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Encyclopedia > Supermarket
Packaged food aisles in a Fred Meyer store in Portland, Oregon
Packaged food aisles in a Fred Meyer store in Portland, Oregon


A supermarket is a departmentalized self-service store offering a wide variety of food and household merchandise. It is larger in size and has a wider selection than a traditional grocery store and it is smaller than a hypermarket. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2790x1835, 3225 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Supermarket Wikipedia:Featured pictures Hypermarket Fred Meyer User talk:DarkSideOfTheSpoon Wikipedia:Featured pictures/Places/Interiors Wikipedia:Featured pictures... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2790x1835, 3225 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Supermarket Wikipedia:Featured pictures Hypermarket Fred Meyer User talk:DarkSideOfTheSpoon Wikipedia:Featured pictures/Places/Interiors Wikipedia:Featured pictures... An unrelated hypermarket chain is Meijer. ... Nickname: Location of Portland in Multnomah County and the state of Oregon Coordinates: , Country State County Multnomah County Incorporated February 8, 1851 Government  - Mayor Tom Potter[1]  - Commissioners Sam Adams Randy Leonard Dan Saltzman Erik Sten  - Auditor Gary Blackmer Area  - City 376. ... Drawing of a self-service store. ... For a large scale grocery store, see supermarket. ... Packaged food aisles of Fred Meyer in Portland, Oregon In commerce, a hypermarket or multi-department store is a superstore which combines a supermarket and a department store. ...


The supermarket typically comprises meat, produce, dairy, and baked goods departments along with shelf space reserved for canned and packaged goods as well as for various nonfood items such as household cleaners, pharmacy products, and pet supplies. Most supermarkets also sell a variety of other household products that are consumed regularly, such as alcohol (where permitted), household cleaning products, medicine, clothes, and some sell a much wider range of non-food products. A dairy farm near Oxford, New York in the United States. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Medicine is the science and art of maintaining andor restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of patients. ... Clothing protects the vulnerable nude human body from the extremes of weather, other features of our environment, and for safety reasons. ...


The traditional supermarket occupies a large floor space on a single level and is situated near a residential area in order to be convenient to consumers. Its basic appeal is the availability of a broad selection of goods under a single roof at relatively low prices. Other advantages include ease of parking and, frequently, the convenience of shopping hours that extend far into the evening. Supermarkets usually make massive outlays for newspaper and other advertising and often present elaborate in-store displays of products. Supermarkets are often part of a chain that owns or controls (sometimes by franchise) other supermarkets located in the same or other towns; this increases the opportunities for economies of scale. Chain stores are a range of retail outlets which share a brand and central management, usually with standardised business methods and practices. ... Franchising (from the French for honesty or freedom[1]) is a method of doing business wherein a franchisor licenses trademarks and tried and proven methods of doing business to a franchisee in exchange for a recurring payment, and usually a percentage piece of gross sales or gross profits as well... The increase in output from Q to Q2 causes a decrease in the average cost of each unit from C to C1. ...


In North America, supermarket chains are often supplied from the distribution centers of a larger business, such as Loblaw Companies in Canada, which owns thousands of supermarkets across the nation. They have a distribution center in every province — usually in the largest city in the province. North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... A distribution center for a set of products is a warehouse or other specialized building with refrigeration or air conditioning which is stocked with products to be re-distributed to retailers or wholesalers. ... Loblaw Companies Limited (TSX: L) is the largest food retailer in Canada, with over 1,690 supermarkets operating under a variety of regional banners, including the namesake Loblaws. ... A province is a territorial unit, almost always a country subdivision. ...


