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Encyclopedia > Suppression

Censorship is the control of speech and other forms of human expression, often by government intervention. It is most commonly applied to acts which occur in public circumstances, and most formally involves suppression of ideas (by criminalizing or regulating expression). Discussion of censorship often further considers less formal means of controlling perceptions by excluding various ideas from mass communication. What is censored may range from specific words to entire concepts. The ostensible motive of censorship is to stabilize or improve the society over which the government has control. One might be looking for the academic discipline of communications. ... Expression may refer to: (in the vernacular) the act or particular way of expressing something (including an emotion through a facial expression or configuration) (in mathematics) a mathematical expression (in computing) a programming language expression (in computing) a vector graphics software Microsoft Expression (in genetics) the effect produced by a... Public is of or pertaining to the people; belonging to the people; relating to, or affecting, a nation, state, or community; opposed to private; as, the public treasury, a road or lake. ... In any debate, sometimes the more powerful opponent will try to silence the other rather than trying to defeat their arguments. ... A word is a unit of language that carries meaning and consists of one or more morphemes which are linked more or less tightly together. ... A concept is an abstract, universal idea, notion, or entity that serves to designate a category or class of entities, events, or relations. ... For the song by the California punk band Pennywise, see Society (song). ...


Sanitization (removal) and whitewashing (from whitewash) are almost interchangeable terms that refer to a particular form of censorship via omission, which seeks to "clean up" the portrayal of particular issues and facts which are already known, but which may conflict with the official point of view. Some consider political correctness to be related, as a socially-imposed (rather than governmentally imposed) type of restriction, which, if taken to extremes may qualify as self-censorship. Whitewash is a type of inexpensive paint made from slaked lime (Calcium hydroxide, or Ca(OH)2) and chalk (whiting). ... Conflict is a state of opposition, disagreement or incompatibility between two or more people or groups of people, which is sometimes characterized by physical violence. ... Political correctness is the alteration of language to redress real or alleged injustices and discrimination or to avoid offense. ...

Contents


Censorship Types

In England it started by introduction of copyright laws which gave the crown the permission to license publishing. Without government approval printing was not allowed. It is sometimes called prior restraint when a court or other governmental body prevents a person from speaking or publishing. This is sometimes viewed as worse than punishment after someone speaks as in libel suits. Prior restraint is a legal term referring to a governments actions that prevent materials from being published. ...


Censorship can be explicit, as in laws passed to prevent select positions from being published or propagated (as in the People's Republic of China, Saudi Arabia, and Australia where certain Internet pages are not permitted entry), or it can be implicit, taking the form of intimidation by government, where people are afraid to express or support certain opinions for fear of losing their jobs, their position in society, their credibility, or even their lives. In this latter form it is similar to McCarthyism. Intimidation is the act of making others do what one wants through fear. ... McCarthyism took place during a period of intense suspicion in the United States primarily from 1950 to 1954, when the U.S. government was actively countering American Communist Party subversion, its leadership, and others suspected of being Communists or Communist sympathizers. ...


State secrets and unwanted attention

Explicit wartime censorship is carried out with the intention of preventing the release of information that might be advantageous to an enemy. Typically it involves obfuscation of times or locations, or delaying the release of information (e.g. the objective of an operation) until it is of no possible use to enemy forces. Mention of weapons and equipment is another favourite area for censorship. The moral issues here are often seen as somewhat different when release of tactical information may present a greater risk of casualties among one's own forces and possibly loss of the overall conflict. For other uses of War, see War (disambiguation). ... This article is about a military term. ... Obfuscation refers to the concept of concealing the meaning of communication by making it more confusing and harder to interpret. ...


A well-known example of sanitization policies comes from the USSR under Stalin, where publicly used photographs were often altered to remove people whom Stalin had ordered executed. Though past photographs may have been remembered or kept, this deliberate and systematic alteration of history in the public mind is seen as one of the central themes of Stalinism and totalitarianism. Censorship is a form of sanitization. More recently, exclusion of news crews from locales where coffins of military decedents were in transit has been cited as a form of censorship. Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 1879[1] – March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and leader of the Soviet Union. ... Stalinism is a brand of political theory, and the political and economic system implemented by Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union. ... Totalitarianism is a typology employed by political scientists to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ...


