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Encyclopedia > Supralapsarianism and infralapsarianism

Supralapsarianism and Infralapsarianism are two opposing views held by differing Calvinists. In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ...


Supralasarianism is also known as antelapsarianism. Sublapsarianism is a minor variant of infralapsarianism.

Contents


History

Many prominent early Calvinists were supralapsarian, such as (some argue) John Calvin, John Knox, Theodore Beza, Huldreich Zwingli, Zanchius, Gomarus, Twisse, and Perkins. Subsequent Calvinism was frequently infralapsarian, although supralapsarianism has revived recently (Geerhardus Vos and Gordon Clark). John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was an important French Christian theologian during the Protestant Reformation and is the namesake of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism. ... John Knox (1505, 1513 or 1514 – 1572) was a Scottish religious reformer who played the lead part in reforming the Church in Scotland in a Presbyterian manner. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Zwinglis Successor Zwinglis successor, Heinrich Bullinger, was elected on December 9, 1531, to be the pastor of the Great Minster at Zürich, a position which he held to the end of his life (1575). ... Gordon Haddon Clark (August 31, 1902-April 9, 1985) was an American philosopher and Calvinist theologian. ...


Historically, infralapsarianism won out at the Synod of Dordt in 1618. In the Canons of Dordt, First Point of Doctrine, Article 7, it states: The Synod of Dort met in the city of Dordrecht in 1618-1619, as a national assembly of the Dutch Reformed Church, to which were invited representatives from the Reformed churches in eight foreign countries. ... Events March 8 - Johannes Kepler discovers the third law of planetary motion (he soon rejects the idea after some initial calculations were made but on May 15 confirms the discovery). ...

Before the foundation of the world, by sheer grace, according to the free good pleasure of his will, he [God] chose in Christ to salvation a definite number of particular people out of the entire human race which had fallen by its own fault from its original innocence into sin and ruin. (Translation from Ecumenical Creeds and Reformed Confessions, CRC Publications, Grand Rapids, MI, 1988, page 124)

Grand Rapids is the name of several places in the United States of America: Grand Rapids, Michigan Grand Rapids, Minnesota Grand Rapids, Ohio Grand Rapids, Wisconsin is the former name of Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin Grand Rapids is also the name of a town in Canada: Grand Rapids, Manitoba. ... Official language(s) English de-facto Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 11th 96,716 mi² 250,494 km² 239 miles 385 km 491 miles 790 km 41. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Theology

The terms are often used in a general sense, with supralapsarianism meaning that God planned the fall and infralapsarianism that God merely foresaw, and hence permitted or merely reacted to, the fall. In this sense all Calvinists are supralapsarians, believing that God planned the fall. Nevertheless, inside scholastic Calvinism, the terms came to mean a different thing. Whilst all held that God planned the fall prior to creation, disputes arose as to the logical relation within this plan between the decision to save individuals and the decision to allow the fall. Supralapsarians believe that in the logical order of the divine decrees, individual election and reprobation occur logically prior to the fall, infralapsarians believe they occur logically subsequent. Michelangelos depiction of God in the painting Creation of the Sun and Moon in the Sistine Chapel This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and derived henotheistic forms. ... Look up Creation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Creation is the following: Generally, creation is the act or result of bringing something into existence from nothing at all. ... An election is a decision making process whereby people vote for preferred political candidates or parties to act as representatives in government. ... Reprobation, in Christian theology, is a corollary to the Calvinist doctrine of unconditional election which derives that since (in this view) some of mankind (the elect) are predestined by God for salvation, the remainder are necessarily pre-ordained to damnation, i. ...


Both positions are double predestinarian technically, in that God has settled the eternal destiny of both the elect and the reprobate. However, "double predestination" today is usually an ambiguous pejorative term used to describe those who believe that God actively works equally to keep the elect in heaven and the reprobate out of heaven (actually known as "equal ultimacy"). Equal ultimacy was not held by Calvin and is not held by most in the Reformed Tradition. It came into popularity with hyper-Calvinism. The Calvinist doctrine of predestination, is the religious doctrine sometimes referred to as double predestination. The term double predestination is usually used in a disparaging way to refer to the Calvinist belief that God has not only appointed the eternal destiny of some to salvation (Unconditional election), but by necessary...


The Latin root supra means over, above, or before. The root infra means below, under, or after. Supralapsarianism is the position that the fall occurred (amongst other reasons) to facilitate God's purpose of election and reprobation of individuals, whilst infralapsarianism holds that, whilst the fall was planned, it was not planned in reference to who would be saved. Thus supralapsarians (in the Calvinist sense used here) believe that God chose which individuals to save before he decided to allow the race to fall, the fall serving as the means of realisation of the prior decision to send some individuals to hell and others to heaven, providing the grounds of condemnation in the reprobate and the need for redemption in the elect. In contrast, the infralapsarian holds that God planned the race to fall logically prior to the decision as to which individuals to save or damn out of a fallen race. As such, it is argued that to be saved, one must be subject to something from which one need be saved, and so the fall is logically prior to the decree of election. Medieval illustration of Hell in the Hortus deliciarum manuscript of Herrad of Landsberg (about 1180) Hell, according to many religious beliefs, is a place and/or a state of painful suffering. ... Michelangelos interpretation of Heaven Heaven is an afterlife concept found in many religions or spiritual philosophies. ... Redemption can mean several things: Redemption is a religious term synonymous with salvation; or delivery from sins. ...


Historically, part of the appeal of the infralapsarian position is that it can, at least in part, be viewed as a possible theodicy for the logical consequence of predestination that God is the author of sin. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Predestination is a religious idea, under which the relationship between the beginning of things and the destiny of things is discussed. ... Sin has been a term most usually used in a religious context, and today describes any lack of conformity to the will of God; especially, any willful disregard for the norms revealed by God is a sin. ...


Supralapsarians are often termed hypercalvinists, although this is a misnomer. All hypercalvinists are indeed supralapsarian, but not all supralapsarians are hypercalvinists. Hyper-Calvinism is an eccentric theological position that historically arose from within the Calvinist tradition among the early English Particular Baptists in the mid 1700s. ...


See also

Calvinism is a system of Christian theology and an approach to Christian life and thought, articulated by Theodore Beza, a Protestant Reformer in the 16th century, and subsequently by successors, associates, followers and admirers of Beza and his interpretation of Scripture. ... The Calvinist doctrine of predestination, is the religious doctrine sometimes referred to as double predestination. The term double predestination is usually used in a disparaging way to refer to the Calvinist belief that God has not only appointed the eternal destiny of some to salvation (Unconditional election), but by necessary... Hyper-Calvinism is an eccentric theological position that historically arose from within the Calvinist tradition among the early English Particular Baptists in the mid 1700s. ... Calvinist terminology describes the words and terms associatiated with Calvinism. ...

External links

  • Supralapsarianism and Infralapsarianism by Herman Bavinck.
  • Spurgeon.org - Supra vs Infra

 
 

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