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Encyclopedia > Superpower
The USA and USSR were the two superpowers during the Cold War. Here Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev meet in 1985
The USA and USSR were the two superpowers during the Cold War. Here Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev meet in 1985

A superpower is a state with a leading position in the international system and the ability to influence events and project power on a worldwide scale; it is traditionally considered to be one step higher than a great power. Alice Lyman Miller (Professor of National Security Affairs at the Naval Postgraduate School), defines a superpower as "a country that has the capacity to project dominating power and influence anywhere in the world, and sometimes, in more than one region of the globe at a time, and so may plausibly attain the status of global hegemon."[1] It was a term first applied in 1944 to the United States, the Soviet Union, and the British Empire. Following World War II, the British Empire ceased to exist as its territories became independent, and the Soviet Union and the United States were regarded as the only two superpowers, then engaged in the Cold War. Superpower may refer to: // Superpower, a state with the ability to influence events and project power on a worldwide scale Second Superpower, a term used to conceptualize a global civil society as a counterpoint to the United States of America Super Powers (professional wrestling), a tag team in the NWA... Public photo of US President Ronald Reagan holding discussions with USSR General Secretary Gorbachev http://www. ... Public photo of US President Ronald Reagan holding discussions with USSR General Secretary Gorbachev http://www. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Reagan redirects here. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev[1] (Russian: , IPA: ; born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... Foreign affairs redirects here. ... Look up Influence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... One of the hallmarks of contemporary great power status is permanent membership on the United Nations Security Council. ... The Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California, United States is a graduate school operated by the United States Navy. ... Hegemony (pronounced [])[1] (Greek: ) is a concept that has been used to describe the existence of dominance of one social group over another, such that the ruling group -- referred to as a hegemon -- acquires some degree of consent from the subordinate, as opposed to dominance purely by force. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


After the Cold War, the most common belief held is that only the United States fulfills the criteria to be considered a superpower,[2] although it is still sometimes argued that the end of the cold war has had little impact on power status, having established the United Nations security council veto as an objective criterion to differentiate between states, and recognizing that veto status has remained unchanged. [3] The People's Republic of China, the European Union,[4] India and Russia are thought to have the potential of achieving superpower status within the 21st century.[5] Others doubt the existence of superpowers in the post Cold War era altogether, stating that today's complex global marketplace and the rising interdependency between the world's nations has made the concept of a superpower an idea of the past and that the world is now multipolar.[6][7][8][9] UN and U.N. redirect here. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... 20XX redirects here. ... Polarity in international relations is a description of the distribution of power within the international system. ...

Contents

Application of the term

The term "superpower" was used to describe nations with greater than Great Power status as early as 1944, but only gained its specific meaning with regard to the United States and the Soviet Union after World War II. One of the hallmarks of contemporary great power status is permanent membership on the United Nations Security Council. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Origin

A world map of 1945. According to William T.R. Fox, the United States (blue), the Soviet Union (red), and the British Empire (green) were superpowers.
A world map of 1945. According to William T.R. Fox, the United States (blue), the Soviet Union (red), and the British Empire (green) were superpowers.

The term in its current political meaning was coined in the book The Superpowers: The United States, Britain and the Soviet Union – Their Responsibility for Peace (1944), written by William T.R. Fox, an American foreign policy professor. The book spoke of the global reach of a super-empowered nation.[10] Fox used the word Superpower to identify a new category of power able to occupy the highest status in a world in which, as the war then raging demonstrated, states could challenge and fight each other on a global scale. According to him, there were (at that moment) three states that were superpowers: the United States, the Soviet Union, and the British Empire. The British Empire was the most extensive empire in world history, which was considered the foremost great power and by 1921, held sway over 25% of the world's population[11] and controlled about 25% of the Earth's total land area,[12] while the United States and the Soviet Union both proved their newly gained power in World War II. The British Empire emerged from World War II significantly weakened and recognised to have lost its superpower status, while the Soviet Union and the United States were recognised as the sole remaining superpowers. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 370 pixelsFull resolution (1357 × 628 pixel, file size: 52 KB, MIME type: image/png) The United States, Soviet Union, and the British Empire in 1945. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 370 pixelsFull resolution (1357 × 628 pixel, file size: 52 KB, MIME type: image/png) The United States, Soviet Union, and the British Empire in 1945. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... William Thornton Rickert Fox (1912-1988) was a former American foreign policy professor and international relations theorician at the Columbia University (1950-1980, emeritus 1980-1988). ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Following are the worlds largest empire in descending order as commonly understood: 1. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Cold War

