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Encyclopedia > Supernatural
Look up Supernatural in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

The supernatural (Latin: super- "above" + natura "nature") pertains to entities, events or powers regarded as beyond nature, in that they cannot be explained from the laws of the natural world. Religious miracles are typical of such “supernatural” manifestations, as are spells and curses, divination, the notion that there is an afterlife for the dead, and innumerable others. Supernatural themes are often associated with magical and occult ideas. Supernatural is also a classification for explanations which invoke explanative contructs that in principle are beyond human conception, understanding or verification. Such constructs would also be classified as supernatural. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Supernatural typically refers to supernatural forces and phenomena, but may also refer to: Music Supernatural (rapper) Supernatural (pop group), a pop group consisting of winners from reality show Popstars in Sweden Supernatural (Wild Orchid song) Supernatural (Santana album), a 1999 album by Carlos Santana Supernatural (dc Talk album), released in... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... This article is about the physical universe. ... A miracle, derived from the old Latin word miraculum meaning something wonderful, is a striking interposition of divine intervention by God in the universe by which the ordinary course and operation of Nature is overruled, suspended, or modified. ... Wiktionary has a definition of: Spell For spelling in linguistics, see orthography. ... For the main meaning see curse. ... For other uses, see Divination (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Afterlife (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Magic (illusion). ... For other uses, see Occult (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Controversy.

Adherents of supernatural beliefs hold that such occurrences exist just as surely as does the natural world, whereas opponents argue that there are natural, physical explanations for all such occurrences, summed up as

Measure what is measurable, and make measurable what is not so."
 
If we subject everything to reason, our religion will have nothing mysterious or supernatural in it. If we violate the principles of reason, our religion will be absurd and ridiculous."
 

According to the strict materialist view, if something 'supernatural' exists, it is by definition not supernatural. Are there forces beyond the natural forces studied by physics? Are there ways of sensing that go beyond our biological senses and instruments? Most scientists today would say "No"; some mystics, believers in religion or the occult, might say "Yes". Certainly there may always be things outside of the realm of human understanding, as of yet unconfirmed and dubious in existence, and some might term these 'supernatural.' Galileo can refer to: Galileo Galilei, astronomer, philosopher, and physicist (1564 - 1642) the Galileo spacecraft, a NASA space probe that visited Jupiter and its moons the Galileo positioning system Life of Galileo, a play by Bertolt Brecht Galileo (1975) - screen adaptation of the play Life of Galileo by Bertolt Brecht... Blaise Pascal (pronounced ), (June 19, 1623 – August 19, 1662) was a French mathematician, physicist, and religious philosopher. ...


Argument and controversy has surrounded the issue on both sides. One complicating factor is that there is no exact definition of what “natural” is, and what the limits of naturalism might be. Concepts in the supernatural domain are closely related to concepts in religious spirituality and metaphysics or spiritualism. The term "supernatural" is often used interchangeably with paranormal or preternatural — the latter typically limited to an adjective for describing abilities which appear to exceed possible bounds. See the nature of God in Western theology, anthropology of religion, and Biblical cosmology. Likewise, legendary characters such as vampires, poltergeists and leprechauns would be considered supernatural. Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual... Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ... Plato (Left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of reality, being, and the world. ... // By 1853, when the popular song Spirit Rappings was published, Spiritualism was an object of intense curiosity. ... Paranormal is an umbrella term used to describe a wide variety of reported anomalous phenomena. ... The preternatural or praeternatural are phenomenon which appear outside (Latin praeter) the realm of nature as currently explained by science. ... The nature of God in monotheistic religions is a broad topic in Western philosophy of religion and theology, with a very old and distinguished history; it was one of the central topics in medieval philosophy. ... The anthropology of religion involves the study of religious institutions in relation to other social institutions, and the comparison of religious beliefs and practices across cultures. ... It has been suggested that Biblical astronomy be merged into this article or section. ...


