FACTOID # 26: Delaware is the latchkey kid capital of America, with 71.8% of households having both parents in the labor force.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Supreme Court

In some countries, provinces and states, the Supreme Court functions as a Court of Last Resort whose rulings cannot be challenged. However, in some jurisdictions other phrases are used to describe the highest courts. There are also some jurisdictions where the supreme court is not the highest court. The Supreme Court has national and last authority to authorize any bills etc. The Supreme Court can also be the judge, jury, and court in a trial. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Although some countries and subordinate states follow the American model of having a supreme court that interprets that jurisdiction's constitution, others follow the Austrian model of a separate constitutional court (first developed in the Czechoslovak constitution and Austrian Constitution of 1920). Furthermore, in e.g. Finland, Sweden, Czech republic and Poland, there is a separate Supreme Administrative Court whose decisions are final and whose jurisdiction does not overlap with the Supreme Court. A Constitutional Court is a high court found in many countries which deals primary with constitutional law. ... Czechoslovakia in 1928 The independence of Czechoslovakia was proclaimed on October 28, 1918, by the Czechoslovak National Council in Prague. ... The Constitution of Austria or sterreichisches Bundes-Verfassungsgesetz (B-VG) is one of the chartas governing political life in the Republic of Austria. ... Motto: (Czech) Truth prevails Anthem:  Czech Republic() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() [] Capital (and largest city) Prague Official languages Czech Demonym Czech Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Václav Klaus  -  Prime Minister Mirek Topolánek Independence (formed 9th century)   -  October 28, 1918   -  January 1, 1993  EU accession May... The Supreme Administrative Court of Poland (Polish: Naczelny SÄ…d Administracyjny) is the court of last resort in administrative cases i. ...


Many higher courts create through their decisions case law applicable within their respective jurisdictions or interpret codal provisions in civil law countries to maintain a uniform interpretation: Case law (also known as decisional law) is that body of reported judicial opinions in countries that have common law legal systems that are published and thereby become precedent, i. ... A civil code is a systematic compilation of laws designed to comprehensively deal with the core areas of private law. ... For other uses of civil law, see civil law. ...

  • Most civil law nations do not have the official doctrine of stare decisis and hence the rulings of the supreme court are usually not binding outside the immediate case in question. However, in practice, the precedent, or jurisprudence constante, expressed by those courts is often extremely strong. Some exceptions such as Spain are discussed below.

Contents

This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... Stare decisis (Latin: , Anglicisation: , to stand by things decided) is a Latin legal term, used in common law systems to express the notion that prior court decisions must be recognized as precedents, according to case law. ... Look up rule in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up decision in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the legal term. ... For other uses of civil law, see civil law. ... Jurisprudence constante is a legal doctrine in the civil law of Louisiana: a long series of previous decisions applying a particular rule of law carries great weight and may be determinative in subsequent cases. ...

Common law jurisdictions

Australia

In Australia, the High Court of Australia became the court of last resort with the passing of the Australia Act in 1986. This act abolished the last rights of appeal to the Privy Council. Each state and territory has its own Supreme Court, which is the highest court in that state/territory. This leads to some confusion among those from other jurisdictions as the term "supreme court" seems to refer to the court of last resort. The reason that the High Court of Australia is not named the "supreme court" is purely historical. Before the federation of the Australian colonies as states of Australia (in 1901), each colony had its own independent judicial system with a supreme court as the highest court physically within the colony (with a right of appeal to the Privy Council). On federation, the constitution provided for the establishment of the 'High Court' which could hear appeals from the state Supreme Courts. With the exception of The Australian Capital Territory, each state's Supreme Court are divided into two divisions: The Trial Division and The Court of Appeals. Appeals from The ACT Supreme Court are heard in The High Court Justice of Australia. The current Chief Justice is Murray Gleeson. High Court entrance The High Court of Australia is the final court of appeal in Australia, the highest court in the Australian court hierarchy. ... The Australia Act of 1986 (No. ... The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council is one of the highest courts in the United Kingdom. ... Courtroom 1 in the High Court in Canberra. ... High Court entrance The High Court of Australia is the final court of appeal in Australia, the highest court in the Australian court hierarchy. ... The federation of Australia was the process by which the six separate British colonies of New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria and Western Australia formed a federation. ... The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council is one of the highest courts in the United Kingdom. ... Chief Justice Murray Gleeson, Chief Justice of the High Court of Australia Anthony Murray Gleeson (30 August 1938 – ) QC AC is the Chief Justice of the High Court of Australia, the highest court in the Australian court hierarchy. ...