The 1956 Suez Crisis made it clear that the British Empire, economically ravaged by two world wars, could no longer compete on an equal footing with the United States and Soviet Union without sacrificing its reconstruction efforts, even while acting in concert with France and Israel. As the majority of World War II was fought far from its national boundaries, the United States did not suffer the industrial destruction or massive civilian casualties that marked the wartime situation of the countries in Europe or Asia. During the war, the United States had built up a strong industrial and technological infrastructure that had greatly advanced its military strength into a primary position on the global stage. A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA[1... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...

This map shows two essential global spheres during the Cold War in 1959. Consult the legend on the map for more details.
This map shows two essential global spheres during the Cold War in 1959. Consult the legend on the map for more details.

Following the war, most of Europe had aligned either with the United States or the Soviet Union. Despite attempts to create multinational coalitions or legislative bodies (such as the United Nations), it became increasingly clear that the United States and the Soviet Union were the dominant powers of the newly emerging Cold War, and had very different visions about what the post-war world ought to look like. The two countries opposed each other ideologically, politically, militarily, and economically. The Soviet Union represented the ideology of communism, whilst the United States represented the ideologies of capitalism and democracy. This was reflected in the Warsaw Pact and NATO military alliances, respectively. These alliances implied that these two nations were part of an emerging bipolar world, in contrast with a previously multipolar world. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1427x628, 37 KB) Summary Colored by Clevelander from public domain Wikimedia Commons source Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1427x628, 37 KB) Summary Colored by Clevelander from public domain Wikimedia Commons source Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... This article is about the military alliance. ...


The Soviet Union and the United States fulfilled the superpower criteria in the following ways:

The Soviet Union The United States
Political Strong Socialist Republic. Had permanent seat on the UN Security Council. Strong ties with Eastern Europe and the developing world. Strong ties with anti-colonialist movements and labour parties. Strong Capitalist Republic. Permanent seat on the UN Security Council. Strong ties with Western Europe, Latin America, British Commonwealth, and several East Asian countries.
Geographic Largest country in the world, with a land area of 22.27 million km²[13] Third largest country in the world, with an area of approximately 9.6 million km².[14]
Cultural Wielded influence through communist governments and organizations around the world. Rich cultural heritage based around classical music, ballet, literature, theatre, chess. Great ideological soft power until Hungary 1956. Influential in music, TV, films, art, and fashion. Freedom of speech and other guaranteed rights for residents. Wielded influence by supporting right-wing dictatorships in undeveloped countries and democracy in developed countries.
Military Essentially land-based: Largest armed forces in the world,[citation needed] one of the two most powerful air forces, one of the strongest navies. The capability to develop advanced military and space technologies, and the world's largest stockpile of nuclear weapons for the second half of the Cold War. Unequalled global intelligence network (KGB). Essentially naval-based: World's largest and most powerful navy with amphibic capabilities,[15] bases all over the world, particularly in an incomplete "ring" bordering the Warsaw Pact to the West, South and East. Largest nuclear arsenal in the world during the first half of the Cold War — stationed on its own soil and also in Europe. One of the largest armies in the world, and one of the two most powerful air forces in the world. Powerful military allies in Western Europe (NATO).
Economic Second largest economy in the world. Enormous mineral and energy resources, and large farming areas. Largely self-sufficient. Largest economy in the world. Large resources of minerals, metals, and timber, large and modernized farming industry.
Demographic Had a population of 286.7 million in 1989, the third largest on Earth behind China and India.[16] Had a population of 248.7 million in 1990, at that time the fourth largest on Earth.[17]