Views on the supernatural

Speculative views on the "supernatural" include that it pertains to:

Distinct from nature Some events occur according to natural laws, and others occur according to a separate set of principles external to nature. For example God (in most definitions) is considered to be the ultimate creator of the universe and the natural laws. Those who believe in Angels and Spirits generally assert that they are super-natural entities. Some religious people also believe that all things which humans see as natural, only act the same way consistently because God wills it so, and that natural laws are an extension of divine will.
A higher nature Others assert that God, miracles, or other putative supernatural events are real, verifiable, and part of the laws of nature that we do not yet understand.[citation needed]
A human coping mechanism Others believe that all events have natural and only natural causes. They believe that human beings ascribe supernatural attributes to purely natural events (eg. Lightning, Rainbow, Flood, Origin of Life).
Magic Many people have sought to use both magic and science in hopes of empowering humanity for an improvement and to achieve a clearer picture of humanity's place in the cosmos. In the earliest Christian art (from the 3rd century) Jesus Christ is portrayed as a bare-faced youth holding a wand as a symbol of power,[1][2] as the centuries passed. (See: Images of Jesus) [3] There may be a persistent link between supernaturalism, the paranormal, and the desire for immortality[4][5]
A word for unexplained events Before the scientific method was used, everything was believed to have a supernatural cause.[citation needed] "Supernatural" today is in this sense merely used as an inspiration for more scientific knowledge tomorrow, through observation and analysis.
Another part of a larger nature This is a view largely held by monists and process theorists. According to this view, the "supernatural" is just a term for parts of nature that modern science and philosophy do not yet properly understand, similar to how sound and lightning used to be mysterious forces to science. Materialist monists believe that the "supernatural" are just things in the physical universe not yet understood by modern science while idealist monists reject the concept of "supernatural" on the grounds that they believe "nature" is the non-material. Neutral monists maintain that "nature" and "supernature" are artificial categories as they believe that the material and non-material are both either equally real and simultaneously existent, or illusions that stem from the human mind's interpretation of reality.

For a list of set rules, see Laws of science. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... The Annunciation - the Angel Gabriel announces to Mary that she will bear Jesus (El Greco, 1575) An angel is an ethereal being found in many religions, whose duties are to assist and serve God. ... The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus (breath). // The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus, meaning breath (compare spiritus asper), but also soul, courage, vigor, ultimately from a PIE root *(s)peis- (to blow). In the Vulgate, the Latin word translates Greek (πνευμα), pneuma (Hebrew (רוח) ruah), as... Not to be confused with lighting. ... For other uses, see Rainbow (disambiguation). ... Flooding in Amphoe Sena, Ayutthaya Province, Thailand. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... There are no undisputed historical images of Jesus; he sat for no portraits which are preserved and of unquestioned authenticity and undoubted provenance. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... For other uses, see Monist (disambiguation). ... Process philosophy identifies metaphysical reality with change and dynamism. ...

Arguments in favor of a supernatural reality

Many proponents believe that the complexities and mysteries of the universe cannot be explained by naturalistic explanations alone and argue that it is reasonable to assume that a nonnatural entity or entities resolve the unexplained. Proponents[citation needed] note that many of history's greatest scientists, including Galileo, Copernicus, Newton, Faraday, Mendel and Maxwell appear to have believed firmly in a supernatural God. By its own definition, science today is incapable of examining or testing for the existence of things which are untestable. Science concerns itself with what can be measured and seen through observation, logic, and scientific reason. Proponents of supernaturalism claim that their belief system is more flexible, which allows them more diversity in terms of epistemology (ways of understanding knowledge). William Dembski writes: For the theist attempting to understand nature, God as creator is fundamental, the creation is derivative, and nature as the physical part of creation is still further downstream. [1] For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ... Galileo redirects here. ... Nicolaus Copernicus (in Latin; Polish Mikołaj Kopernik, German Nikolaus Kopernikus - February 19, 1473 – May 24, 1543) was a Polish astronomer, mathematician and economist who developed a heliocentric (Sun-centered) theory of the solar system in a form detailed enough to make it scientifically useful. ... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... Michael Faraday, FRS (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was an English chemist and physicist (or natural philosopher, in the terminology of that time) who contributed to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. ... “Mendel” redirects here. ... James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish mathematician and theoretical physicist from Edinburgh, Scotland, UK. His most significant achievement was aggregating a set of equations in electricity, magnetism and inductance — eponymously named Maxwells equations — including an important modification (extension) of the Ampères... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Theory of knowledge redirects here: for other uses, see theory of knowledge (disambiguation) According to Plato, knowledge is a subset of that which is both true and believed Epistemology or theory of knowledge is the branch of philosophy that studies the nature, methods, limitations, and validity of knowledge and belief. ... William A. Dembski William Albert Bill Dembski (born July 18, 1960) is an American mathematician, philosopher, theologian and proponent of intelligent design in opposition to the theory of evolution through natural selection. ...