School textbooks

The content of school textbooks is often the issue of debate, as their target audience is young people, and the term "whitewashing" is the one commonly used to refer to selective removal of critical or damaging evidence or comment. The reporting of military atrocities in history is extremely controversial, as in the case of Nanjing Massacre, the Holocaust (or Holocaust denial), and the Winter Soldier Investigation, regarding the Vietnam War. Also, the theory of evolution has been censored by many since it contradicts the beliefs of their religion. In each society the representation of its own flaws or misconduct is typically downplayed in favor of a nationalist or patriotic view. In the context of high-school level education, the presentation of facts and history greatly influences the interpretation of contemporary thought, opinion, and socialization. The legitimate argument for censoring the type of information disseminated is based on the inappropriateness of such material for certain younger age groups. The use of the "inappropriate" distinction is controversial, as well, as it can be used to enforce wider politically-motivated censorship. An atrocity (from the Latin atrox, atrocious, from Latin ater = matte black (as distinct from niger = shiny black)) is a term used to describe crimes ranging from an act committed against a single person to one committed against a population or ethnic group. ... The Nanking Massacre (Chinese: 南京大屠殺, pinyin: Nánjīng Dàtúshā; Japanese: 南京大虐殺, Nankin Daigyakusatsu), also known as the Rape of Nanking and sometimes in Japan as the Nanking Incident (南京事件, Nankin Jiken), refers to what many historians recognize as widespread atrocities committed by the Japanese army in and around Nanking (now Nanjing... Concentration camp inmates during the Holocaust The Holocaust was Nazi Germanys systematic genocide (ethnic cleansing) of various ethnic, religious, national, and secular groups during World War II. Early elements include the Kristallnacht pogrom and the T-4 Euthanasia Program established by Hitler that killed some 200,000 people. ... Richard Harwoods Did Six Million Really Die? Holocaust denial is the claim that the mainstream historical version of the Holocaust is either highly exaggerated or completely falsified. ... The Winter Soldier Investigation was a media event intended to publicize war crimes and atrocities by the United States Armed Forces and their allies in the Vietnam War, while showing their direct relationship to military leadership and the foreign and anti-Communist policies of the Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon Presidential... The Vietnam War or Second Indochina War was a conflict between the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRVN, or North Vietnam), allied with the National Liberation Front (NLF, or Viet Cong) against the Republic of Vietnam (RVN, or South Vietnam), and its allies—notably the United States military in support of... A phylogenetic tree of all living things, based on rRNA gene data, showing the separation of the three domains, bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes, as described initially by Carl Woese. ...


Terms

"Censorship" comes from the ancient Roman word "censor". In Rome, the censor had two duties, to count the citizens and to supervise their morals. The term "census" is also derived from this word. History - Ancient history - Ancient Rome This is a List of Ancient Rome-related topics, that aims to include aspects of both the Ancient Roman Republic and Roman Empire. ... For omission and secrecy, see censorship. ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC mythical, 1st millennium BC Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni (Left-Wing Democrats) Area  - City Proper  1290 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2,546,807 almost 4,000,000 1...


An early published reference to the term "whitewash" dates back to 1762 in a Boston Evening Post article. In 1800 the word was used publicly in a political context, when a Philadelphia Aurora editorial said that "if you do not whitewash President Adams speedily, the Democrats, like swarms of flies, will bespatter him all over, and make you both as speckled as a dirty wall, and as black as the devil." 1762 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1800 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... John Adams (October 30, 1735 – July 4, 1826) was the first (1789–1797) Vice President of the United States, and the second (1797–1801) President of the United States. ... The Democratic-Republican party was a United States political party, which evolved early in the history of the United States. ... The Devil is the name given to a supernatural entity, who, in most Western religions, is the central embodiment of evil. ...


The term "sanitization" is a euphemism commonly used in the political context of propaganda to refer to the doctoring of information that might otherwise be perceived as incriminating, self-contradictory, controversial, or damaging. Censorship, as compared to acts or policies of sanitization, more often refers to a publicly set standard, not a privately set standard. However, censorship is often alleged when an essentially private entity, such as a corporation, regulates access to information in a communication forum that serves a significant share of the public. Official censorship might occur at any jurisdictional level within a state or nation that otherwise represents itself as opposed to formal censorship. A euphemism is an expression intended by the speaker to be less offensive, disturbing, or troubling to the listener than the word or phrase it replaces. ... North Korean propaganda showing a soldier destroying the United States Capitol building. ...