The idea that the Cold War period revolved around only two blocs, or even only two nations, has been challenged by some scholars in the post-Cold War era, who have noted that the bipolar world only exists if one ignores all of the various movements and conflicts that occurred without influence from either of the two superpowers.[citation needed] Additionally, much of the conflict between the superpowers was fought in "proxy wars", which more often than not involved issues more complex than the standard Cold War oppositions.[citation needed] Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Socialist state. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... In economics, a capitalist is someone who owns capital, presumably within the economic system of capitalism. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... Soft power is a term used in international relations theory to describe the ability of a political body, such as a state, to indirectly influence the behavior or interests of other political bodies through cultural or ideological means. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Navy is also:- shorthand for Navy Blue the nickname of the United States Naval Academy A navy is the branch of the armed forces of a nation that operates primarily on water. ... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... A proxy war is a war where two powers use third parties as a supplement or a substitute for fighting each other directly. ...


After the Soviet Union disintegrated in the early 1990s, the term hyperpower began to be applied to the United States, as the sole remaining superpower of the Cold War era.[2][18] This term, coined by French foreign minister Hubert Védrine in the 1990s, is controversial and the validity of classifying the United States in this way is disputed. One notable opponent to this theory, Samuel P. Huntington, rejects this theory in favor of a multipolar balance of power. A hyperpower is a state that is militarily, economically, and technologically dominant on the world stage. ... Hubert Védrine and Ben Ali Hubert Védrine (born July 31, 1947) is a French Socialist politician, who served as Foreign Minister in the government of Lionel Jospin from 1997 to 2002. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Balance of power in international relations is a central concept in realist theory. ...


Other International Relations theorists, such as Henry Kissinger, theorize that because the threat of the Soviet Union no longer exists to formerly American-dominated regions such as Japan and Western Europe, American influence is only declining since the end of the Cold War, because such regions no longer need protection or have necessarily similar foreign policies as the United States.[19] Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American politician, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ...


Recognition of earlier superpowers

There have been attempts to apply the term superpower retrospectively, to a variety of past entities such as the Persian Empire,[20][21] Roman Empire,[22][23] and the Spanish Empire.[24][25] Recognition by historians of these older states as superpowers may focus on various superlative traits exhibited by them. For example, at its peak the Spanish empire was among the largest the world had ever seen. Persia redirects here. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... An anachronous map of the overseas Spanish Empire (1492-1898) in red, and the Spanish Habsburg realms in Europe (1516-1714) in orange. ... This article provides a list of the largest empires in world history. ...


Characteristics

Military assets such as a Nimitz class aircraft carrier are a means of power projection on a global scale—one hallmark of a superpower
Military assets such as a Nimitz class aircraft carrier are a means of power projection on a global scale—one hallmark of a superpower[1]

The criteria of a superpower are not clearly defined[2] and as a consequence they may differ between sources. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2000x1325, 901 KB) USS Nimitz (CVN-68), a US Navy aircraft carrier Source: Resized and recompressed version of [1] from Nimitzs offical site (has several more images. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2000x1325, 901 KB) USS Nimitz (CVN-68), a US Navy aircraft carrier Source: Resized and recompressed version of [1] from Nimitzs offical site (has several more images. ... The Nimitz-class supercarriers are a line of nuclear-powered aircraft carriers in service with the US Navy, and are the largest capital ships in the world. ... USS , and HMS Illustrious, two aircraft carriers on a joint patrol. ...


According to Lyman Miller, "The basic components of superpower stature may be measured along four axes of power: military, economic, political, and cultural (or what political scientist Joseph Nye has termed “soft”).[1] Joseph Nye (born 1937) is the founder, along with Robert Keohane, of the international relations theory neoliberalism (international relations) developed in their 1977 book Power and Interdependence. ...


In the opinion of Kim Richard Nossal of McMaster University, "generally this term was used to signify a political community that occupied a continental-sized landmass, had a sizable population (relative at least to other major powers); a superordinate economic capacity (again, relative to others), including ample indigenous supplies of food and natural resources; enjoyed a high degree of non-dependence on international intercourse; and, most importantly, had a well-developed nuclear capacity (eventually normally defined as second-strike capability)."[2] McMaster University is a highly regarded medium-sized research-intensive university located in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, with an enrollment of 18,238 full-time and 3,836 part-time students (as of 2006). ...