Arguments against a supernatural reality

Some thinkers suggest that if a phenomenon is by definition outside of the realm of science, it therefore cannot be experienced and has by definition no impact on our lives.

  • Our knowledge of the world is continuously increasing. Some occurrences, once assumed supernatural, can today be explained by scientific theories.
  • Many claimed supernatural phenomena vanish when they are examined closely. There have been, for example, various studies on astrology, most of them with negative results[6][7][8] [9][10](a single positive result cannot outweigh many negative ones, as it can be expected by mere chance).
  • Supernaturality may be a remnant of a static world view. It comes from a time when the growth of human knowledge was appreciably slower than at present. The Aristotelian Mechanics were considered valid for more than a thousand years.
  • Some naturalists argue that the process of observing of an event contradicts the definition of "supernatural," therefore, no events that can be observed can actually be described as supernatural. This leads to the conclusion that if there were supernatural events and beings, we would not be able to know about them.
  • A majority of supernaturalists of any given supernatural religion only believe in a very narrow subset of all supernatural explanations of reality when all the supernatural beliefs of all supernatural religions, past and present, are taken together. For the vast majority of Christians today do not think that we are reincarnated, nor do the vast majority of today’s Hindus think that everyone permanently goes to heaven or hell when they die. This differentiates a Hindu from a Christian. Since for both groups in this example the reasons for their particuar choices do not differ in any discernable way, to then make claims about the "truth" of their own beliefs and the "untruth" of the opposing beliefs would not be fair and honest. Thus some say either accept all religious claims for the same reasons or reject all religious claims for the same reasons.

For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Reincarnation, also called metempsychosis or transmigration of souls, is the rebirth in another body (after physical death), of some critical part of a persons personality or spirit. ... For other uses, see Heaven (disambiguation). ... The Inferno redirects here. ... Bhavna says there are 300 million gods in Hinduism. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ...

Naturalization vs. supernaturalization

Some people believe that supernatural events occur, while others do not.


"Naturalization"

The neologism naturalize, meaning, "to make natural", is sometimes used to describe the perceived process of denying any supernatural significance to events which another presumes to be supernatural. This perceived process may also be referred to as reductionism or deconstructionism. It rests on the believer's presumption that supernatural events can and do occur; thus, their description as "natural" by the skeptic is seen as a result of a process of deliberate or unconscious denial of any supernatural significance, thus, "naturalization". A neologism (Greek νεολογισμός [neologismos], from νέος [neos] new + λόγος [logos] word, speech, discourse + suffix -ισμός [-ismos] -ism) is a word, term, or phrase which has been recently created (coined) — often to apply to new concepts, to synthesize pre-existing concepts, or to make older terminology sound more contemporary. ...


(This should not be confused with naturalization, the process of voluntarily acquiring citizenship at some time after birth.) A judge swears in a new citizen. ...


(also, plants, for example many wildflowers and bulbs including lilys, will "naturalize": that is spread and develop beds without extra cultivation.)


"Supernaturalization"

The neologism supernaturalize, meaning "to make supernatural", is sometimes used to describe the perceived process of ascribing supernatural causes to events which another presumes to be natural. This perceived process may also be referred to as mythification or spiritualization. It rests on the presumption of the skeptic that supernatural events cannot or are unlikely to occur; thus, their description by the believer as supernatural is seen as the result of a process of deliberate or unconscious mysticism, thus, "supernaturalization". Supernaturalization can also mean the process by which stories and historical accounts are altered to describe supernatural elements.


The subjective nature of the issue

Two people may come to completely different conclusions based on identical evidence. One "screens out" possible explanations simply because they conflict with one's paradigm and create dissonance. For example, to make oneself "look good" to others thus avoiding isolation, and perhaps the desire to imitate personal heroes. Generally we criticize and question the picture of reality held by others. It is rare to question one's own, rarer still to admit our own is distorted. For other uses, see Paradigm (disambiguation). ...