Implementation

Censorship is regarded among a majority of academics in the Western world as a typical feature of dictatorships and other authoritarian political systems. Democratic nations are represented, especially among Western government, academic and media commentators, to have somewhat less institutionalized censorship, and instead are represented as promoting the importance of freedom of speech. The dichotomy might have as much basis in preferred self-perception as in fact, however. Studies of media in the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics revealed most limits on media content were self-imposed by reporters and editors, while the process of content selection developed more from selection of personnel who report news. In much of the Soviet empire, there were few official censors. The same process is evident today in major Western media, where members of preferred social classes enjoy almost exclusive control of content production in print and broadcast media. Dictatorship, in contemporary usage, refers to absolute rule by a leadership (usually one dictator) unrestricted by law, constitutions, or other social and political factors within the state. ... The term authoritarian is used to describe an organization or a state which enforces strong and sometimes oppressive measures against the population, generally without attempts at gaining the consent of the population. ... The examples and perspective in this article do not represent a worldwide view. ... Soviet redirects here. ...


Some thinkers understand censorship to include other attempts to suppress points of view or the exploitation of negative propaganda, media manipulation, spin, disinformation or "free speech zones". These methods tend to work by disseminating preferred information, by relegating open discourse to marginal forums and by preventing other ideas from obtaining a receptive audience. North Korean propaganda showing a soldier destroying the United States Capitol building. ... The process of media manipulation is the way in which individuals or groups use various tricks -such as doing a big pile of poo- in dealing with the media in order to create an image of their side of an argument that is most favorable to the receiver. ... In public relations, spin is a usually pejorative term signifying a heavily biased portrayal in ones own favor of an event or situation. ... Disinformation, in the context of espionage, military intelligence, and propaganda, is the spreading of deliberately false information to mislead an enemy as to ones position or course of action. ... The free speech zone at the 2004 Democratic National Convention Free speech zones (also known as First Amendment Zones or derisively as Free speech cages) are areas set aside in public places for political activists to exercise their right of free speech. ...


Suppression of access to the means of dissemination of ideas can function as a form of censorship. Such suppression has been alleged to arise from policies of governmental bodies such as the FCC in the United States of America, the CRTC in Canada, or of newspapers that refuse to run commentary the publisher disagrees with, or a lecture hall that refuses to rent itself out to a particular speaker, or an individual refusing to finance that lecture. Omission of select voices in the content of stories also serves to limit the spread of ideas and is often called censorship. Such omission can result, for example, from persistent failure or refusal to contact criminal defendants, among media that rely instead on official sources for explanations of crime. Censorship has been alleged to occur in such media policies as blurring the boundaries between hard news and news commentary, and in the appointment of biased commentators, such as a former government attorney, to serve as anchors of programs labeled as hard news but comprising primarily anti-criminal commentary. The FCCs official seal. ... The Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC, in French Conseil de la radiodiffusion et des télécommunications canadiennes) was established in 1968 by the Canadian Parliament to replace the Board of Broadcast Governors. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


The focusing of news stories to exclude questions that might be of interest to some audience segments, such as the avoidance of reporting cumulative casualty rates among citizens of a nation that is the target or site of a foreign war, is often represented as a form of censorship. Favorable representation in news or information services of preferred products or services, such as reporting on leisure travel and comparative values of various machines instead of on leisure activities such as arts, crafts or gardening has been represented as a means of censoring ideas about the later in favor of the former.


Prevention and bypassing

Since the invention of the printing press, distribution of limited producton leaflets has often served as an alternative to bypass dominant information sources. With the advent of widespread distributed network communication, data havens and decentralized peer-to-peer file sharing systems such as Freenet have been used to overcome censorship. A recent phenomenon attempts a form of counter-censorship, speaking directly to members of society in a culture jamming effort. Individuals or non-conforming groups use mass communication techniques to attack implicit domination, offering trivial or deliberately irrelevant messages to blunt the impact of dominant mass communication. A Data Haven is a place where data is supposed to be secure at all times. ... A peer-to-peer (or P2P) computer network is a network that relies on the computing power and bandwidth of the participants in the network rather than concentrating it in a relatively few servers. ... File sharing is the activity of making files available to other users for download over the Internet, but also over smaller networks. ... Freenet is a decentralized censorship-resistant peer-to-peer distributed data store. ... Culture jamming is the act of using existing mass media to comment on those very media themselves, using the original mediums communication method. ...


