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Encyclopedia > Supervolcano

A supervolcano is a volcano that produces the largest and most voluminous kinds of eruption on Earth. The explosivity of such eruptions varies, but the volume of ejected tephra is enough to radically alter the landscape and severely affect global climate for years, with cataclysmic consequences for life (see also volcanic winter). Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Volume (disambiguation). ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... VEI and ejecta volume correlation The Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) was devised by Chris Newhall of the U.S. Geological Survey and Steve Self at the University of Hawaii in 1982 to provide a relative measure of the explosiveness of volcanic eruptions. ... Tephra refers to air-fall material produced by a volcanic eruption regardless of composition or fragment size. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... General Circulation Models (GCMs) are a class of computer-driven models for weather forecasting and predicting climate change, where they are commonly called Global Climate Models. ... The cataclysm is the Greek expression for the Biblical Great Flood of Noah, from the Greek kataklysmos, to wash down. ... A volcanic winter is the reduction in temperature caused by volcanic ash and droplets of sulfuric acid obscuring the sun, usually after a volcanic eruption. ...

Contents

Word origin

The term was originally coined by the producers of the BBC popular science program, Horizon, in 2000 to refer to these types of eruption.[1] [2] That investigation brought the subject more into the public eye, leading to further studies of the possible effects. For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... This article is not about the magazine, Popular Science Popular science is interpretation of science intended for a general audience, rather than for other scientists or students. ... Horizon is a long-running BBC popular science and history documentary programme. ...

  • At first, supervolcano was not a technical term used in volcanology, but more recently, in 2003 and 2004, the term has been used in articles. The term megacaldera is sometimes used for caldera supervolcanoes, such as the Blake River Megacaldera Complex in the Abitibi greenstone belt of Ontario and Quebec, Canada.
  • Though there is no well-defined minimum explosive size for a "supervolcano", there are at least two types of volcanic eruption that have been identified as supervolcanoes: massive eruptions and large igneous provinces.

Volcanology (also spelled vulcanology) is the study of volcanoes, lava, magma, and related geological phenomena. ... The Blake River Megacaldera Complex, also called the Blake River Group, is a giant subaqueous 2707-2696 million year old caldera cluster or a nested caldera system that spans across the Ontario-Quebec border in Canada. ... The Abitibi greenstone belt is a 2,800-2,600 million year old greenstone belt that spans across the Ontario-Quebec border in Canada. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 107 Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... This article is about the Canadian province. ... This article is about volcanoes in geology. ... Large Igneous provinces (LIPS) were originally defined by Coffin and Eldholm (1992) as areas of Earths surface that contain very large volumes of magmatic rocks (typically basalt but including rhyolites) erupted over extremely short geological time intervals of a few million years or less. ...

Large igneous provinces

A large igneous province (LIP) is an extensive region of basalts on a continental scale, resulting from flood basalt eruptions. When created, these regions often occupy several million km² and have volumes on the order of 1 million km³. In most cases, the majority of this is laid down over an extended but geologically sudden period of about several million years. Large Igneous provinces (LIPS) were originally defined by Coffin and Eldholm (1992) as areas of Earths surface that contain very large volumes of magmatic rocks (typically basalt but including rhyolites) erupted over extremely short geological time intervals of a few million years or less. ... Moses Coulee showing multiple flood basalt flows of the Columbia River Basalt Group. ...


Massive eruptions

Eruptions with a Volcanic Explosivity Index of 8 (VEI-8) are mega-colossal events that eject at least 1,000 km³ of pyroclastic material. VEI and ejecta volume correlation The Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) was devised by Chris Newhall of the U.S. Geological Survey and Steve Self at the University of Hawaii in 1982 to provide a relative measure of the explosiveness of volcanic eruptions. ... A cubic kilometre (symbol km³) is an SI derived unit of volume. ... Pyroclastic rocks are formed from lavas which are ejected into the air, as occur in pyroclastic flows or Plinian eruptions. ...


VEI-8 eruptions are so powerful that they form circular calderas rather than mountains because the downward collapse of land at the eruption site fills emptied space in the magma chamber beneath. The caldera can remain for millions of years after all volcanic activity at the site has ceased. Satellite image of Santorini. ... For other uses, see Mountain (disambiguation). ... A magma chamber is a chamber typically between 1 km and 10 km beneath the surface of the Earth formed as rising magma forms a reservoir if it is unable to rise any further. ...