Competing explanations and criteria of preference

For some people it is not a matter of supernatural events versus natural events. They are all events but there can be many competing explanations. The question then becomes what criteria shall one use to prefer one explanation over another. One must be careful not to confuse the phenomenon with the explanation. We may agree that a bush has burst into flames, where we may differ is in the explanation of that event. The supernaturalist in that instance prefers the supernatural explanation based on one or a number of criteria of preference. It could be because the explanation includes constructs such as an immortal soul and other purported phenomena such as it rising to a place of great joy upon being released at death and they find this very attractive. The naturalist may prefer the natural explanation because such explanations are required to have predictive power, and being able to predict in a reliable way what will happen when a certain set of circumstances is present is something they find attractive. There are many people that are comfortable with accepting both explanations to satisfy several preferences such as a supernatural explanation that provides comfort from the thought of death and the natural explanation because of its utility in being able to reliably control fire, for example Christians that accept the Theory of Evolution and the Big Bang but still explain reality as a deliberate creation of their god. A person may be a naturalist because they are driven by the preference of predictability rather than comfort whereas another person may be a supernaturalist because they prefer explanations that make them feel better about their eventual death rather than how useful they are on actual reality.[citation needed] ...


Alleged instances of supernaturalization

Believers respond to the many instances of supernaturalization by arguing that the fact that supernaturalization often occurs does not refute the existence of the supernatural any more than the fact that scientists often make errors refutes the existence of the natural universe; and that the supernatural by its very nature cannot be explored through science, and must therefore be explored through different means, such as spirituality. Nonbelievers counter that the two forms of explanation cannot be equated, because erroneous naturalistic claims, such as those made for the existence of phlogiston or N-rays, are routinely and often rapidly corrected by reference to nature, while erroneous supernaturalistic claims such as the above are impossible to correct by reference to supernature or by any other widely accepted objective means. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Trees felled by the Tunguska blast. ... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... Combatants England Dutch Republic Spain Portugal Commanders Elizabeth I of England Charles Howard Francis Drake Philip II of Spain Duke of Medina Sidonia Strength 34 warships 163 armed merchant vessels 22 galleons 108 armed merchant vessels Casualties 50–100 dead[1] ~400 wounded 600 dead, 800 wounded,[2] 397 captured... 1588 was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... Look up fundamentalism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The word evangelicalism often refers to... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... For other uses, see World Trade Center (disambiguation). ... This article is about the state. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about secularism. ... Mogul may mean: a bump in the snow in alpine skiing, a Mongolian the Mughal empire, or any member of its ruling dynasty by extension, any ruler or powerful person, such as a industrial mogul or media mogul a railroad steam locomotive type called the Mogul the largest size light... Events May 7 - In France the Second Council of Lyons opens to consider the condition of the Holy Land and to agree to a union with the Byzantine church. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... USS Bunker Hill was hit by Ogawa (see picture left) and another kamikaze near KyÅ«shÅ« on May 11, 1945. ... This article refers to the Westboro Baptist Church of Topeka, Kansas, and is not related to the Westboro Baptist Church of Westboro, Ontario. ... The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, known by the scientific community as the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake,[1] was a great undersea earthquake that occurred at 00:58:53 UTC (07:58:53 local time) December 26, 2004 with an epicentre off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... The phlogiston theory is a now discredited 17th century hypothesis regarding combustion. ... The so-called N rays (or N-rays) were a phenomenon described by French scientist René-Prosper Blondlot but subsequently shown to be illusory. ...


And then there are the practical considerations. Explanations based on supernatural constructs have consistently been found to be no better than no explanation at all at predicting outcomes before the fact.[citation needed] Simply on the basis of choosing which explanations work best at not only accounting for reality but predicting it before the fact, natural explanations are to be preferred.[citation needed]


Supernatural in fiction

The supernatural is also a topic in various fictional genres, especially horror fiction and fantasy fiction. FicTioNaL is a Gaming Legend. ... “Horror story” redirects here. ... For other definitions of fantasy see fantasy (psychology). ...


See also

  • Dualism (Philosophy of mind) - the view that the mental and the physical have a fundamentally different nature as an answer to the mind-body problem.
  • Idealism (Philosophy) - any theory positing the primacy of spirit, mind, or language over matter. It includes claiming that thought has some crucial role in making the world the way it is.
  • Monism - the view that the mental and physical are ultimately part of the same super-reality which both the physical and non-physical world(s) compose. The view that differing realities are not the end-all-be-all in themselves. Monism can involve material monism, the view that only the physical is real and all else are manifestations of the physical; idealist monism which holds that only the mental is real and all else are manifestations of the mental; or neutral monism.
  • Miracle
  • Vitalism - the doctrine that life cannot be explained solely by mechanism. Often, the nonmaterial element is referred to as the soul, the "vital spark," or a kind of spiritual energy.
  • God of the gaps - events originally ascribed to a supernatural cause move into the natural realm when explained by science.
  • ex nihilo