Canada

In Canada, the Supreme Court of Canada was established in 1875 but only became the highest court in the country in 1949 when the right of appeal to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council was abolished. This court hears appeals of decisions rendered by appellate courts from each of the country's provinces and territories, as well as appeals of judgments created by the Federal Court of Appeal. The court's decisions are final and binding on the federal courts and the courts from all provinces and territories, including the Province of Quebec which has its own distinct legal system in matters of property and civil law based on the Civil Code of Quebec. The Supreme Court of Canada (French: Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada and is the final court of appeal in the Canadian justice system. ... The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council is one of the highest courts in the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... The Civil Code of Québec (Code civil du Québec) is the civil code in force in the province of Quebec, Canada. ...


Hong Kong, China

In Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, PRC prior to the transfer of sovereignty in 1997, Hong Kong was a British colony. Supreme Court of Hong Kong (now known as High Court) was the final court of appeal within the colony. The final adjudication power, as in any other British Colonies, rested with the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (JCPC) in London, United Kingdom. After the transfer of sovereignty to the People's Republic of China, the power of final adjudication is now vested in the Court of Final Appeal created in 1997. Under the Basic Law, Constitution of Hong Kong, the territory remains a common law jurisdiction. Consequently, judges from other common law jurisdictions (including England and Wales) can be recruited and continue to serve in the judiciary according to Article 92 of the Basic Law. On the other hand, the power of interpretation of the Basic Law itself, being a national law, is vested in the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPCSC) in Beijing in accordance with Article 158 of the Basic Law. Some are concerned that this arrangement would amount to undermining judicial independence in Hong Kong. Such controversies have arisen in the right of abode issue in 1999. The legal system of Hong Kong is based on the rule of law and the independence of the Judiciary. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Supreme Court was the highest court in Hong Kong prior to the handover of Hong Kong from the United Kingdom to China in 1997 and heard cases passed on from the lower courts. ... The High Court (Traditional Chinese: ) in Hong Kong consists of the Court of Appeal and the Court of First Instance. ... The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council is one of the highest courts in the United Kingdom. ... Court of Final Appeal usually refers to the last court in which one can appeal cases brought before the highest level. ... The Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the Peoples Republic of China serves as the constitutional document of Hong Kong. ... The Judiciary of Hong Kong is responsible for the administration of justice in Hong Kong. ... The Standing Committee of the National Peoples Congress (NPCSC; Chinese: 全国人民代表大会常务委员会, pinyin: Quánguó Rénmín Dàibiǎo Dàhuì Chángwù Wěiyuánhuì) is a committee of about 150 members of the National Peoples Congress (NPC) of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), which... The interior page of a BDTC passport that has been stamped by the former British immigration authorities to indicate that the bearer has the right of abode in Hong Kong. ...


India

In India, the Supreme Court of India was created on January 28, 1950 after the adoption of the Constitution. The Supreme Court is a constitutional authority independent from political interference. All judgements are binding across all states of India. The exception being the state of Jammu and Kashmir where the Indian Penal Code is not applicable. The court rulings take precedence over state High Courts. In extremely rare cases such as capital punishment, the decision may be passed on to the President of India for clemency petitions. The Supreme Court of India is the highest court of the land as established by Part V, Chapter IV of the Constitution of India. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the area administered by India. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Death penalty, death sentence, and execution redirect here. ... The President of India (Hindi: Rashtrapati) is the head of state and first citizen of India and the Supreme Commander of the Indian armed forces. ...


