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Encyclopedia > Supersonic
A United States Navy F/A-18E/F Super Hornet in transonic flight.
A United States Navy F/A-18E/F Super Hornet in transonic flight.

The term supersonic is used to define a speed that is over the speed of sound (Mach 1). At a typical temperature like 70 degrees Fahrenheit (21.1 °C), the threshold value required for an object to be traveling at a supersonic speed is approximately 344 m/s, 1,129 ft/s, 770 mph or 1,238 km/h. Speeds greater than 5 times the speed of sound are often referred to as hypersonic. Speeds where only some parts of the air around an object (such as the ends of rotor blades) reach supersonic speeds are labeled transonic (typically somewhere between Mach 0.8 and Mach 1.2). Image File history File links Size of this preview: 491 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (950 × 1160 pixel, file size: 68 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Other versions Image:F18Ãœberschallflug. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 491 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (950 × 1160 pixel, file size: 68 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Other versions Image:F18Ãœberschallflug. ... USN redirects here. ... The Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet is a supersonic carrier-capable fighter/attack aircraft. ... Transonic is an aeronautics term referring to a range of velocities just below and above the speed of sound. ... For other uses, see Flight (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Speed of sound (disambiguation). ... An F/A-18 Hornet at transonic speed and displaying the Prandtl-Glauert singularity just before reaching the speed of sound Mach number (Ma) (generally pronounced , sometimes or ) is the speed of an object moving through air, or any fluid substance, divided by the speed of sound through that substance... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... Metre per second (U.S. spelling: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds. ... Feet per second is a unit of speed; it expressses the number of feet traveled in one second. ... Miles per hour is a unit of speed, expressing the number of international miles covered per hour. ... Kilometre per hour (American spelling: kilometer per hour) is a unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector). ... Boeing X-43 at Mach 7 In aerodynamics, hypersonic speeds are speeds that are highly supersonic. ... Transonic is an aeronautics term referring to a range of velocities just below and above the speed of sound. ...


Sounds are travelling vibrations (pressure waves) in an elastic medium. In gases sound travels longitudinally at different speeds, mostly depending on the molecular mass and temperature of the gas; (pressure has little effect). Since air temperature and composition varies significantly with altitude, Mach numbers for aircraft can change without airspeed varying. In water at room temperature supersonic can be considered as any speed greater than 1,440 m/s or 4,724 ft/s. In solids, sound waves can be longitudinal or transverse and have even higher velocities. Supersonic fracture is crack motion faster than the speed of sound in a brittle material. The molecular mass (abbreviated Mr) of a substance, formerly also called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW, is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ... An F/A-18 Hornet at transonic speed and displaying the Prandtl-Glauert singularity just before reaching the speed of sound Mach number (Ma) (generally pronounced , sometimes or ) is the speed of an object moving through air, or any fluid substance, divided by the speed of sound through that substance... For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ... Supersonic fractures are fractures faster than the speed of sound in a material. ... A material is brittle if it is subject to fracture when subjected to stress i. ...

Contents

Supersonic objects

Many modern fighter aircraft are supersonic, but Concorde and the Tupolev Tu-144 were the only supersonic passenger aircraft. Since Concorde's final retirement flight on November 26, 2003, there are no supersonic passenger aircraft left in service. Some large bombers, such as the Tupolev Tu-160 and Rockwell/Boeing B-1B are also supersonic-capable. An aircraft that can still sustain supersonic flight without using an afterburner is called a supercruise aircraft. An A-10 Thunderbolt II, F-86 Sabre, P-38 Lightning and P-51 Mustang fly in formation during an air show at Langley Air Force Base, Virginia. ... For other uses, see Concorde (disambiguation). ... The Tupolev Tu-144 (NATO reporting name: Charger) was the first supersonic transport aircraft (SST), constructed under the direction of the Soviet Tupolev design bureau headed by Alexei Tupolev (1925–2001). ... The Concorde supersonic transport has a delta wing, a slender fuselage and four underslung Olympus engines. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A bomber is a military aircraft designed to attack ground targets, primarily by dropping bombs. ... Tupolev (Russian: Туполев) is a Russian aerospace and defence company. ... Tupolev Tu-160 The Tupolev Tu-160 (NATO reporting name Blackjack) is a supersonic, swing-wing heavy bomber designed in the Soviet Union. ... Rockwell International was the ultimate incarnation of a series of companies under the sphere of influence of Willard Rockwell, who had made his fortune after the invention and successful launch of a new bearing system for truck axles in 1919. ... The Boeing Company (NYSE: BA, TYO: 7661) is a major aerospace and defense corporation, originally founded by William Edward Boeing. ... The Boeing IDS (formerly Rockwell) B-1B Lancer is a long-range strategic bomber in service with the USAF. Together with the B-52 Stratofortress, it is the backbone of the United Statess long-range bomber force. ... For other uses of afterburner, see Afterburner (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Most modern firearm munitions are supersonic, with rifle projectiles often travelling at speeds approaching Mach 3. Firearms redirects here. ... Munition is often defined as a synonyn for ammunition. ... A projectile is any object sent through the air by the application of some force. ... Mach number (Ma) is defined as a ratio of speed to the speed of sound in the medium in case. ...