Supermarkets usually offer products at low prices by reducing margins. Certain products (typically staples such as bread, milk and sugar) are often sold as loss leaders, that is, with negative margins. To maintain a profit, supermarkets attempt to make up for the low margins with a high overall volume of sales, and with sales of higher-margin items. Customers usually shop by putting their products into shopping carts (trolleys) or baskets (self-service) and pay for the products at the check-out. At present, many supermarket chains are trying to reduce labor costs further by shifting to self-service check-out machines, where a group of four or five machines is supervised by a single assistant. The term margin has many meanings: In telecommunication, margin has the following meanings: In communications systems, the maximum degree of signal distortion that can be tolerated without affecting the restitution, without its being interpreted incorrectly by the decision circuit. ... In marketing, a loss leader is an item that is sold below cost in an effort to stimulate other profitable sales. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A row of parked (and very colorful) shopping carts equipped with a coin-operated mechanism. ... The BancNet (BN) Point-Of-Sale System is a local PIN-based electronic funds transfer (EFTPOS) payments solution operated by BancNet on behalf of the member banks and China UnionPay (CUP). ... A woman operates the FastLane self checkout by NCR at a Wal-Mart store. ...


A larger full-service supermarket combined with a department store is sometimes known as a hypermarket. Other services that supermarkets may have include banks, cafés, creches, photo development, video rental, pharmacies, and/or gas stations. The interior of a typical Macys department store. ... Packaged food aisles of Fred Meyer in Portland, Oregon In commerce, a hypermarket or multi-department store is a superstore which combines a supermarket and a department store. ... For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ... Coffeehouse in Damascus // A coffeehouse, coffee shop, or cafe (also spelled as café from the French, Spanish, and Portuguese or caffè from the Italian) shares some of the characteristics of a bar, and some of the characteristics of a restaurant. ... Day care is the care of a child during the day by a person other than the childs parents or legal guardians, often someone outside the childs immediate family. ... A rental shop is a store where a consumer can borrow reusable products for a fee for a certain period of time before returning them. ... For other uses, see Pharmacy (disambiguation). ... Modern gas station A filling station, gas station or petrol station is a facility that sells fuel for road motor vehicles – usually petrol (US: gas/gasoline), diesel fuel and LPG. The term gas station is mostly particular to the United States of America and Canada, where petrol is known...

Contents

History

In the early days of retailing, all products had to be fetched by an assistant from shelves on one side of a counter while the customers stood on the other side and pointed to what they wanted. Also, many foods did not come in the individually wrapped consumer-size packages taken for granted today, so an assistant had to measure out the precise amount desired by the consumer. These practices were obviously labor-intensive and therefore quite expensive. The shopping process was slow, as the number of customers who could be attended at one time was limited by the number of clerks employed in the store.


The concept of a self-service grocery store was developed by Clarence Saunders and his Piggly Wiggly stores. His first store opened in Memphis, Tennessee in 1916. Saunders was awarded several patents for the ideas he incorporated into the Piggly Wiggly stores. The stores were a financial success and Saunders began to offer franchises. A&P was another successful early chain in Canada and the United States, having become common in North American cities in the 1920s. The general trend in retail since then has been to stack shelves at night and let the customers get their own goods and bring them to the front of the store to pay for them. Although there is a higher risk of shoplifting, the costs of appropriate security measures will be ideally outweighed by the economies of scale and reduced labor costs. Clarence Saunders Clarence Saunders (August 9, 1881 - October 14, 1953) was a grocer who first developed the modern retail sales model of self-service. ... Piggly Wiggly is a supermarket chain in the Southeastern and Midwestern states of the United States. ... For other uses, see Memphis (disambiguation). ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... For the short story by John Updike, see A&P (story). ... The 1920s is a decade that is sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... For the band Shoplifting see Shoplifting (band), for the album released by Straw, see Shoplifting (album). ...


According to the Smithsonian Institution, the first true supermarket in the United States was opened by ex-Kroger employee Michael J. Cullen, on August 4, 1937, in a 6,000 square foot (560 m²) former garage in Jamaica, Queens, New York.[1] The store, King Kullen, following King Kong, operated under the slogan "Pile it high. Sell it low." When Cullen died in 1941, there were seventeen stores in operation. The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... Kroger headquarters in Cincinnati, Ohio. ... Michael J. Cullen invented the modern supermarket. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Major Mark Park Jamaica is a neighborhood in the borough of Queens in New York City. ... This article is about the state. ... King Kullen is a supermarket chain with 45 locations on Long Island and the New York City borough of Staten Island. ... King Kong in the 1933 film. ...