Israel

Israel's The Supreme Court (Hebrew: בית המשפט העליון, Beit haMishpat ha'Elyon ) is at the head of the court system in the State of Israel. It is the highest judicial instance. The Supreme Court sits in Jerusalem. The area of its jurisdiction is the entire State. A ruling of the Supreme Court is binding upon every court, other than the Supreme Court itself. The Israeli supreme court is both an appellate court and the high court of justice. As an appellate court, the Supreme Court considers cases on appeal (both criminal and civil) on judgments and other decisions of the District Courts. It also considers appeals on judicial and quasi-judicial decisions of various kinds, such as matters relating to the legality of Knesset elections and disciplinary rulings of the Bar Association. As the High Court of Justice (Hebrew: Beit Mishpat Gavoha Le'Zedek בית משפט גבוה לצדק; also known by its initials as Bagatz בג"ץ), the Supreme Court rules as a court of first instance, primarily in matters regarding the legality of decisions of State authorities: Government decisions, those of local authorities and other bodies and persons performing public functions under the law, and direct challenges to the constitutionality of laws enacted by the Knesset. The court has broad discretionary authority to rule on matters in which it considers it necessary to grant relief in the interests of justice, and which are not within the jurisdiction of another court or tribunal. The High Court of Justice grants relief through orders such as injunction, mandamus and Habeas Corpus, as well as through declaratory judgments. The Supreme Court can also sit at a “further hearing” on its own judgment. In a matter on which the Supreme Court has ruled - whether as a court of appeals or as the High Court of Justice - with a panel of three or more justices, it may rule at a further hearing with a panel of a larger number of justices. A further hearing may be held if the Supreme Court makes a ruling inconsistent with a previous ruling or if the Court deems that the importance, difficulty or novelty of a ruling of the Court justifies such hearing. The Supreme Court also holds the unique power of being able to order "trial de novo," (a retrial). The Supreme Court (Hebrew: בית המשפט העליון, Beit Hamishpat Haelyon ) is at the head of the court system in the State of Israel. ... The State of Israel (Hebrew: מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, transliteration: ; Arabic: دَوْلَةْ اِسْرَائِيل, transliteration: ) is a country in the Middle East on the eastern edge of the Mediterranean Sea. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... In law, the expression trial de novo literally means new trial. It is most often used in certain legal systems that provide for one form of trial, then another if a party remains unsatisfied with the decision. ...


Republic of Ireland

In Republic of Ireland, the Supreme Court is the highest court in the Republic of Ireland. It has authority to interpret the constitution, and strike down laws and activities of the state that it finds to be unconstitutional. It is also the highest authority in the interpretation of the law. Constitutionally it must have authority to interpret the constitution but its further appellate jurisdiction from lower courts is defined by law. The Irish Supreme Court consists of its presiding member, the Chief Justice, and seven other judges. Judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by the President in accordance with the binding advice of the Government. The Supreme Court currently sits in the Four Courts in Dublin. The Supreme Court (Irish: Chúirt Uachtarach) is the highest judicial authority in the Republic of Ireland. ... The Four Courts (Na Ceithre Cúirteanna in Irish) in Dublin is the Republic of Irelands main courts building. ...


New Zealand

In New Zealand, the right of appeal to the Privy Council has recently been abolished following the passing of the Supreme Court Act (2003). The new Supreme Court of New Zealand was officially established at the beginning of 2004, although it did not come into operation until July. In September 2006, a new design for a dedicated Supreme Court building was announced, with completion set for 2009. The High Court of New Zealand was until 1980 known as the Supreme Court The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council is one of the highest courts in the United Kingdom. ... The Supreme Court of New Zealand is the highest court of appeal in New Zealand, having formally come into existence at the beginning of 2004, and sitting for the first time on 1 July 2004. ... The High Court of New Zealand was established in 1841 and known as the Supreme Court until 1980. ...


United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom, there are three Supreme Court systems, one each for the separate legal systems of England and Wales, Northern Ireland and Scotland. Scots law is not a common law legal system, but rather a pluralistic one, based on civil law (see the section for Scotland below.) A legal system is the mechanism for creating, interpreting and enforcing the laws in a given jurisdiction. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... This article is about the country. ... Scots law is a unique legal system with an ancient basis in Roman law. ...


Privy Council

The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council hears a small group of cases: appeals from certain Commonwealth realms (in the sections below, one may take note of the several countries which have abolished Privy Council appeals), admiralty cases, certain appeals from the ecclesiastical courts, and devolution matters under the Scotland Act 1998, Government of Wales Act and Northern Ireland Act. Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ... The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council is one of the highest courts in the United Kingdom. ... The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the sixteen sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that recognise Elizabeth II as their respective monarch. ... An ecclesiastical court (also called Court Christian) is any of certain courts having jurisdiction mainly in spiritual or religious matters. ... Look up Devolution in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Scotland Act 1998 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom at Westminster. ... The Government of Wales Act, 1998 or, to give it its full title , was an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom passed in 1998 by the incoming Labour government to create a National Assembly for Wales. ... The Northern Ireland Act 1998 is part of the Labour governments constitutional reform programme. ...