René Descartes illustration of dualism. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedias quality standards. ... For other uses, see Monist (disambiguation). ... Neutral monism, in philosophy, is the metaphysical view that nature consists of one kind (hence monism) of primal stuff, which in itself is neither mental nor physical, but is capable of mental and physical aspects or attributes. ... A miracle, derived from the old Latin word miraculum meaning something wonderful, is a striking interposition of divine intervention by God in the universe by which the ordinary course and operation of Nature is overruled, suspended, or modified. ... Vitalism is the doctrine that vital forces are active in living organisms, so that life cannot be explained solely by mechanism. ... In New Age terminology, energy means various kinds of spiritual forces, often related to the concept of life (compare vitalism). ... The God of the gaps refers to a view of God deriving from a theistic position in which anything that can be explained by human knowledge is not in the domain of God, so the role of God is therefore confined to the gaps in scientific explanations of nature. ... Ex nihilo is a Latin term meaning out of nothing. It is often used in conjunction with the term creation, as in creatio ex nihilo, meaning creation out of nothing. Due to the nature of this, the term is often used in philosophical or creationistic arguments, as a number of...

Compare with

  • Naturalism (Philosophy) - which rejects the validity of explanations or theories making use of entities inaccessible to natural science.
  • Materialism (Philosophy) - the view that the only thing that can truly be said to 'exist' is physical matter and energy; that fundamentally, all things are comprised of 'material'. Materialism is typically contrasted with dualism, idealism, and vitalism.
  • Scientific method - a meticulous means of building a supportable, evidenced understanding of our natural world. The ability to repeat an experiment and obtain the same observed results is held in high regard.
  • Scientism - a worldview that rejects the supernatural and the non-physical on the grounds that science is inherently materialistic; rejects anything which cannot be immediately scientifically tested or verified or not currently accepted by the scientific mainstream. Sometimes used in the pejorative.

This article is about methodological naturalism. ... The Michelson–Morley experiment was used to disprove that light propagated through a luminiferous aether. ... In philosophy, materialism is that form of physicalism which holds that the only thing that can truly be said to exist is matter; that fundamentally, all things are composed of material and all phenomena are the result of material interactions; that matter is the only substance. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... An abstract model (or conceptual model) is a theoretical construct that represents something, with a set of variables and a set of logical and quantitative relationships between them. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up understanding in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see World (disambiguation). ... Scientism is a term mainly used as a pejorative[1][2][3] to accuse someone of holding that science has primacy over all other interpretations of life such as religious, mythical, spiritual, or humanistic explanations. ...

Notes

  1. ^ The Two Faces of Jesus by Robin M. Jensen, Bible Review, 17.8, Oct 2002
  2. ^ Understanding Early Christian Art by Robin M. Jensen, Routledge, 2000
  3. ^ (See Lynn Thorndike's classic study,The History of Magic and Experimental Science, Tarbell Course in Magic, vol 1- Harlan Tarbell, forward and epilogue to Greater Magic- John Northern Hilliard, The Discoverie of Witchcraft- Reginald Scot and the vanishing works of Henry Ridgely Evans, The Old and New Magic, The Spirit World Unmasked, and Hours with Ghosts or 19th Century Witchcraft.)
  4. ^ The Psychology of Conviction: A Study of Beliefs and Attitudes by Joseph Jastrow, Houghton Mifflin Co., 1918
  5. ^ Search for the Soul by Milbourne Christopher, Thomas Y. Crowell, Publishers, 1979
  6. ^ Dean and Kelly. Is Astrology Relevant to Consciousness and Psi?.
  7. ^ Shawn Carlson. A double-blind test of astrology. Nature, 318, 419 - 425 (05 December 1985).
  8. ^ Rob Nanninga. The Astrotest - Correlation. Northern Winter, 1996/97, 15(2), p. 14-20..
  9. ^ Robert Matthews. "Comprehensive study of 'time twins' debunks astrology", London Daily Telegraph, 2003-08-17. Archived from the original on 2007-05-22. 
  10. ^ Dean, Geoffery. Artifacts in data often wrongly seen as evidence for astrology.

Joseph Jastrow, Ph. ... Milbourne Christopher (1914 - 1984) was one of Americas foremost illusionists, performing in sixty-eight countries. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Wonders of the Invisible World, Cotton Mather, Boston, 1693
  • More Wonders of the Invisible World, Robert Calef, 1700
  • Secrets of the Occult, documentary, see http://www.myspace.com/155766403

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