Most spacecraft, most notably the Space Shuttle are supersonic at least during portions of their reentry, though the effects on the spacecraft are reduced by low air pressures. During ascent, launch vehicles generally avoid going supersonic below 30 km (~98,400 feet) to reduce air drag. The Space Shuttle Discovery as seen from the International Space Station. ... This article is about the space vehicle. ...


Note that the speed of sound decreases somewhat with altitude, due to lower temperatures found there (typically up to 25 km). At even higher altitudes the temperature starts increasing, with the corresponding increase in the speed of sound.[1] For other uses, see Speed of sound (disambiguation). ...


A wave traveling through a whip is also capable of achieving supersonic speeds. [2] Surface waves in water This article is about waves in the most general scientific sense. ... For other uses, see Whip (disambiguation). ...


Breaking the sound barrier

Main article: Sound barrier

Supersonic aerodynamics are simpler than subsonic because the airsheets at different points along the plane often can't affect each other. Supersonic jets and rocket vehicles require several times greater thrust to push through the extra drag experienced within the transonic region (around Mach 0.85-1.2). At these speeds Aerospace engineers can gently guide air around the fuselage of the aircraft without producing new shock waves but any change in cross sectional area further down the vehicle leads to shock waves along the body. Designers use the Supersonic area rule and the Whitcomb area rule to minimize sudden changes in size. U.S. Navy F/A-18 breaking the sound barrier. ... For the Daft Punk song, see Aerodynamic (song). ... Transonic is an aeronautics term referring to a range of velocities just below and above the speed of sound. ... Aerospace engineering is the branch of engineering concerning aircraft, spacecraft and related topics. ... The fuselage can be short, and seemingly unaerodynamic, as in this Christen Eagle 2 The fuselage (from the French fuselé spindle-shaped) is an aircrafts main body section that holds crew and passengers or cargo. ... Introduction The shock wave is one of several different ways in which a gas in a supersonic flow can be compressed. ... The Sears-Haack body shape Junkers patent drawing from March 1944. ... The Whitcomb area rule (sometimes just called the area rule) is a design technique used to reduce an aircrafts drag at transonic speeds, speeds between about Mach 0. ...


It should be kept in mind, however, that the aerodynamic principles behind a supersonic aircraft are often more complex than described above due to the fact that such an aircraft must be efficient and stable at supersonic, transonic and subsonic flight.


At high speeds aerodynamic heating can occur, so an aircraft must be designed to operate and function under very high temperatures. For example, the SR-71 Blackbird jet could fly continuously at Mach 3.1 while some parts were above 315°C (600°F). Aerodynamic heating is the heating of a solid body produced by the passage of fluid (such as air) over the body. ... SR-71 redirects here. ...


See also

For the Daft Punk song, see Aerodynamic (song). ... Diagram of a de Laval nozzle, showing approximate flow velocity increasing from green to red in the direction of flow A de Laval nozzle (or convergent-divergent nozzle, CD nozzle or con-di nozzle) is a tube that is pinched in the middle, making an hourglass-shape. ... A Pratt and Whitney turbofan engine for the F-15 Eagle is tested at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, USA. The tunnel behind the engine muffles noise and allows exhaust to escape. ... An F/A-18 Hornet at transonic speed and displaying the Prandtl-Glauert singularity just before reaching the speed of sound Mach number (Ma) (generally pronounced , sometimes or ) is the speed of an object moving through air, or any fluid substance, divided by the speed of sound through that substance... Figure 1: A de Laval nozzle, showing approximate flow velocity increasing from green to red in the direction of flow The main type of rocket engine nozzles used in modern rocket engines is the de Laval nozzle which is used to expand and accelerate the combustion gases, from burning propellants... For other uses, see Sonic boom (disambiguation). ... U.S. Navy F/A-18 breaking the sound barrier. ... The Sears-Haack body shape Junkers patent drawing from March 1944. ... The Whitcomb area rule (sometimes just called the area rule) is a design technique used to reduce an aircrafts drag at transonic speeds, speeds between about Mach 0. ...

Other flow regimes

This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Transonic is an aeronautics term referring to a range of velocities just below and above the speed of sound. ... Boeing X-43 at Mach 7 In aerodynamics, hypersonic speeds are speeds that are highly supersonic. ...

References

  1. ^ eXtreme High Altitude Conditions Calculator
  2. ^ Hypography - Science for everyone - Whip Cracking Mystery Explained

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Supersonic -- Website Design and Development - Print Solutions -- Supersonic.Com.Ph (109 words)
Supersonic -- Website Design and Development - Print Solutions -- Supersonic.Com.Ph Unknown to many, a tiny island in the Pacific has moved beyond churning the standard dose of solar and tropical energy.
The sun, the web and other such phenomena have driven a set of young minds to fuse together and create a more sonic kind —still heat-induced but just a tad more potent.
Take a look at what our brains have cooked up so far.
Welcome to SUPERSONIC2006.COM (0 words)
Following the success of the past two student-organized Supersonic exhibitions of Southern California M.F.A. work in 2004 and 2005, nine graduate fine arts programs are joining together again to present the Supersonic show.
This year’s Supersonic will be hosted by the Los Angeles Municipal Art Gallery in Barnsdall Park, site of the historic Hollyhock House in Hollywood, designed by Frank Lloyd Wright.
Supersonic 2006 is entirely organized by students from the nine participating Southern California M.F.A. programs and presents works of intellectual and artistic rigor by 140 graduate students in one location.
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