Supreme Court

In both the Privy Council and House of Lords, the entire body does not hear the cases; rather, the "Law Lords", qualified judges, consider the matter. The Constitutional Reform Act 2005 will replace the House of Lords, insofar as judicial functions are concerned, with a Supreme Court of the United Kingdom, and renames the Supreme Court of Judicature for England and Wales as the Senior Courts of England and Wales. The future Supreme Court of the United Kingdom The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom was established in law by Part III of the Constitutional Reform Act 2005. ... The Constitutional Reform Act 2005 (2005 c. ... The future Supreme Court of the United Kingdom The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom was established in law by Part III of the Constitutional Reform Act 2005. ... Schematic of court system for England and Wales The United Kingdom does not have a single unified judicial system - England and Wales have one system, Scotland another, and Northern Ireland a third. ...


England and Wales

In England and Wales, the Royal Courts of Justice and the Courts of England and Wales following the enactment of the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 the body known as the Judicial Committee of the House of Lords (the Law Lords) will sit as a separate 'supreme' court (although the doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty remains unchanged by this somewhat confusing use of terminology). The body currently known as the Supreme Court which consists of the Crown Court (which deals with criminal cases), the High Court of Justice (which deals mostly with civil cases) and the Court of Appeal (which considers appeals from both the Crown Court, the High Court and elsewhere) will be re-named to the "Senior Court of Judicature." Notably the Privy Council endures. English law, the law of England and Wales (but not Scotland and Northern Ireland) is considered by some to be one of Britains great gifts to the world. ... Schematic of court system for England and Wales The Courts of England and Wales are the civil and criminal courts responsible for the administration of justice in England and Wales; they are constituted and governed by the Law of England and Wales and are subordinate to the Parliament of the... English law is a formal term of art that describes the law for the time being in force in England and Wales. ... The Constitutional Reform Act 2005 (2005 c. ... The House of Lords, in addition to having a legislative function, has a judicial function as a court of last resort within the United Kingdom. ... Parliamentary sovereignty, parliamentary supremacy, or legislative supremacy is a concept in constitutional law that applies to some parliamentary democracies. ... Crown Court and County Court in Oxford. ... Her Majestys High Court of Justice (known more simply as the High Court) is, together with the Crown Court and the Court of Appeal, part of the Supreme Court of England and Wales in England and Wales: see Courts of England and Wales. ... Her Majestys Court of Appeal is the second most senior court in the English legal system, with only the Judicial Committee of the House of Lords above it. ... The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council is one of the highest courts in the United Kingdom. ...


Northern Ireland

In Northern Ireland, the Royal Courts of Justice, Belfast and Courts of Northern Ireland follow a similar arrangement is followed. Northern Ireland law concerns the legal system in Northern Ireland. ... The Royal Courts of Justice in Belfast is the home of the Supreme Court of Northern Ireland. ... Northern Ireland law concerns the legal system in Northern Ireland. ...


United States

In the United States, the Supreme Court of the United States is the highest court in the United States, with powers of judicial review first asserted in Calder v. Bull (1798) in Justice Iredell's dissenting opinion. The power was later given binding authority by Justice Marshall in Marbury v. Madison (1803). Each U.S. state has a state supreme court, though some do not actually use the term "supreme court." In Maine and Massachusetts the highest court is styled the "Supreme Judicial Court", as well as the oldest appellate court of continuous operation in the Western hemisphere. In New York, Maryland, and the District of Columbia the highest court is the "Court of Appeals." (In New York, the "Supreme Court" is the trial court of general unlimited jurisdiction and the intermediate appellate court is called the "Supreme Court — Appellate Division".) In West Virginia, the highest court of the state is called "Supreme Court of Appeals." Oklahoma and Texas each have two separate highest courts, one for criminal appeals ("Court of Criminal Appeals") and one for civil cases ("Supreme Court"). The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ... Judicial review is the power of a court to review the actions of public sector bodies in terms of their legality or constitutionality. ... The Case of Calder v. ... Holding Section 13 of the Judiciary Act of 1789 is unconstitutional to the extent it purports to enlarge the original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court beyond that permitted by the Constitution. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... In the United States, the state supreme court (known by various names in various states) is the highest state court in the state court system. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The Supreme Judicial Court is the highest judicial body in Massachusetts, akin to the Supreme Court in other juridictions. ... This article is about the state. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Demonym West Virginian Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st in the US  - Total 24,230 sq mi (62,755 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ...