Known eruptions

Satellite image of Lake Toba.
Satellite image of Lake Toba.

VEI-8 volcanic events have included eruptions at the following locations. Estimates of the volume of erupted material are given in parentheses. Download high resolution version (843x610, 113 KB)Lake Toba, Sumatra, Indonesia - Landsat satellite photo Source: NASA, public domain https://zulu. ... Download high resolution version (843x610, 113 KB)Lake Toba, Sumatra, Indonesia - Landsat satellite photo Source: NASA, public domain https://zulu. ... Lake Toba (Indonesian: Danau Toba) is a lake, 100 km long and 30 km wide, and 505 m. ...

The Lake Toba eruption plunged the Earth into a volcanic winter, eradicating an estimated 60%[3] [4] [5] [6] [7]of the human population (although humans managed to survive even in the vicinity of the volcano[8] ), and was responsible for the formation of sulfuric acid in the atmosphere. Lake Taupo is a lake situated in the North Island of New Zealand. ... North Island The North Island is one of the two main islands of New Zealand, the other being the South Island. ... The Oruanui eruption of the Taupo volcano is the most recent known supervolcanic eruption that reached a VEI of 8 and is the worlds largest known eruption in the past 70,000 years. ... Lake Toba (Indonesian: Danau Toba) is a lake, 100 km long and 30 km wide, and 505 m. ... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island in the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two larger islands, Borneo and New Guinea, are partially in Indonesia). ... The Yellowstone Caldera is a volcanic caldera in Yellowstone National Park in the United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... La Garita Caldera is a large volcanic caldera located in the San Juan Mountains in southwestern Colorado. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... A volcanic winter is the reduction in temperature caused by volcanic ash and droplets of sulfuric acid obscuring the sun, usually after a volcanic eruption. ...


Many other supermassive eruptions have also occurred in the geological past. Those listed below measured 7 on the VEI scale. Most of these were larger than Tambora's eruption in 1815 (160 km³), which was the largest eruption in recorded history. For other meanings of Ve, see Ve (disambiguation). ... Mount Tambora (or Tomboro) is an active stratovolcano on Sumbawa island, Indonesia. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ...

For large flood basalt eruptions, see large igneous province. Aira Caldera is a supervolcanic caldera in the south of the island of Kyūshū, Japan. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the city in Kumamoto Prefecture, please see Aso, Kumamoto. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Kikai Caldera is a massive underwater caldera in the Osumi Islands of Kagoshima prefecture, Japan. ... Location of Ryukyu Islands The Ryukyu Islands, in Japanese called the Nansei Islands ) are a chain of Japanese islands in the western Pacific Ocean at the eastern limit of the East China Sea. ... Lake Taupo is a lake situated in the North Island of New Zealand. ... North Island The North Island is one of the two main islands of New Zealand, the other being the South Island. ... Long Valley Caldera is a depression in eastern California that is adjacent to Mammoth Mountain. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Valle Grande (Va-lye Gra-n-de), known to geologists as the Valles Caldera and the Jemez Caldera, is a pristine area in the Jemez Mountains of northern New Mexico in the United States. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Largest metro area Albuquerque metropolitan area Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... The Yellowstone Caldera is a volcanic caldera in Yellowstone National Park in the United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... The Bennett Lake Volcanic Complex (BLVC) is a huge 50 million year old extinct caldera complex that spans across the BC-Yukon border in Canada. ... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944... This article is about Yukon Territory in Canada. ... The Bruneau-Jarbidge supervolcano, located in present-day southwest Idaho, erupted in the Miocene between ten and twelve million years ago, spreading a thick blanket of ash in the Bruneau-Jarbidge event. ... Official language(s) English [1] Capital Boise Largest city Boise Largest metro area Boise metropolitan area Area  Ranked 14th  - Total 83,642 sq mi (216,632 km²)  - Width 305 miles (491 km)  - Length 479 miles (771 km)  - % water 0. ... The fossil of a horse forever locked in stone. ... Campi Flegrei (Burning Fields) is a large volcanic area situated in the west area of Napoli, Italy. ... Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... Moses Coulee showing multiple flood basalt flows of the Columbia River Basalt Group. ... Large Igneous provinces (LIPS) were originally defined by Coffin and Eldholm (1992) as areas of Earths surface that contain very large volumes of magmatic rocks (typically basalt but including rhyolites) erupted over extremely short geological time intervals of a few million years or less. ...