Throughout history, mass protests have served as a method for resisting unwanted impositions, though modern technology often affords control of mass meetings to the groups who control sound amplification systems around which the meetings are organized. Modern sound-reinforcement technology has sometimes lead to a perhaps mistaken perception that all those in attendance at mass gatherings represent similar ideals on a broad spectrum, when in reality, individual members of the crowd might agree only in narrow measure with those whose voices are amplified. Mass reproduction through broadcast, print and network technology of the ideas amplified from a podium can effectively censor the voices of individual members of a crowd.


Interestingly, the censorship of scatological or otherwise course vernacular in the United States seems not always to extend to non-American pronunciations. Instead of shit, the Scots and Northern English variant shite may apparently be used, as may fook for fuck. (Note: this was witnessed on broadcast television in early 2004, before the FCC levied several highly publicized fines.) Popular animated comedy such as The Simpsons or South Park have on occasion bypassed prohibitions against broadcast of scatological vernacular speech and utterances related to bodily penetration by mimicking the intonation of such popular phrases while omitting the consonants that otherwise clarify the words. In the United States, publicly cited opposition to censorship often focuses on the ability of high-paid media figures to utter a few forbidden terms while a more detailed discourse about limits of free speech develops in professional associations or in marginalized networks such as Internet forums. Scots or Lallans (Eng: Lowlands), often Lowland Scots to distinguish it from the Scottish Gaelic language of the highlands, is a West Germanic language used in Scotland, parts of Northern Ireland, and border areas of the Republic of Ireland, where it is known in official circles as Ulster Scots or... British English (BrE) is a term used to differentiate the form of the written English language in the United Kingdom from other forms of the English language. ... Homer, a safety inspector at the Springfield Nuclear Power Plant, is a generally well-meaning buffoon whose short attention span often draws him into outrageous schemes and adventures. ... South Park is an animated series created by Matt Stone and Trey Parker. ...


In recent times, censorship has taken the form of limiting access to public information in more useful formats, such as electronic information used by regulatory agencies, while the right to access and disseminate reports based on public information is limited to forms of information that can only be analyzed by scanning or reading paper documents. Fees for paper and other materials used to release public information that are disproportionate to the actual costs of paper copying also serve to regulate dissemination of information about government activities. In an age of distributed electronic networks, of advanced security algorithms that can facilitate supervised limited access to such networks and of low-cost photo-reproduction technology, limiting the availability of information that can be mass produced by imposing disproportionate fees as a condition to release of information is said by some to be a parallel to media taxes imposed but then outlawed on the American continent in the 17th Century. (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ...


Even apparently open network communication can be the target of allegations of censorship, because such networks rely on technology not evenly distributed among all population segments. Groups with the most time and resources to participate in networked communities may, perhaps unbeknownst even to most group members, use their superior access to supplant information as would be told by minorities or older communities with versions that are preferred by a dominant sector of those who own more technology.


Censorship around the world

// History Lady Chatterley and the trial book. ... Although the Republic of Ireland does not currently exercise much censorship in practice, the state has wide-ranging laws which allow censorship, and has specific laws covering films, advertisements, newspapers and magazines, as well as terrorism and pornography. ... Censorship in South Asia can apply to books, movies the Internet and other media. ... Censorship in Singapore is primarily limited to items that causes controversy when dealing with matters of race or religion. ... There is basically no censorship in Taiwan since 1977 when all the censorship had been eliminated. ... The Third Section was an organization set up in 1826 in Imperial Russia and was designed to combat corruption and champion justice. ... There is a long history of censorship in the United Kingdom. ... The US Bill of Rights explicitly forbids the government to censor advocacy of religious ideas or practices and guarantees the rights of citizens to speak and publish freely, as well as to assemble to demand redress of grievances (see First Amendment). ... The National Peoples Congress of the Peoples Republic of China has passed an internet censorship law in mainland China. ...