Civil law jurisdictions

The Roman law and the Corpus Juris Civilis are generally held to be the historical model for civil law. From the late 18th century onwards, civil law jurisdictions began to codify their laws, most of all in civil codes. Using the term Roman law in a broader sense, one may say that Roman law is not only the legal system of ancient Rome but the law that was applied throughout most of Europe until the end of the 18th century. ... Justinian I depicted on a mosaic in the church of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy The Corpus Juris Civilis (Body of Civil Law) is the modern name[1] for a collection of fundamental works in jurisprudence, issued from 529 to 534 by order of Justinian I, Byzantine Emperor. ... For other uses of civil law, see civil law. ... A civil code is a systematic compilation of laws designed to comprehensively deal with the core areas of private law. ...


In Austria, the Austrian Constitution of 1920 (based on a draft by Hans Kelsen) was the third (after the USA and Czechoslovakia) to introduce judicial review of legislative acts for their constitutionality. This function is performed by the Constitutional Court (Verfassungsgerichtshof), which is also charged with the review of administrative acts on whether they violate constitutionally guaranteed rights. Other than that, administrative acts are reviewed by the Administrative Court (Verwaltungsgerichtshof). The Supreme Court (Oberster Gerichtshof), stands at the top of Austria's system of "ordinary courts" (ordentliche Gerichte) as the final instance in issues of private law and criminal law. The Constitution of Austria (Österreichische Bundesverfassung) is the body of all constitutional law of the Republic of Austria on the federal level. ... Hans Kelsen Hans Kelsen (Prague, October 11, 1881 – April 19, 1973) was an Austrian -American jurist of Jewish descent. ... Judicial review is the power of a court to review the actions of public sector bodies in terms of their legality or constitutionality. ... Constitutionality is the status of a law, a procedure, or an acts accordance with the laws or guidelines set forth in the applicable constitution. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The term criminal law, sometimes called penal law, refers to any of various bodies of rules in different jurisdictions whose common characteristic is the potential for unique and often severe impositions as punishment for failure to comply. ...


In Brazil, the Supreme Federal Tribunal is the highest court. It is both the constitutional court and the court of last resort in Brazilian law. It only reviews cases that may be unconstitutional. It also judges, in original jurisdiction, cases involving members of congress, senators, ministers of state, members of the Court and the President and Vice-President of the Republic. The Superior Justice Tribunal grants writs of certiorari for civil law and criminal law cases. The Superior Labour Tribunal reviews cases involving labour law. The Superior Electoral Tribunal is the court of last resort of electoral law, and also oversees general elections. The Superior Military Tribunal is the highest court in matters of military law. The Supreme Federal Tribunal (in Portuguese Supremo Tribunal Federal, or simply STF) is the highest court of law of the Federative Republic of Brazil. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Brazils bicameral National Congress (Portuguese: Congresso Nacional) consists of the Federal Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. ... Brazils bicameral National Congress (Portuguese: Congresso Nacional) consists of the Federal Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. ... Brazilian Presidential Standard The President of Brazil is both the head of state and head of government of the Federative Republic of Brazil. ... Category: ... In law, a writ is a formal written order issued by a body with administrative or judicial jurisdiction. ... Certiorari (pronunciation: sər-sh(ē-)ə-ˈrer-ē, -ˈrär-ē, -ˈra-rē) is a legal term in Roman, English and American law referring to a type of writ seeking judicial review. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The term criminal law, sometimes called penal law, refers to any of various bodies of rules in different jurisdictions whose common characteristic is the potential for unique and often severe impositions as punishment for failure to comply. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Election law is a discipline falling at the juncture of constitutional law and political science. ... Brazil elects on the national level a head of state – the president – and a legislature. ... Military law is a distinct legal system to which members of armed forces are subject. ...


In Taiwan, there are three types of court in the legal system:

  • Supreme Court of Republic of China(中華民國最高法院): civil and criminal cases.
  • Supreme Executive Court of Republic of China(中華民國行政最高法院): executive cases.
  • Court of Grand Justice(司法院大法官): interpretation of constitution, interpretation of law, political party regulation, impeachment of the president/vice-president.