A Safeway advertisement from the 1950s.
A Safeway advertisement from the 1950s.

Existing grocery chains like Kroger and Safeway at first resisted Cullen's idea, but eventually were forced to build their own supermarkets as the North American economy sank further into the Great Depression and consumers became price-sensitive to a degree never seen before.[2] Kroger took the idea one step further and pioneered the first supermarket surrounded on all four sides by a parking lot. Image File history File links Safeway50s. ... Image File history File links Safeway50s. ... This article is about article is about the US-based corporation. ... The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ...


Supermarkets proliferated in Canada and the United States, along with suburban areas after World War II. At present, North American supermarkets are often co-located with smaller retailers in strip malls and are generally regional rather than national. Kroger is probably the closest thing to a national chain in the United States but has preserved most of its regional brands like Ralphs, City Market and King Soopers. In Canada the largest food retailer is Loblaw Companies. Loblaw Companies operates grocery stores across Canada under a variety of regional names such as Fortinos, Zehrs and the largest Loblaws (named after the company itself). Sobeys is Canada's second largest supermarket with locations across the country, operating under many banners (Sobeys, IGA in Quebec locations). “Suburbia” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Example of a small strip mall. A strip mall (also called a plaza) is a shopping center where the stores are arranged in a row, with a sidewalk in front. ... A Ralphs Marketplace in Porter Ranch, Los Angeles, California Ralphs Grocery Company is a major supermarket chain in the Southern California area. ... City Market is the name of two communities: City Market (US) City Market (Finland) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... King Soopers is a chain of stores owned by the Kroger Food Company. ... A drawing of a self-service store Retailing consists of the sale of goods/merchandise for personal or household consumption either from a fixed location such as a department store or kiosk, or away from a fixed location and related subordinated services (Definition of the WTO (last page). ... Loblaw Companies Limited (TSX: L) is the largest food retailer in Canada, with over 1,690 supermarkets operating under a variety of regional banners, including the namesake Loblaws. ... Fortinos is a Canadian supermarket chain operating 21 stores in Ontario (As of 2005). ... Zehrs Markets, or simply Zehrs, is a chain of grocery stores located in southwestern Ontario. ... Loblaws, Toronto, 2007 Loblaws is a supermarket chain of 68 stores, headquartered in Brampton, with stores across Ontario and Quebec. ...


In France and other countries, the proliferation of out-of-town supermarkets has been blamed for the disappearance of smaller, local grocery stores and for increased dependency on the motor car (and the consequent traffic). In particular, some critics consider the practice of selling loss leaders to be anti-competitive, and are also wary of the negotiating power large retailers have with suppliers. Supermarkets are found around the world in dozens of countries. “Car” and “Cars” redirect here. ... In marketing, a loss leader is an item that is sold below cost in an effort to stimulate other profitable sales. ...


It was formerly common for supermarkets to give trading stamps. Today, most supermarkets issue store-specific "members cards," "club cards," or "loyalty cards" which are scanned at the register when the customer goes to check-out. Typically, several items are given special discounts if the credit card-like devices are used. Trading stamps are small paper coupons given to customers by merchants. ... In marketing generally and in retailing more specifically, a loyalty card, rewards card, points card, or club card is a plastic card, visually similar to a credit card or debit card, that identifies the card holder as a member in a commercial incentives programme. ...


Today supermarkets face price competition from discount retailers such as Wal-Mart and Zellers (non-union labor and greater buying power) and warehouse stores such as Costco (savings in bulk quantities). Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. ... Zellers Inc. ... A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers. ... Costco Wholesale Corporation (NASDAQ: COST) is the largest membership warehouse club chain in the world based on sales volume, headquartered in Issaquah, Washington, United States,[1] with its flagship warehouse in nearby Seattle. ...


Typical supermarket merchandise

Supermarket front end
Fruit on display in a supermarket in Japan.
Fruit on display in a supermarket in Japan.