Other types of censorship

Advertising regulation refers to the laws and rules defining the ways in which products can be advertised in a particular region. ... Censorship by organized religion is a form of externally imposed censorship with the use of religious power to control freedom of expression on the basis of the teachings of the organized religion. ... Censorship in cyberspace is often treated as a separate issue from censorship of offline material, but the legal issues are similar. ... Censorship in Italy under Fascism Censorship in Italy was not created with Fascism, nor it ended with it, but it had a relevantly heavy importance in the life of Italians under the Regime. ...

Censorship of media

Many societies have banned certain books. ... // Overview For nearly the entire history of film and movie production, certain films have been either boycotted by political and religious groups or literally banned by a regime for political or moral reasons. ... This is a list of banned computer and video games. ... Censorship of music, the practice of censoring music from the public, may take the form of partial or total censorship with the latter banning the music entirely. ... When anime is adapted into a second language for broadcast on TV, it is common practice for it to be edited in terms of visuals, sounds, or speech, often to comply with local broadcasting, government censorship standards, or time constraints, where they differ from their country of origin. ... It has been suggested that Eden-Nathan Zada be merged into this article or section. ... Corporate media is a term used by some media critics in United States political discourse, particularly by leftists and progressives, to imply that the mainstream media is manipulated by large multinational corporations. ...

See also

Self-censorship is when a film producer, film director, publisher or author censors and/or classifies his/her own books or films. ... A bleep censor is used to filter out inappropriate audio content during a live United States the Federal Communications Commission has the constitutional right to regulate indecent broadcasts. ... Book burning is the practice of ceremoniously destroying by fire one or more copies of a book or other written material. ... The Censored Eleven is a group of Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies cartoons that were withheld from syndication by United Artists in 1968. ... Looney Tunes is a Warner Brothers cartoon series that preceded the Merrie Melodies series, and is both WBs first animated theatrical series and the second longest continuous animated series in any medium. ... Merrie Melodies end title Merrie Melodies is the name of a series of animated cartoons distributed by Warner Bros. ... Charles Ellis Chuck Schumer (born November 23, 1950) is an American politician. ... Censorware is a term for content filtering software, especially Web filters. ... Cindys Torment, a graphic sex story published in Spring of 1990 on Usenet, led to an early example of censorship in cyberspace. ... Death Whoop was an oil on canvas painting by Seth Eastman that depicted a Native American warrior holding up the scalp of a white victim. ... The Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB) is a self-regulatory organization that applies and enforces ratings, advertising guidelines, and online privacy principles for computer and video games in the United States and Canada (officially adopted by individual provinces in 2005). ... Fahrenheit 451 book cover Fahrenheit 451 (1953) is a dystopian fiction novel by Ray Bradbury. ... The Index Librorum Prohibitorum (List of Prohibited Books) is a list of publications which the Roman Catholic Church censored for being a danger to itself and its members. ... The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the Christian Church whose visible and spiritual head is the Pope, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It teaches that it is the one holy catholic and apostolic Church founded by Jesus Christ, and that the sole Church of Christ which... The International Freedom of Expression eXchange (IFEX), founded in 1992, is a global network of more than 60 non-governmental organisations that promotes and defends the right to freedom of expression. ... John Bruce Jack Thompson (born July 23, 1950) is an American attorney at law often cited in the media for his conservative views on the effects of obscenity and violence in popular media. ... Joseph Isadore Lieberman, (born February 24, 1942) is a Democratic U.S. senator from Connecticut, most well-known as Al Gores running mate on the Democratic ticket in 2000. ... In 1851 Mill married Harriet Taylor after 21 years of an at times intense friendship and love affair. ... Lady Chatterleys Lover is a novel by D. H. Lawrence written in 1928. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Media controversy is controversy involving forms of media, especially electronic media. ... The MPAA film rating system is a system used in the United States and instituted by the Motion Picture Association of America to rate a movie based on its content. ... Prior restraint is a legal term referring to a governments actions that prevent materials from being published. ... Production Code - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Project Censored is a nonprofit, sociological project of an investigative nature within the Sonoma State University Foundation. ... SourceWatchs logo features a magnifying glass through which its name, somewhat distorted, can be seen. ... Janet Jackson performs at the Super Bowl XXXVIII Halftime Show. ... Thomas Bowdler (July 11, 1754 – February 24, 1825), an English physician, is best known as the source of the eponym bowdlerize (or bowdlerise), the process of censorship by arbitrary deletion of objectionable material from a work of literature to purify it. ... The Tunisia Monitoring Group (TMG) is a coalition of 14 free expression organisations that belong to the International Freedom of Expression Exchange (IFEX), a global network of non-governmental organisations that promotes and defends the right to freedom of expression and freedom of the press. ... // United States Ratings The TV Parental Guidelines system was introduced on January 1, 1996 in the United States in response to public complaints of increasingly explicit sexual and violent content, and use of scatology, in television programs. ... V-chip is a generic term used for a feature of television receivers allowing the blocking of programs based on their ratings category. ...