Former Indian National Security Advisor Jyotindra Nath Dixit has also described the characteristics of Superpowers. In his view, "first, the state or the nation concerned should have sizable territorial presence in terms of the size of the population. Secondly, such a state should have high levels of domestic cohesion, clear sense of national identity and stable administration based on strong legal and institutional arrangements. Thirdly, the state concerned should be economically well to do and should be endowed with food security and natural resources, particularly energy resources and infrastructural resources in terms of minerals and metals. Such a state should have a strong industrial base backed by productive capacities and technological knowledge. Then the state concerned should have military capacities, particularly nuclear and missile weapons capabilities at least comparable to, if not of higher levels than other countries which may have similar capacities."[26] Jyotindra Nath Dixit (January 8, 1936 – January 3, 2005) was an Indian diplomat and politician. ...


In the opinion of Professor Paul Dukes, "a superpower must be able to conduct a global strategy including the possibility of destroying the world; to command vast economic potential and influence; and to present a universal ideology". Although, "many modifications may be made to this basic definition".[27]


According to Professor June Teufel Dreyer, "A superpower must be able to project its power, soft and hard, globally."[28]


Post Cold War (1991-)

After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 that ended the Cold War, the post-Cold War world is widely considered as a unipolar world, with the United States as the world's sole remaining superpower.[29][30][31][32][33] In the words of Samuel P. Huntington, "The United States, of course, is the sole state with preeminence in every domain of power — economic, military, diplomatic, ideological, technological, and cultural — with the reach and capabilities to promote its interests in virtually every part of the world."[34] For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


Some experts argue that this mainstream assessment of current global politics is too simplified, in part because of the difficulty in classifying the European Union at its current stage of development. Others argue that the notion of a superpower is outdated, considering complex global economic interdependencies, and propose that the world is multipolar.[6][7][8][9] According to Samuel P. Huntington, "There is now only one superpower. But that does not mean that the world is unipolar. A unipolar system would have one superpower, no significant major powers, and many minor powers." Huntingdon thinks, "Contemporary international politics" ... "is instead a strange hybrid, a uni-multipolar system with one superpower and several major powers."[34] Global politics is the discipline that studies the political and economical patterns of the world. ... Polarity in international relations is a description of the distribution of power within the international system. ...


Additionally, there has been some recent speculation that the United States is declining in power. Citing economic hardships, a rapidly declining dollar, the rise of other great powers around the world, and decreasing education, some experts have suggested the possibility of America losing its superpower status in the near future.[35][36][37] The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ...


Due to its large populations, economic potential and influence in international affairs, the European Union, Federative Republic of Brazil, People's Republic of China, Republic of India, and the Russian Federation, are among the powers which may have the ability to influence future world politics and reach the status of superpower. The Republic of India is the second most populous country in the world, with a population of more than one billion, and is the seventh largest country by geographical area. ... Motto: none Anthem: Hymn of the Russian Federation Capital Moscow Largest city Moscow Official language(s) Russian Government Semi-presidential Federal republic  - President of Russia Vladimir Putin  - Prime Minister Mikhail Fradkov Independence From the Soviet Union   - Declared June 12, 1991   - Finalized December 25, 1991  Area    - Total 17,075,400 km...


Potential superpowers

     People's Republic of China     Republic of India     European Union     Russian Federation

Academics predict the possible rise of new superpowers in the 21st century, mentioning four possible superpower candidates. Whether Russia, the People's Republic of China, India or the European Union will be future superpowers is a matter of ongoing debate. The record of such predictions has not been perfect. For example in the 1980s some commentators thought Japan would become a superpower, due to its large GDP and high economic growth at the time.[38] Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1357x628, 29 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... 20XX redirects here. ...


European Union

The European Union has been called an emerging superpower by academics.[39][40][41][42] T.R. Reid,[43] Andrew Reding[44] and Mark Leonard,[45][46] believe that the power of the European Union will rival that of the United States in the 21st century. Leonard cites several factors: the EU's large population, large economy, low inflation rates, the unpopularity and perceived failure of US foreign policy in recent years, and certain EU members states' high quality of life (when measured in terms such as hours worked per week).[47] On the other hand Laurent Cohen-Tanugi[48] states that the EU as a whole has consistently suffered from a growth deficit vis-a-vis the US, high unemployment, and public deficits even while most member states of the EU lagged substantially behind the US in R&D investment, technological innovation, and, since 1995, productivity gains. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Mark Leonard is a British foreign policy thinker and the author of the book Why Europe will run the 21st Century. ...