Larger supermarkets in North America and Europe typically sell many different types of items, such as: Download high resolution version (1296x972, 315 KB)Supermarket check out, London January 2005 Author: Velela. ... Download high resolution version (1296x972, 315 KB)Supermarket check out, London January 2005 Author: Velela. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (778x762, 137 KB) Summary Fruit tends to be very expensive in Japan, as evidenced by these 25 dollar muskmelons in a Nakatsugawa supermarket. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (778x762, 137 KB) Summary Fruit tends to be very expensive in Japan, as evidenced by these 25 dollar muskmelons in a Nakatsugawa supermarket. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...

In other countries, the range of products is sometimes more narrowly focused on food products, although the ranges sold are broadening in many countries as average store sizes increase. Alcoholic beverages. ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... Baby food is any food that is made specifically for infants, roughly between the ages of six months to two years. ... Bakery foods A baker is someone who bakes and sells bread, cakes and similar foods. ... For other uses, see Book (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Supermarket tabloids are national weekly magazines in the United States, printed on newsprint in tabloid format, specalizing in celebrity news, gossip, astrology, and bizarre (some would say apocryphal) stories about ordinary people. ... CD may stand for: Compact Disc Canadian Forces Decoration Cash Dispenser (at least used in Japan) CD LPMud Driver Centrum-Demokraterne (Centre Democrats of Denmark) Certificate of Deposit ÄŒeské Dráhy (Czech Railways) Chad (NATO country code) Chalmers Datorförening (computer club of the Chalmers University of Technology) a 1960s... Size comparison: A 12 cm Sony DVD+RW and a 19 cm Dixon Ticonderoga pencil. ... Bottom view of VHS videotape cassette with magnetic tape exposed Videotape is a means of recording images and sound onto magnetic tape as opposed to movie film. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with rental agreement. ... It has been suggested that Candy be merged into this article or section. ... “Make-up” redirects here. ... High-heeled shoe Footwear consists of garments worn on the feet. ... This article is about cereals in general. ... Dairy products are generally defined as foodstuffs produced from milk. ... Diet food (or dietetic food) refers to any food or drink whose recipe has been altered in some way to make it part of a body modification diet. ... Feminine hygiene is a general term used to describe products used by women during menstruation, vaginal discharge, and other bodily functions related to the vulva. ... Introduction A mortgage is a device used to create a lien on real estate by contract. ... A credit card system is a type of retail transaction settlement and credit system, named after the small plastic card issued to users of the system. ... The passbook is the traditional document to keep track of earnings in a savings account Savings accounts are accounts maintained by commercial banks, savings and loan associations, credit unions, and mutual savings banks that pay interest but can not be used directly as money (by, for example, writing a cheque). ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... Frozen food is food preserved by the process of freezing. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... A plate of vegetables Vegetable is a culinary term which generally refers to an edible part of a plant. ... Greeting cards on display at retail. ... The Luggage. ... A lottery is a popular form of gambling which involves the drawing of lots for a prize. ... Kinnikuman character, see Meat Alexandria. ... First aid kit of the French Army A first aid kit is a collection of supplies and equipment for use in giving first aid, particularly in a medical emergency. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... It has been suggested that Residential pets be merged into this article or section. ... A snack food (commonly shortened to snack) is seen in Western culture as a type of food not meant to be eaten as a main meal of the day (breakfast, lunch, dinner) but one that is intended rather to assuage a persons hunger between these meals, providing a brief... A teddy bear A toy is an object used in play. ...


Typical store architecture

The interior of a Loblaws supermarket in Toronto
The interior of a Loblaws supermarket in Toronto

Most supermarkets are similar in design and layout due to trends in marketing. Produce tends to be near the entrance of the store. Milk, bread, and other essential items may be located in the rear or other out of the way places. This is purposely done to ensure maximum time spent in the store, strolling past other items and capitalizing on impulse buying. The front of the store or Front-End is where one might find point of sale machines or cash registers. Many retailers have implemented self-checkout devices in their stores in an attempt to reduce labor costs. Image File history File links LoblawsInside. ... Image File history File links LoblawsInside. ... Loblaws, Toronto, 2007 Loblaws is a supermarket chain of 68 stores, headquartered in Brampton, with stores across Ontario and Quebec. ... For the magazine, see Marketing (magazine). ... Impulse buying is the act of making unplanned or otherwise spontaneous purchases. ... The BancNet (BN) Point-Of-Sale System is a local PIN-based electronic funds transfer (EFTPOS) payments solution operated by BancNet on behalf of the member banks and China UnionPay (CUP). ... A woman operates the FastLane self checkout by NCR at a Wal-Mart store. ...