External links

World Wide Web links

Freenet links

Note: These freesite links cannot be viewed without prior set up. For explanation on how to set up a connection see Ways to view a freesite.
localhost is assumed as the base for the freesite
  • The Cleanex Experiment Program introducing censorship on Freenet.
  • Choron Repository for banned French books and other documents.

Choron Repository for banned English books and other documents. Freenet is a decentralized censorship-resistant peer-to-peer distributed data store. ... Ways to view a freesite A freesite (which is a commonly accepted name for a site on Freenet) can be set up in one of the following ways: Installing ones own node. ... The title of this article is shown beginning with a capital letter due to technical restrictions. ... Freenet is a decentralized censorship-resistant peer-to-peer distributed data store. ...


References

  • Abbott, Randy. "A Critical Analysis of the Library-Related Literature Concerning Censorship in Public Libraries and Public School Libraries in the United States During the 1980s." Project for degree of Education Specialist, University of South Florida, December 1987. [ED 308 864]
  • Burress, Lee. "Battle of the Books." Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press, 1989. [ED 308 508]
  • O'Reilly, Robert C. and Larry Parker. "Censorship_or Curriculum Modification?" Paper presented at a School Boards Association, 1982, 14 p. [ED 226 432]
  • Hansen, Terry. The Missing Times: News media complicity in the UFO cover-up, 2000. ISBN 0-7388-3612-5
  • Hendrikson, Leslie. "Library Censorship: ERIC Digest No. 23." ERIC Clearinghouse for Social Studies/Social Science Education, Boulder, Colorado, November 1985. [ED 264 165]
  • Hoffman, Frank. "Intellectual Freedom and Censorship." Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press, 1989. [ED 307 652]
  • Marek, Kate. "Schoolbook Censorship USA." June 1987. [ED 300 018]
  • National Coalition against Censorship (NCAC). "Books on Trial: A Survey of Recent Cases." January 1985. [ED 258 597]
  • Small, Robert C., Jr. "Preparing the New English Teacher to Deal with Censorship, or Will I Have to Face it Alone?" Annual Meeting of the National Council of Teachers of English, 1987, 16 p.
(arguing that the English teacher should get advice from school librarians in preparing to encounter three levels of censorship:
  1. rejection of adolescent fiction and popular teen magazines as having low value,
  2. experienced colleagues discouraging "difficult" lesson plans,
  3. outside interest groups limiting students' exposure. [ED 289 172])
  • Terry, John David II. "Censorship: Post Pico." In "School Law Update, 1986," edited by Thomas N. Jones and Darel P. Semler. [ED 272 994]
  • [1] Supreme Court rejects advocates' plea to preserve useful formats
List of websites with known sanitization policies

Cleans-up mistakes made in speeches by US President George W. Bush, it also contains little contradictory information of current administration policies, and has deleted any reference to controversial Corporate accounting scandal figure Ken Lay, among others. George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States since 2001. ... A corporate scandal is a scandal involving unethical behavior on the part of a company. ... Kenneth Lee Lay (born April 15, 1942) is an American businessman and former CEO of Enron Corporation. ...

In a different example of sanitization, the U.S. State Department website will display material only when it supports administration policies. For example the website contains in full, the UN Security Council resolutions, which support the administration in its views of Iraq, but will not show such UN resolutions against Israel or the US. A United Nations Security Council Resolution is voted on by the fifteen members of the UN Security Council. ... ...


Disambiguation

  • In ancient Rome, censorship was the office or function of a censor.
  • The utensil for incense is a censer;
  • A device or organ that senses its environment is a sensor.

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