People's Republic of China

The People's Republic of China receives continual coverage in the popular press of its potential superpower status,[49][50] and has been identified as a rising or emerging economic and military superpower by academics and other experts.[51][52][53][54] Professor Shujie Yao of Nottingham University has said "China will overtake the United States to become the world's largest economy by 2038 if current growth rates continue," and that China's GDP will overtake that of Japan by 2017 or 2018, and Germany's by 2008. Professor Yao thinks that "under an optimistic scenario," "China could become a real superpower in 30 years time."[55] Though in late 2007, China's economic power 'shrank' when the World Bank reported that they had overestimated China's economy by about 40%. The findings meant that China would not become the world's biggest economy as soon as some had forecast, and that China was poorer than estimated.[56] Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... © University of Nottingham   The University of Nottingham is a leading research and teaching university in the city of Nottingham, in the East Midlands of England. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ...


Geoffrey Murphay's China: The Next Superpower argues that while the potential for China is high; this is fairly perceived only by looking at the risks and obstacles China faces in managing its population and resources. The political situation in China is too fragile to survive into superpower status according to Susan Shirk in China: Fragile Superpower.[57] Other factors that could constrain China's ability to become a superpower in the future include: limited supplies of energy and raw materials, questions over its innovation capability, inequality and corruption, and risks to social stability and the environment.[58] Susan Shirk is a former Deputy Assistant Secretary of State during the Clinton administration. ...


India

Newsweek, and the International Herald Tribune join several academics in discussing India's potential of becoming a superpower.[59][60][61] With 9.4% GDP growth in 2007[62], Goldman Sachs predicts that as 700 million Indians are expected to move to cities by 2050, the Indian economy may surpass the United States's (in US$) by 2043.[63][64] Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... The Newsweek logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and internationally. ... The International Herald Tribune is a widely read English language international newspaper. ... GDP is an acronym which can stand for more than one thing: (in economics) an abbreviation for Gross Domestic Product. ... The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. ... Centuries: 20th century - 21st century - 22nd century Decades: 1990s 2000s 2010s 2020s 2030s - 2040s - 2050s 2060s 2070s 2080s 2090s Years: 2038 2039 2040 2041 2042 - 2043 - 2044 2045 2046 2047 2048 2043 (MMXLIII)[link title January Excepted expiration from the Arizona-Sonora pipline communication. ...

"India has moved onto a much faster growth trajectory than the bank had previously expected, fueled by strong and steady productivity gains in its legions of new factories, which are producing everything from brassieres to cars." [64]

India's strength lies in its demographics; More than 50% of India's population is under 25.[64] Dr Narendra Jadhav, a principal advisor to the RBI and a former advisor to the executive director at the IMF, says "India has a great potential to become an economic super power because of its growing young population."[65] A young population coupled with the second largest English-speaking population in the world could give India an advantage over China.[66] Other factors contributing to India's emergence as a superpower include democracy and its status as a nuclear power. Population growth, from 443 million in 1960 to 1,004 million in 2000 Map showing the population density of each district in India Map showing the population growth over the past ten years of each district in India Map showing the literacy rate of each district in India Chart showing... The RBI headquarters in Mumbai The RBI Regional Office in Mumbai The RBI heaquarters in Delhi. ... The flag of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the international organization entrusted with overseeing the global financial system by monitoring foreign exchange rates and balance of payments, as well as offering technical and financial assistance when asked. ... This is a list of countries of the world sorted by the total English-speaking population in that country. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This article is about applications of nuclear fission reactors as power sources. ...