Media portrayal

A National Geographic documentary called Earth Shocks portrayed the destructive impact of the rapid eruption of Lake Toba some 75,000 years ago, which caused a phenomenon known as the Millennial Ice Age that lasted for 1000 years and wiped out more than 60%[10][11][12] [13][14] of the global population of the time. The National Geographic Society was founded in the USA on January 27, 1888, by 33 men interested in organizing a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge. ...


An eruption of the Yellowstone supervolcano was originally one of the scenarios depicted in the docu-drama End Day, but was excluded from all airings to date for unknown reasons and is only presently mentioned at the show's BBC website (dead as of May 18, 2007; Internet Archive version). Imagine waking up to the last day on Earth. ...


In 2005, a two-part television docudrama entitled Supervolcano was shown on BBC, the Discovery Channel, and other television networks worldwide. It looked at the events that could take place if the Yellowstone supervolcano erupted. It featured footage of volcano eruptions from around the world and computer-generated imagery depicting the event. According to the program, such an eruption would have devastating effect across the globe and would cover virtually all of the United States with at least 1 cm of volcanic ash, causing mass destruction in the nearby vicinity and killing plants and wildlife across the continent. The dramatic elements in the program were followed by Supervolcano: The Truth About Yellowstone, a documentary about the evidence behind the movie. The program had originally been scheduled to be aired in early 2005, but it was felt that this would be insensitive so soon after the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. The program and its accompanying documentaries were released on DVD region 2 simultaneously with its broadcast. Nova featured an episode Mystery of the Megavolcano, examining such eruptions in the last 100,000 years.[15] It has been suggested that Drama Documentary be merged into this article or section. ... Supervolcano is a 2005 Discovery Channel docudrama centered around the fictional eruption of the volcanic caldera of Yellowstone National Park. ... Discovery Channel is a cable and satellite TV channel founded by John Hendricks which is distributed by Discovery Communications. ... The Yellowstone Caldera is a volcanic caldera in Yellowstone National Park in the United States. ... Computer-generated imagery (commonly abbreviated as CGI) is the application of the field of computer graphics (or more specifically, 3D computer graphics) to special effects in films, television programs, commercials, simulators and simulation generally, and printed media. ... Eruption can refer to: Volcanic eruption The eruption of teeth through the gum Eruption (band) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... World globe A Baroque era celestial globe A globe is a three-dimensional scale model of a spheroid celestial body such as a planet, star or moon, in particular Earth, or, alternatively, a spherical representation of the sky with the stars (but without the Sun, Moon, or planets, because their... Ash plume from Mt Cleveland, a stratovolcano Diamond Head, a well-known backdrop to Waikiki in Hawaii, is an ash cone that solidified into tuff Volcanic ash consists of very fine rock and mineral particles less than 2 mm in diameter that are ejected from a volcanic vent. ... u fuck in ua ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Animated, colour-coded map showing the various continents. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, known by the scientific community as the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake,[1] was a great undersea earthquake that occurred at 00:58:53 UTC (07:58:53 local time) December 26, 2004 with an epicentre off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. ... Documentary film is a broad category of cinematic expression united by the intent to remain factual or non-fictional. ... Nova is a popular science television series from the USA produced by WGBH and can be seen on PBS and in more than 100 countries. ...


In 2006, the Sci Fi Channel aired the documentary Countdown to Doomsday which featured a segment called "Supervolcano". SCI FI (originally The Sci-Fi Channel, sometimes rendered SCI FI Channel when part of a longer phrase) is an American cable television channel, launched on September 24, 1992, specializing in science fiction, fantasy, horror, and paranormal programming. ... Countdown to Doomsday is a 2006 SciFi Channel documentary television show about the end of the world. ...