Criticisms

British author Joanna Blythman is a prominent critic of the modern supermarket. Joanna Blythman is an English nonfiction writer and critic of elements of contemporary life, such as supermarkets. ...


In Hong Kong, larger supermarkets (usually called superstores) are criticized for selling fresh foods available in wet markets, making operation of some markets extremely difficult [citation needed]. PARKnSHOP Megastores even sell electrical appliances and furniture. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Big-box store. ... A live animal market, a common sight in many areas of the world and a source of influenza viruses and other infectious disease agents for human beings. ... PARKnSHOP (Chinese: ) is one of the two largest supermarket chains in Hong Kong. ...


Supermarkets, in general, also tend to narrow the choices over fruits and vegetables, by only stocking those varieties with longer storing lives, thus leading to medium term extintion of the cultivation of other varieties.


In the United States major-brand supermarkets often demand slotting fees from suppliers in exchange for shelving space, or better shelf positioning (such as eye-level, checkout aisle or "end cap" space). This extra supplier cost (up to $30,000 per brand for a chain for each individual SKU) may be reflected in the cost of the products offered. Questions have been raised about the ethical and legal propriety of slotting fee payments and its effect on small suppliers [1] [2] [3]. Supermarkets that have mostly "private label" products, such as Aldi, do not pay slotting fees. A slotting fee is the fee charged to produce companies by the supermarket distributors in order to have their product placed on their shelves. ... SKU is a TLA that may stand for: Stock Keeping Unit(s) Shoujo Kakumei Utena, a Japanese anime Sveriges Kommunistiska Ungdomsförbund (marxist-leninisterna) young communist league of Sweden (Marxist-Leninist) Sports Knowledge Underground Categories: TLAs ... Swedish grocery store where private label products (under the brands Hemköp and Eldorado, Axfood) are placed along with other brands such as Knorr (Unilever) and BlÃ¥ band (Campbell Soup). ...  , short for ALbrecht DIscount, is a discount supermarket chain based in Germany and one of the largest retail chains worldwide. ...


See also

Supermarkets, past and present, include: // Originating (HQ) country first. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Marketing Distribution is one of the 4 aspects of marketing. ... Packaged food aisles of Fred Meyer in Portland, Oregon In commerce, a hypermarket or multi-department store is a superstore which combines a supermarket and a department store. ... This is a list of over 200 articles on marketing topics. ... For the magazine, see Marketing (magazine). ... The BancNet (BN) Point-Of-Sale System is a local PIN-based electronic funds transfer (EFTPOS) payments solution operated by BancNet on behalf of the member banks and China UnionPay (CUP). ... Drawing of a self-service store. ... A retailers cooperative or consumer cooperative is a business entity which employs economies of scale on behalf of its members to get discounts from manufacturers and to pool marketing. ... A row of parked (and very colorful) shopping carts equipped with a coin-operated mechanism. ... Customs and regulations for shopping hours (times that shops are open) vary from country to country. ...

References

  1. ^ Anonymous, "The place where supermarketing was born," Mass Market Retailers 19, no. 9 (17 June 2002): 172.
  2. ^ Ryan Mathews, "1926-1936: entrepreneurs and enterprise: a look at industry pioneers like King Kullen and J. Frank Grimes, and the institution they created (Special Report: Social Change & the Supermarket)," Progressive Grocer 75, no. 12 (December 1996): 39-43.

Further reading

  • William Greer, America the Bountiful: How the supermarket came to main street, Food Marketing Institute, 1986. ISBN 999925568X OCLC 14357784

The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ...

External links

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Supermarket

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