In Croatia, the supreme jurisdiction is given to the Supreme Court, which secures a uniform application of laws. The Constitutional Court exists to verify constitutionality of laws and regulations, as well as decide on individual complaints on decisions on governmental bodies. It also decides on jurisdictional disputes between the legislative, executive and judicial branches. The Supreme Court of the Republic of Croatia (Croatian: Vrhovni Sud Republike Hrvatske) is a highest court and it ensures the uniform application of laws and equal justice to all. ... Constitutional Court of the Republic of Croatia (Croatian: Ustavni sud Republike Hrvatske) is not considered as part of the judicial branch but the Court sui generis. ... Constitutionality is the status of a law, a procedure, or an acts accordance with the laws or guidelines set forth in the applicable constitution. ...


In Denmark, all ordinary courts have original jurisdiction to hear all types of cases, including cases of a constitutional or administrative nature. As a result, there exists no special constitutional court, and therefore final jurisdiction is vested with the Danish Supreme Court (Højesteret). The Danish Supreme Court is the highest civil and criminal court responsible for the administration of justice in Denmark. ...


France divides supreme jurisdiction into 5 entities:

In Germany, there is no single supreme court. Final interpretation of the German Constitution, the Grundgesetz, is the task of the Bundesverfassungsgericht (Federal Constitutional Court of Germany). With civil and criminal cases, the highest court in a hierarchy of appellate courts is the Bundesgerichtshof. The other branches of the German judicial branch each have their own appellate systems and highest courts for social (Bundessozialgericht), labor (Bundesarbeitsgericht), taxes (Bundesfinanzhof) and administrative cases (Bundesverwaltungsgericht). The so-called Gemeinsamer Senat der Obersten Gerichtshöfe (Common Senate of the Federal Supreme Courts), is no supreme court in itself, but an ad-hoc body that convenes and acts only in the case that one supreme court intends to diverge from another supreme court's legal opinion. As the courts have well-defined areas of responsibility, this situation rarely arises, and the Common Senate only gathers rather rarely and only on matters which are mostly definitory. Social justice, sometimes called civil justice, is a concept largely based on various social contract theories. ... United States criminal justice system flowchart. ... The Court of Cassation (Cour de cassation in French) is the main court of last resort in France. ... In France, the Conseil dÉtat (English: Council of State and sometimes Counsel of State) is an organ of the French national government. ... A statute is a formal, written law of a country or state, written and enacted by its legislative authority, perhaps to then be ratified by the highest executive in the government, and finally published. ... A republican guard giving directions to visitors at the front entrance of the Constitutional Council The Constitutional Council (Conseil Constitutionnel) was established by the Constitution of the Fifth Republic on 4 October 1958. ... The French Minister of Justice (Ministre de la Justice) is an important cabinet official in the Government of France. ... This article is about the political and administrative structures of the French government. ... {{main|Treason}} High treason, broadly defined, is an action which is grossly disloyal to ones country or sovereign. ... The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitution of modern Germany. ... The Bundesverfassungsgericht The Federal Constitutional Court (in German: Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) is a special court established by the German constitutional document, the Grundgesetz (Basic Law). ... The Bundesgerichtshof or BGH (German for federal court) is the highest Germany for civil and criminal lawsuits. ... The judiciary, also referred to as the judicature, consists of justices, judges and magistrates among other types of adjudicators. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... The Bundesarbeitsgericht (Federal Labour Court) is the federal courts of appeals for cases of labour law, both individual labour law (mostly concerning contracts of employment) and collective labour law (e. ... The Federal Finance Court (Bundesfinanzhof) is one of the five federal supreme courts of Germany. ... The Federal Administrative Court (Bundesverwaltungsgericht) is one of the five federal supreme courts of Germany. ... The Gemeinsamer Senat der Obersten Gerichtshöfe (Common Senate of the Supreme Courts of Justice) is a supreme court of justice in Germany which gathers in case one of the supreme courts of justice disagrees with the decision another supreme court of justice has made. ...


In the Netherlands, the Hoge Raad der Nederlanden is the Supreme Court. Its decisions, known as "arresten", are absolutely final. The court is banned from testing legislation against the constitution, pursuant to the principle of the sovereignty of the States-General; the court can, however, test legislation against treaties, which amounts to some form of de facto constitutional review. Also, the ordinary courts in The Netherlands, including the Hoge Raad, do not deal with administrative law, which is dealt with in separate administrative courts, the highest of which is the Council of State (Raad van State) Hoge Raad der Nederlanden is the Supreme Court of the Netherlands, situated in The Hague. ...