Founder and President of the Economic Strategy Institute and former counselor to the Secretary of Commerce in the Reagan Administration Clyde V. Prestowitz Jr. has embraced the notion being put forth that This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

"It is going to be India's century. India is going to be the biggest economy in the world. It is going to be the biggest superpower of the 21st century".[67]

China and India rising to superpower status is not inevitable, according to scholars such as Professor Pranab Bardhan, Chief Editor of the Journal of Development Economics, who suggest that millions mired in poverty and ineffective government prevent China or India from rivaling the U.S. or the E.U. any time soon.[68]


Russian Federation

Russia is suggested as a potential candidate for re-achieving superpower status in the twenty-first century due to its fast-growing economy, energy superpower status and the size of its military. According to Steven Rosefielde of the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, Russia intends to "reemerge as a full-fledged superpower," and "contrary to conventional wisdom, this goal is easily within the Kremlin’s grasp, but the cost to the Russian people and global security would be immense" (Rosefielde 2005:1). Rosefielde further argues that "Russia has an intact military-industrial complex...and the mineral wealth to reactivate its dormant structurally militarized potential," and that "supply-side constraints don’t preclude a return to prodigal superpowerdom" (Rosefielde 2005:9). Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... There is as yet no consensus as to what an energy superpower is exactly, or how to define it apart from other large resource-producing states. ... The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is a public, coeducational, research university located in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA. Also know as Carolina, North Carolina, UNC-CH, or simply UNC, the university is the oldest public institution of higher education in the United States and is the flagship...


Alexander Golts of the St. Petersburg Times argues that Putin's confrontations with the US on nuclear issues are in pursuit of regaining superpower status for Russia.[69]


Mike Ritchie of industry analysts Energy Intelligence says "Russia was always a superpower that used its energy to win friends and influence among its former Soviet satellites. Nothing has really changed much. They are back in the same game, winning friends and influencing people and using their power to do so."[70]


Barry Buzan, professor of international relations at the London School of Economics, argues that it is unlikely Russia will attain superpower status in the near future. He states: Barry Buzan is a Professor of International Relations at the London School of Economics, and honorary professor at the University of Copenhagen. ... Mascot: Beaver Affiliations: University of London Russell Group EUA ACU CEMS APSIA Universities UK U8 Golden Triangle G5 Group Website: http://www. ...

Russia is the least likely candidate for (re)promotion to superpower. Indeed, it remains a plausible candidate for further demotion into the ranks of big regional powers alongside India and Brazil. To achieve promotion back to superpower status would require Russia to stage a miraculous across-the-board recovery from the very severe economic, political and status shrinkage that followed from the implosion of the Soviet Union...Russia's problem is the huge disjuncture between its status needs and its economic and military weakness. Except for nuclear weapons, the massive military legacy from the Soviet Union has largely decayed...Aside from its nuclear weapons, and its enormous political geography, Russia does not really have the material capability to sustain even its great power status, which is consequentially something given by its peers than taken by right...Therefore, and even though its position has improved a bit since the nadir of the 1990s, Russia is too weak to bid for superpower status during the foreseeable future.[71]

However, In a more recent report by ABC News, a senior U.S. official asserted that "Russia is once again indisputably the number two military power in the world, second only to the United States".[72] Russia's military strength has risen substantially under President Putin, having recently produced the worlds most powerful conventional bomb[73] and the worlds most advanced anti-ballistic missile system [74] to date. Additionally, its forces are currently in the midst of a $189 billion ($302 billion PPP) modernization plan. Russia's defence minister, Sergei Ivanov, said that he wanted to exceed the Soviet army in combat readiness.[75] ABC News logo ABC News Special Report ident, circa 2006 ABC News is a division of American television and radio network ABC, owned by The Walt Disney Company. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Влади́мир Влади́мирович Пу́тин in Cyrillic lettering) (born October 7, 1952) has been the President of Russia since the year 2000. ... A conventional weapon is a weapon that does not incorporate chemical, biological or nuclear payloads. ... Fireball blast from the Russian Father of All Bombs, with the beginnings of a mushroom cloud Father of All Bombs is the nickname of a Russian-made air-delivered thermobaric weapon that is claimed to be four times more powerful than the U.S. militarys GBU-43/B Massive... The S-400, 48N6DM The S-400 Triumf (Russian: ; English: ) is a new generation of anti-aircraft/anti-missile weapon system complex developed by the Almaz Central Design Bureau as an upgrade of the S-300 family. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... For other people known as Sergei Ivanov, see Ivanov. ...