In the Stargate Atlantis episode Inferno, the main characters are caught in the eruption of a supervolcano and escape using an Ancient warship. Stargate Atlantis (often abbreviated as SGA) is an American-Canadian science fiction television program, part of the Stargate franchise owned by MGM. Developed by longtime SG-1 producers Brad Wright and Robert C. Cooper, it is a spin-off from the television series Stargate SG-1. ... Inferno is an episode of the science fiction television series Stargate Atlantis. ...


See also

In geology, a hotspot is a location on the Earths surface that has experienced active volcanism for a long period of time. ... Eruption column rising, Mount Redoubt, Alaska According to the Toba catastrophe theory, modern human evolution was affected by a recent, large volcanic event. ... For other uses, see Disaster (disambiguation). ...

References

  • Ben G. Mason; David M. Pyle, and Clive Oppenheimer (2004). "The size and frequency of the largest explosive eruptions on Earth" (PDF). Bulletin of Volcanology 66 (8): 735-748. doi:10.1007/s00445-004-0355-9. Retrieved on 2006-07-14. 
  1. ^ BBC TV Horizon, 3 February 2000, Supervolcanoes
  2. ^ USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory
  3. ^ Stanley H. Ambrose, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1998
  4. ^ Knight, M.D., Walker, G.P.L., Ellwood, B.B., and Diehl, J.F., 1986, Stratigraphy, paleomagnetism, and magnetic fabric of the Toba Tuffs: Constraints on their sources and eruptive styles: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 91, p. 10,355-10,382.
  5. ^ Ninkovich, D., Sparks, R.S.J., and Ledbetter, M.T., 1978, The exceptional magnitude and intensity of the Toba eruption, Sumatra: An example of using deep-sea tephra layers as a geological tool: Bulletin Volcanologique, v. 41, p. 286-298.
  6. ^ Rose, W.I., and Chesner, C.A., 1987, Dispersal of ash in the great Toba eruption, 75 ka: Geology, v. 15, p. 913-917. Simkin, T., and Siebert, L., 1994, Volcanoes of the World: Geoscience Press, Tucson, Arizona, 349 p.
  7. ^ Williams, M.A.J., and Royce, K., 1982, Quaternary geology of the Middle Son Valley, north central India: Implications for prehistoric archaeology: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 38, p. 139-162.
  8. ^ Michael Petraglia et al., Science v.317, p.114 (2007)
  9. ^ Ashfall Fossil Beds State Historical Park. The Ashfall Story. Retrieved on 2006-08-08.
  10. ^ Stanley H. Ambrose, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1998
  11. ^ Knight, M.D., Walker, G.P.L., Ellwood, B.B., and Diehl, J.F., 1986, Stratigraphy, paleomagnetism, and magnetic fabric of the Toba Tuffs: Constraints on their sources and eruptive styles: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 91, p. 10,355-10,382.
  12. ^ Ninkovich, D., Sparks, R.S.J., and Ledbetter, M.T., 1978, The exceptional magnitude and intensity of the Toba eruption, Sumatra: An example of using deep-sea tephra layers as a geological tool: Bulletin Volcanologique, v. 41, p. 286-298.
  13. ^ Rose, W.I., and Chesner, C.A., 1987, Dispersal of ash in the great Toga eruption, 75 ka: Geology, v. 15, p. 913-917. Simkin, T., and Siebert, L., 1994, Volcanoes of the World: Geoscience Press, Tucson, Arizona, 349 p.
  14. ^ Williams, M.A.J., and Royce, K., 1982, Quaternary geology of the Middle Son Valley, north central India: Implications for prehistoric archaeology: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 38, p. 139-162.
  15. ^ Mystery of the Megavolcano official site, PBS.org

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The fossil of a horse forever locked in stone. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Guardian Unlimited | Special reports | Supervolcano stars in BBC's schedule (566 words)
Supervolcano uses special effects to show a 600C cloud of debris from the volcano killing everyone in a 60-mile zone around the park and the devastation of nearby Salt Lake City and Denver.
Supervolcano is believed to be one of the BBC's most expensive TV shows in terms of its hourly cost: £2.8m for two hours of screen time, compared with the £700,000 to £1m an hour which even lavish BBC1 costume dramas cost.
Supervolcano is one of the highlights of the £178m BBC1 winter season beginning in January.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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