In Italy, the Italian court of last resort for most disputes is called Corte di Cassazione. There is a separate constitutional court, the Corte costituzionale and also a parliamentary court of last resort. The corte di Cassazione (English: Court of cassation) is the supreme court of Italy. ... The Constitutional Court of Italy (Italian: Corte costituzionale della Repubblica Italiana) is the supreme court of Italy. ...


In Japan, the Supreme Court of Japan is called 最高裁判所(Saikō-Saibansho; called 最高裁 Saikō-Sai for short), located in Chiyoda, Tokyo is the highest court in Japan. It has ultimate judicial authority within Japan to interpret the Constitution and decide questions of national law (including local bylaws). It has the power of judicial review (i.e., it can declare Acts of Diet and Local Assembly, and administrative actions, unconstitutional). The Supreme Court of Japan (最高裁判所 Saikō-Saibansho; called 最高裁 Saikō-Sai for short), located in Chiyoda, Tokyo is the highest court in Japan. ...


In Luxembourg, challenges on the conformity of the law to the Constitution are brought before the Cour Constitutionnelle (Constitutional Court). — The most used and common procedure to present these challenges is by way of the "question préjudicielle" (prejudicial question).
The Court of last resort for civil and criminal proceedings is the "Cour de Cassation".
For administrative proceedings the highest court is the "Cour Administrative" (Administrative Court).


For Perusee Supreme Court of Peru. The Supreme Court of Justice is the highest judicial court in Peru. ...


While the Philippines is generally considered a civil law nation, its Supreme Court is heavily modeled after the American Supreme Court. This can be attributed to the fact that the Philippines was colonized by both Spain and the United States, and the system of laws of both nations strongly influenced the development of Philippine laws and jurisprudence. Even as the body of Philippine laws remain mostly codified, the Philippine Civil Code expressly recognizes that decisions of the Supreme Court "form part of the law of the land", belonging to the same class as statutes. The 1987 Philippine Constitution also explicitly grants to the Supreme Court the power of judicial review over laws and executive actions. The Supreme Court is composed of 1 Chief Justice and 14 Associate Justices. The court sits either en banc or in divisions, depending on the nature of the case to be decided. For other uses of civil law, see civil law. ... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Human rights Other countries Politics Portal      The Supreme Court of the Philippines (Filipino: Kataas-taasang Hukuman ng Pilipinas) is the... The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ... The Statute of Grand Duchy of Lithuania A statute is a formal, written law of a country or state, written and enacted by its legislative authority, perhaps to then be ratified by the highest executive in the government, and finally published. ... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections Chairman: Resurreccion Z. Borra 2013 | 2010 | 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1987 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Government Website Human rights Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Constitution of the... Judicial review is the power of a court to review the actions of public sector bodies in terms of their legality or constitutionality. ... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Human rights Other countries Politics Portal      The Supreme Court of the Philippines (Filipino: Kataas-taasang Hukuman ng Pilipinas) is the... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1987 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Human rights Other countries Politics Portal      The Chief Justice of the Philippines presides over the Supreme Court of the... An Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines is one of 15 members of the Philippine Supreme Court, the highest court in the Philippines. ... En banc or in bank is a term used to refer to the hearing of a case by all the judges of a court. ...


For Poland, see Supreme Court of the Republic of Poland. The Supreme Court (Polish: ) of the Republic of Poland supervises the adjudication in: General courts - these are district, regional, and appeal courts. ...


For Portugal, see Supreme Court of Portugal. Portuguese Supreme Court of Justice (Portuguese: Supremo Tribunal de Justiça, pron. ...


In Scotland, the College of Justice, the High Court of Justiciary and the Court of Session are collectively known as the Supreme Courts, with the High Court being the supreme criminal court, with no appeal to the House of Lords, and the Court of Session the superior civil court. There remains the possibility of appeal to the House of Lords on matters of civil cases, as well as appeals under the Scotland Act 1998 to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Scots law is a unique legal system with an ancient basis in Roman law. ... The College of Justice is a term used to describe the supreme courts of Scotland and its associated bodies. ... Seal of the High Court of Justiciary © Crown Copyright The High Court of Justiciary is Scotlands supreme criminal court. ... The Court of Session is the supreme civil court in Scotland. ... The Scotland Act 1998 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom at Westminster. ...