Russia is often considered to be an energy superpower and a nuclear superpower due to its vast amounts of natural resources and large nuclear arsenal.[76][77][78] There is as yet no consensus as to what an energy superpower is exactly, or how to define it apart from other large resource-producing states. ... Russia possesses one of the two largest stockpiles of weapons of mass destruction in the world (the United States possess the other). ...


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  3. ^ "The Middle Power (Page 79)". 
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  62. ^ At 9.4%, GDP growth second fastest-ever
  63. ^ http://www.usindiafriendship.net/viewpoints1/Indias_Rising_Growth_Potential.pdf
  64. ^ a b c http://www.iht.com/articles/2007/01/24/business/rupee.php
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  69. ^ St. Petersburg Times: "Dreaming of New Conflicts"
  70. ^ Russia: A superpower rises again[December 13, 2006]
  71. ^ (2004) "6", The United States and the Great Powers: World Politics in the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Polity Press, 110-111. ISBN 0745633757. 
  72. ^ Rice: Russia's Military Moves 'a Problem' ABC News Oct. 14, 2007
  73. ^ Russia tests giant fuel-air bomb BBC News Retrieved on March 18, 2008
  74. ^ S-400 missile defense systems to start defending Moscow July 1 RIA Novosti Retrieved on March 21, 2008
  75. ^ Big rise in Russian military spending raises fears of new challenge to west The Guardian February 9 2007
  76. ^ Goldman, Marshall I. (October 11, 2006). Behold the new energy superpower. International Herald Tribune. Retrieved on 2007-10-08.
  77. ^ Chance, Matthew (Junde 27, 2007). Eye on Russia: Russia's resurgence. Cable News Network. Retrieved on 2007-10-08.
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Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Toronto Star is Canadas highest-circulation newspaper, though its print edition is distributed almost entirely within Ontario. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), (in French: Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques; OCDE) is an international organisation of thirty countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ... It has been suggested that Penguin Modern Poets, Penguin Great Ideas be merged into this article or section. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The University of Nottingham is a leading research and teaching university in the city of Nottingham, in the East Midlands of England. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... ABC News logo ABC News Special Report ident, circa 2006 ABC News is a division of American television and radio network ABC, owned by The Walt Disney Company. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... RIA (Russian Information Agency) Novosti is a Russian press agency based in Moscow. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • The Rise of India- Report by Goldman Sachs
  • USC U.S.-China Institute - monitors trends in contemporary China
  • US-China Today - magazine with daily news summaries on China

