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Encyclopedia > Supersaturation
Enormous highly pure, single crystal substances can be grown from a solution at the metastable boundary between an unsaturated and supersaturated solution. Here, a monopotassium phosphate crystal grown to create frequency doubling optics for the NIF laser.[1]
Enormous highly pure, single crystal substances can be grown from a solution at the metastable boundary between an unsaturated and supersaturated solution. Here, a monopotassium phosphate crystal grown to create frequency doubling optics for the NIF laser.[1]

The term supersaturation refers to a solution that contains more of the dissolved material than could be dissolved by the solvent under normal circumstances. It can also refer to a vapor of a compound that has a higher (partial) pressure than the vapor pressure of that compound. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Metastability is the ability of a non-equilibrium state to persist for a long period of time. ... Monopotassium phosphate (also potassium dihydrogen phosphate, KDP, or monobasic potassium phosphate, MKP) -- KH2PO4 -- is a soluble salt which is used as a fertilizer, a food additive and a fungicide. ... Second harmonic generation (SHG; also called frequency doubling) is a nonlinear optical process, in which photons interacting with a nonlinear material are effectively combined to form new photons with twice the energy, and therefore twice the frequency and half the wavelength of the initial photons. ... A construction worker inside NIFs 10 meter target chamber. ... Making a saline water solution by dissolving table salt (NaCl) in water This article is about chemical solutions. ... For other uses, see Solvent (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical use. ... Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ...


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Small particles (seeds) can trigger the separation of the dissolved material from the solvent or condensation of the vapor. In the solid form these seeds can lead to the formation of crystallites or even large single crystals. Supersaturation is a measure of the deviation of a dissolved sodium chloride crystal from its equilibrium value. In particle physics, a trigger is a system that uses simple criteria to rapidly decide which events in a particle detector to keep when only a few can be recorded. ... A crystallite is a domain of solid-state matter that has the same structure as a single crystal. ... For other uses, see Crystal (disambiguation). ...


Preparation

Supersaturated solutions are prepared or result when some condition of a saturated solution is changed, for example temperature, volume (as by evaporation), or pressure. For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Volume (disambiguation). ... Vaporization redirects here. ... This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ...


Examples

Carbonated water is a supersaturated solution of carbon dioxide gas in water. At the elevated pressure in the bottle, carbon dioxide can dissolve in water more than at atmospheric pressure. At atmospheric pressure, the carbon dioxide gas escapes very slowly from the supersaturated liquid. This process may be accelerated by the presence of nucleation sites within the solution, such as small bubbles, caused by shaking the bottle, or another solute, such as sugar powder or a widget. A Diet Coke and Mentos eruption is a rather extreme example. Some beverage products such as ales and stouts e.g. Guinness rely on this effect to produce the 'head' on the surface of the poured product. This has led to the invention of the widget, a device developed to produce enhanced bubble seeding in liquids, especially with dual supersaturated gas phases (carbon dioxide and nitrogen) (see patents by Fitzpatrick and Kuzniarski). Effervescence from soda. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Composite body, painted, and glazed bottle. ... Diurnal (daily) rhythm of air pressure in northern Germany (black curve is air pressure) Atmospheric pressure is the pressure at any point in the Earths atmosphere. ... For other uses, see Liquid (disambiguation). ... Bubbles in a soft drink each nucleate independently, responding to a decrease in pressure. ... Guinness floating widget The original widget was patented in the UK by Guinness. ... A handful of Mentos in a two liter Diet Coke bottle produces an eruption. ... Guinness logo Guinness is Good for You — Irish language advertisement. ... Guinness floating widget The original widget was patented in the UK by Guinness. ... Fitzpatrick may refer to several different people or places or things: Fitzpatrick (name), a surname of Irish-origin Alfred Fitzpatrick, founder of the Frontier College Brian Mac Giolla Phádraig (1585-c. ...


Scuba divers' tissues become supersaturated with breathing gases during a dive. If the diver ascends too fast, these gases form bubbles, resulting in decompression sickness. Scuba diving is swimming underwater while using self-contained breathing equipment. ... Biological tissue is a collection of interconnected cells that perform a similar function within an organism. ... Air is the most common and only natural breathing gas. ... Decompression sickness (DCS), the diver’s disease, the bends, or caisson disease is the name given to a variety of symptoms suffered by a person exposed to a decrease (nearly always after a big increase) in the pressure around his body. ...


In air that is supersaturated with water, water droplets may precipitate upon being disturbed. This can be observed in a cloud chamber. In the more general context a precipitate may form. Discovery of the positron in 1932 by Carl D. Anderson in a cloud chamber The cloud chamber, also known as the Wilson chamber, is used for detecting particles of ionizing radiation. ...


Supersaturated solutions of sugar and water are commonly used to make Rock candy. Rock candy is a type of confectionery composed of relatively large sugar crystals. ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Supersaturation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (250 words)
Supersaturated solutions are prepared or result when some condition of a saturated solution is changed, for example temperature, volume (as by evaporation), or pressure.
Carbonated water and beer are examples of supersaturated solutions of carbon dioxide gas in water.
In air that is supersaturated with water, water droplets may precipitate upon being disturbed.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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