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Encyclopedia > Supreme Federal Tribunal
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Brazil

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Politics and government of
Brazil
Politics, sometimes defined as the art and science of government. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Brazil is a federal republic with 26 states and a federal district (see: States of Brazil). ...

See also List of Presidents of Brazil The President of the Federal Republic of Brazil is the head of state and head of government of Brazil. ... This is a list of President of Brazil. ... Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (born October 6, 1945) is a left-wing Brazilian politician. ... Brazils bicameral National Congress (Portuguese: Congresso Nacional) consists of the Federal Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. ... Brazils bicameral National Congress (Portuguese: Congresso Nacional) consists of the Federal Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. ... National Congress of Brazil - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... This article lists political parties in Brazil. ... Brazil elects on the national level a head of state – the president – and a legislature. ... Since 1994, as a result of a constitutional amendment which reduced the presidential term to four years, all federal and state elections in Brazil have coincided. ... There are serious issues in regard to abuses of human rights in Brazil. ... Traditionally, Brazil has been a leader in the inter-American community and has played an important role in collective security efforts, as well as in economic cooperation in the Western Hemisphere. ...

The Supreme Federal Tribunal (in Portuguese Supremo Tribunal Federal, or simply STF) is the highest court of law of the Federative Republic of Brazil.


The court functions as a last resort tribunal and a Constitutional Court; its rulings therefore cannot be appealed. It can also overturn laws passed by the Congress. This happens when the court judges a direct action of unconstitucionality, Ação direta de Inconstitucionalidade or Adin. Brazils bicameral National Congress (Portuguese: Congresso Nacional) consists of the Federal Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. ...


The members of the court, who are called ministers (ministro), are appointed by the President and approved by the Senate. They serve until compulsory retirement, at 70 years old. See also List of Presidents of Brazil The President of the Federal Republic of Brazil is the head of state and head of government of Brazil. ... Brazils bicameral National Congress (Portuguese: Congresso Nacional) consists of the Federal Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. ...

Contents


History

The court was inaugurated in 1808, the year that the Portuguese royal family arrived in Rio de Janeiro, with the name of House of Appeals of Brazil, Case de Suplicação do Brazil. It changed its name in 1829 to Supreme Justice Tribunal, Supremo Tribunal de Justiça. With the first Constitution of the Republic, the court received its current name. 1808 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Look up monarch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary A monarch (see sovereign) is a type of ruler or head of state. ... Ipanema beach, in the South Zone, immortalised by Tom Jobim and Vinicius de Morais song The Girl from Ipanema Rio de Janeiro (meaning River of January in Portuguese), pron. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1829 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The number of members has changed through history. The Constitution of 1891 decided that the court would have 15 members. When Getúlio Vargas came into power, the number of members was reduced to 11. It changed to 16 in 1965, but returned to 11 in 1969. It has not changed ever since. Getúlio Dornelles Vargas (April 19, 1882 - August 24, 1954) was the president of Brazil from 1930 to 1945 and from 1950 to his suicide in 1954. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ...


Of all Presidents only one, Café Filho, has not nominated a minister. João Café Filho (February 3, 1899 - February 20, 1970). ...


Current

The court is composed by the following ministers (year of nomination and president that nominated in brackets):

  • President Nelson Jobim (1997 by Fernando Henrique Cardoso)(Compulsory retirement in 2016)
  • Vice-President Ellen Gracie (2000 by Fernando Henrique Cardoso)(Compulsory retirement in 2018)
  • Sepúlveda Pertence (1989 by José Sarney) (Compulsory retirement in 2007)
  • Celso de Mello (1989 by José Sarney)(Compulsory retirement in 2015)
  • Marco Aurélio (1990 by Fernando Collor) (Compulsory retirement in 2016)
  • Gilmar Mendes (2002 by Fernando Henrique Cardoso)(Compulsory retirement in 2025)
  • Cezar Peluso (2003 by Lula)(Compulsory retirement in 2012)
  • Carlos Britto (2003 by Lula)(Compulsory retirement in 2012)
  • Joaquim Barbosa (2003 by Lula)(Compulsory retirement in 2024)
  • Eros Grau (2004 by Lula)(Compulsory retirement in 2010)
  • Ricardo Lewandowski (2006 by Lula)(Compulsory retirement in 2018)

The president has a two-years term, which cannot be renewed. When the president steps down, by convention, the most senior member who has not been president yet, who, also by convention, is the vice-president, is elected president of the STF. Following these conventions, the next president will be minister Ellen Gracie, who, as well as being the first female minister, will also become the first female president. Fernando Henrique Cardoso (born June 18, 1931) was the president of the Federative Republic of Brazil from January 1, 1995 to January 1, 2003. ... Ellen Gracie is the first female to be assigned to Brazilian Supreme Court, Supremo Tribunal Federal. ... LADRÃO SAFADO ... Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (pron. ...


Nelson Jobim has already resigned; and his last day in court was February 27, 2006. It is presumed that he will run in the presidential race. Minister Sepulveda Pertence is also expected to retire. This will enable president Lula to nominate the majority of the court. February 27 is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Since 1994, as a result of a constitutional amendment which reduced the presidential term to four years, all federal and state elections in Brazil have coincided. ...


2006

There are four main cases put to the STF vote in 2006: The first is to determine if the abortion of a fetus with no brain is legal. The second is to define if embryonic stem cell research is constitutional or not. The third is to decide over the legality of the postal service monopoly. Finally, the fourth is to determine the constitutionality of the National Council of Justice ruling that banned nepotism from the Judiciary. Fetus at eight weeks Foetus redirects here. ... Anencephaly is a cephalic disorder that results from a neural tube defect that occurs when the cephalic (head) end of the neural tube fails to close, usually between the 23rd and 26th day of pregnancy, resulting in the absence of a major portion of the brain, skull, and scalp. ... Mouse embryonic stem cells. ... Nepotism means favoring relatives or personal friends because of their relationship rather than because of their abilities. ...


Critics

Critics claim that the STF bases most of its decisions in a political way. With the recent Mensalão scandal, former chief of staff José Dirceu requested various writs to halt his expulsion process. Three ministers voted in favour of Dirceu in all writs: Sepúlveda Pertence, Eros Grau and then-president Nelson Jobim. Wikinews has news related to: Political crisis in Brazil Dollars found in the underwear of the adviser to deputy José Nobre Guimarães (PT) The Mensalão scandal, known in Brazil as the escândalo do mensalão, dominated the politics of Brazil in 2005 and currently threatens to bring... José Dirceu and his wife Maria Rita. ...


It is also said that various ministers had electoral pretensions. Former minister, and former judge of the International Court of Justice, Francisco Rezek resigned to become minister of foreign affairs, and after some months returned to the court. Former minister Maurício Corrêa admited the possibility of being a candidate to a state government while he was a minister. Both ministers Pertence and Jobim are rumored to be potential presidential candidates. Peace Palace, seat of the ICJ. The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations. ... Francisco Rezek (born January 18, 1944) is a Brazilian judge and a Member of the International Court of Justice based in The Hague, Netherlands. ...


Recently, minister Nelson Jobim has been criticised by the press, that claims he has been taking decisions that clearly favour president Lula, in an attempt to run for vice-president as Lula's running mate.


Changes


Recently, senator Jefferson Peres annouced a project of constitutional amendment that changes the way that ministers of the court are nominated. The senator suggests that the magistrates and judges elect two nominees, the attorney other two and the lawyers complete the list with two other nominations. The STF, then, elects one, who will then be nominated by the president.


References

  • Official website

 
 

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