Bibliography

  • Belt, Don (2004). "Europe's Big Gamble", National Geographic, 54–65. 
  • Brzezinski, Zbigniew (1997). The Grand Chessboard: American Primacy and Its Geostrategic Imperatives. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-02726-1. 
  • Fox, William (1944). The Super-powers: the United States, Britain, and the Soviet union—their responsibility for peace. Harcourt, Brace a. Co. 
  • Kamen, Henry (2003). Spain's Road To Empire: The Making Of A World Power, 1492-1763. Penguin, 640p.. 
  • Kennedy, Paul (1988). The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers. ISBN 0-679-72019-7. 
  • McCormick, John, John (2007). The European Superpower. Palgave Macmillan. 
  • Todd, Emanuel (200X). After the Empire — The Breakdown of the American Order. 
  • Rosefielde, Steven (2005). Russia in the 21st Century: The Prodigal Superpower (PDF), Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521836786. Retrieved on 2007-10-07. 
The National Geographic Society was founded in the USA on January 27, 1888, by 33 men interested in organizing a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge. ... Zbigniew Kazimierz Brzezinski (born March 28, 1928, Warsaw, Poland) is a Polish-American political scientist, geostrategist, and statesman. ... William Thornton Rickert Fox (1912-1988) was a former American foreign policy professor and international relations theorician at the Columbia University (1950-1980, emeritus 1980-1988). ... Paul Kennedy can refer to: Paul Kennedy a professor of history at Yale University who is known for his study of the history of international relations. ... The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers: Economic change and military conflict from 1500 to 2000 is the fifth and best-known book by historian Paul Kennedy. ... John McCormick is Professor of Political Science at Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis(IUPUI), and has been chair since July 2001. ... Emmanuel Todd, born 16 May 1951 in Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France is a french historian and political scientist at the National Institute of Demographic Studies (INED), in Paris. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Much of the recent sociological debate on power revolves around the issue of the constraining and/or enabling nature of power. ... Soft power is a term used in international relations theory to describe the ability of a political body, such as a state, to indirectly influence the behavior or interests of other political bodies through cultural or ideological means. ... Hard power is a concept which is mainly used in realism in international relations and refers to national power which comes from military and economic means. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Power politics is a state of international relations in which sovereigns protect their own interests by threatening one another with military, economic, or political aggression. ... Realpolitik (German: real (realistic, practical or actual) and Politik (politics) refers to politics or diplomacy based primarily on practical considerations, rather than ideological notions. ... One of the hallmarks of contemporary great power status is permanent membership on the United Nations Security Council. ... Middle power is a term used in the field of international relations to describe states that are not superpowers or great powers, but still have large and mild influence and recognized internationally. ... In international relations, a regional power is a state that has power within a geographic region. ... There is as yet no consensus as to what an energy superpower is exactly, or how to define it apart from other large resource-producing states. ... A hyperpower is a state that is militarily, economically, and technologically dominant on the world stage. ... Geopolitics is the study that analyzes geography, history and social science with reference to spatial politics and patterns at various scales (ranging from home, city, region, state to international and cosmopolitics). ... The African Century is a term that has a variety of meanings. ... ... Asia is the largest continent on Earth with 60% of the human population. ... The Chinese Century (Simplified Chinese 中国世纪) refers to the growing power of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) in the 21st century. ... The European Century is a term, which was first used by Mark Leonard in his book Perpetual Power: Why Europe Will Run the 21st Century and is used to describe the belief that the 21st century will become a century in which the current European way of doing things will... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Pacific Century is a term that has been used to describe the 21st century through analogy with the term American Century. ... This article deals with the world most powerful nations and empires before the Congress of Vienna. ... Polarity in international relations is a description of the distribution of power within the international system. ... USS , and HMS Illustrious, two aircraft carriers on a joint patrol. ... The Power transition theory is a theory about the cyclic nature of war, in relation to the power in international relations. ... The Second Superpower is a term used to conceptualize a global civil society (including the anti-globalization movement or global justice movement) as a counterpoint to the United States of America. ... Superpower collapse, that is, the political collapse of a superpower nation-state, is a term used to describe the actual political collapse of the Soviet Union, and by extension, the theoretical collapse of the other recognized superpower, the United States. ... Superpower Disengagement refers to the German reunification plan proposed by Stalin in 1952. ... Group of Eight redirects here. ... The G8+5 group of leaders consists of the heads of government from the G8 nations (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States), plus the leaders of the leading emerging economies (Brazil, China, India, Mexico and South Africa). ... Location of the five BRIMC countries BRIMC is a relatively new term used to refer to the combination of Brazil, Russia, India, Mexico and China. ... The four BRIC countries: Brazil, Russia, India and China BRIC or BRICs are terms used to refer to the combination of Brazil, Russia, India, and China. ... A Map of the nations in the list. ...  Member states  Observer states  Taiwan (Disputed) Secretariat RATS Beijing, China (PRC) Tashkent, Uzbekistan Working languages Russian, Chinese Membership 6 member states 4 observer states Leaders  -  Secretary General Bolat Nurgaliyev Establishment 15 June 2001 Website http://www. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Superpower - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2985 words)
A superpower is a state with the first rank in the international system and the ability to influence events and project power on a worldwide scale; it is considered a higher level of power than a major power.
China and India appear to have the greatest potential amongst all the other nations of achieving superpower or near-superpower status within the 21st century and are often termed as emerging superpowers.
However, others doubt the existence of superpowers altogether, stating that today's complex global marketplace and the rising interdependency between the world's nations has made the concept of a superpower an idea of the past and that the world is now multipolar.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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