In Spain, high courts can create binding precedents if they choose to do so.


In Sri Lanka, the Supreme Court of Sri Lanka was created in 1972 after the adoption of a new Constitution. the Supreme Court is the highest and final superior court of record and is empowered to exercise its powers, subject to the provisions of the Constitution. The court rulings take precedence over all lower Courts. The Sri Lanka judicial system is complex blend of both common-law and civil-law. In some cases such as capital punishment, the decision may be passed on to the President of the Republic for clemency petitions. The Supreme Court of Sri Lanka is the highest court of the land. ...


In South Africa, the Supreme Court of Appeal (SCA) was created in 1994 and replaced the Appellate Division of the Supreme Court of South Africa as the highest court of appeal in non-constitutional matters. The SCA is subordinate to the Constitutional Court, which is the highest court in matters involving the interpretation of the Constitution. The South African Supreme Court of Appeal (Afrikaans; Hoogste Hof van Appel van Suid Afrika) is the South African court that has the final say on all matters other than those that involve the interpretation of the constitution. ... In several jurisdictions, the Appellate Division is the name of a court, or division of a court, that hears appeals from lower courts. ... The South African Constitutional Court was established in 1994 by South Africas first democratic constitution: the Interim Constitution of 1993. ...


In Switzerland, the Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland is the final court of appeals. Due to Switzerland's system of direct democracy, it has no authority to review the constitutionality of federal statutes, but the people can strike down a proposed law by referendum. According to settled case law, however, the Court is authorised to review the compliance of all Swiss law with certain categories of international law, especially the European Convention of Human Rights. The Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland (Tribunal fédéral in French, Schweizerisches Bundesgericht in German, Tribunale federale in Italian) is the supreme court of Switzerland. ... Direct democracy, classically termed pure democracy,[1] comprises a form of democracy and theory of civics wherein sovereignty is lodged in the assembly of all citizens who choose to participate. ... The European Convention on Human Rights (1950) was adopted under the auspices of the Council of Europe† to protect human rights and fundamental freedoms. ...


Soviet-model jurisdictions

In most nations with constitutions modeled after the Soviet Union, the legislature was given the power of being the court of last resort. However, because of the lack of a strong legal system, this power was only nominal. In People's Republic of China, the final power to interpret the law is vested in Standing Committee of the National People's Congress of China. This power includes the power to interpret the basic laws of Hong Kong and Macau, the constitutional documents of the two special administrative regions which are common law and Portuguese-based legal system jurisdictions respectively. This power is a legislative power and not a judicial one in that an interpretation by the NPCSC does not affect cases which have already been decided. A legislatureis a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to ratify laws. ... The Standing Committee of the National Peoples Congress (NPCSC; Chinese: 全国人民代表大会常务委员会, pinyin: Quánguó Rénmín Dàibiǎo Dàhuì Chángwù Wěiyuánhuì) is a committee of about 150 members of the National Peoples Congress (NPC) of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), which is convened between plenary sessions of the NPC... This is a list of articles about the fundamental constitutional laws, known as Basic Laws, of various jurisdictions. ... Special administrative region may be: Peoples Republic of China Special administrative regions, present-day administrative divisions (as of 2006) set up by the Peoples Republic of China to administer Hong Kong (since 1997) and Macau (since 1999) Republic of China Special administrative regions, also translated as special administrative... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Supreme court - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2556 words)
The court's decisions are final and binding on the federal courts and the courts from all provinces and territories, including the Province of Quebec which has its own distinct legal system in matters of property and civil law based on the Civil Code of Quebec.
The Supreme Court of Pakistan was established on 2nd March 1956 under the newly enacted Constitution (1956) of Pakistan.
Hoge Raad der Nederlanden is the Supreme Court of the Netherlands.
Supreme Court of the United States - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4360 words)
The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the judicial branch of the United States federal government.
The court consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight Associate Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States, who are nominated by the President and confirmed with the "advice and consent" of the Senate.
Thus, for example, the Court between 1969 and 1986 is referred to as the "Burger Court" (for Chief Justice Warren E. Burger) and the Court between 1986 and 2005 is referred to as the "Rehnquist Court" (for Chief Justice William Rehnquist).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m