural links. ...

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Seattle redirects here. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Kōchi (高知市 Kōchi-shi) is the capital city of Kochi on the Shikoku island of Japan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... Mashhad (Persian: , literally the place of martyrdom) is the second largest city in Iran and one of the holiest cities in the Shiah world. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Korea. ... Busan Metropolitan City, also known as Pusan[1] is the largest port city in the Republic of Korea. ...

References

  1. ^ The Synagogue of Surabaya, Indonesia
  2. ^ The Jews of Surabaya, by Jessica Champagne and Teuku Cut Mahmud Aziz.
  3. ^ Surabaya City Regulation No. 5 2006
  4. ^ Surabaya City Regulation No. 5 2006

External links

Indonesia Portal

  Results from FactBites:
 
Surabaya - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (973 words)
Surabaya (formerly Soerabaja) is Indonesia's second-largest city, and the capital of the province of East Java.
The areas surrounding Surabaya include Lamongan to the northwest, Gresik to the west, Bangkalan to the northeast, Sidoarjo to the south, and Mojokerto and Jombang to the southwest.
Surabaya's zoo, opened in 1916, was the first in the world to have successfully bred orangutans in captivity.
Surabaya - Search Results - ninemsn Encarta (90 words)
Surabaya (Dutch, Soerabaja), city in southern Indonesia, the capital of East Java Province.
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Born in Surabaya on Java, on June 6, 1901, Sukarno graduated from the Bandung Technical College in 1925.
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