FACTOID # 5: Minnesota and Connecticut are both in the top 5 in saving money and total tax burden per capita.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Supermarine Spitfire
Spitfire
RAF Supermarine Spitfire XII banks in clouds.
Type Fighter
Manufacturer Supermarine
Designed by R. J. Mitchell
Maiden flight 5 March 1936
Introduction 1938
Retired 1955, RAF
Primary user Royal Air Force
Produced 1938–1948
Number built 20,351
Variants Seafire
Spiteful

The Supermarine Spitfire was a British single-seat fighter, which was used by the Royal Air Force and many other Allied countries during the Second World War, and into the 1950s.[1] It was produced in greater numbers than any other Allied design. The Spitfire was the only Allied fighter in production at the outbreak of the Second World War that was still in production at the end of the war. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 463 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (541 × 700 pixel, file size: 71 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Originally uploaded to en. ... An aerospace manufacturer is a company or individual involved in the various aspects of designing, building, testing, selling, and maintaining aircraft, aircraft parts, missiles, rockets, and/or spacecraft. ... Supermarine was a British aircraft manufacturer that become famous for producing a range of sea planes and the legendary Supermarine Spitfire fighter. ... Reginald Joseph Mitchell CBE (20 May 1895-11 June 1937) was an aeronautical engineer, most notable for his design of the Supermarine Spitfire. ... The Maiden flight of an aircraft is the first occasion on which an aircraft leaves the ground of its own accord. ... This article is about the day. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... “RAF” redirects here. ... Seafire F XVII SX336 (Kennet Aviation) The Seafire was a naval version of the Supermarine Spitfire, specially adapted for operation from aircraft carriers. ... The Supermarine Spiteful was a British Rolls-Royce Griffon-engined fighter aircraft designed by Supermarine to Air Ministry specification F.1/43 during World War II as a successor to the Spitfire. ... An A-10 Thunderbolt II, F-86 Sabre, P-38 Lightning and P-51 Mustang fly in formation during an air show at Langley Air Force Base, Virginia. ... “RAF” redirects here. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Produced by the Supermarine subsidiary of Vickers-Armstrongs, the Spitfire was designed by the company's Chief Designer R. J. Mitchell, who continued to refine the design until his death from cancer in 1937; the position of chief designer was then filled by his colleague, Joseph Smith [2]. Its elliptical wing had a thin cross-section, allowing a higher top speed than the Hawker Hurricane and other contemporary designs; it also resulted in a distinctive appearance, enhancing its overall streamlined features. Much loved by its pilots, the Spitfire saw service during the whole of the Second World War and subsequent years, in most theatres of war, and in many different variants. Supermarine was a British aircraft manufacturer that become famous for producing a range of sea planes and the legendary Supermarine Spitfire fighter. ... Vickers-Armstrongs, Limited was a British engineering conglomerate formed by the merger of the assets of Vickers Limited and Sir W G Armstrong Whitworth & Company in 1927. ... Reginald Joseph Mitchell CBE (20 May 1895-11 June 1937) was an aeronautical engineer, most notable for his design of the Supermarine Spitfire. ... Joseph Smith was a British aircraft designer who took over as Chief Designer for Supermarines upon the death of R. J. Mitchell and led the team responsible for the subsequent development of the Supermarine Spitfire. ... Elliptical wing is a special aircraft wing planform shape introduced in the 1930s and designed to minimize induced drag. ... The Hawker Hurricane was a British single-seat fighter aircraft designed and predominantly built by Hawker Aircraft Ltd. ...


The Spitfire will always be compared to its main adversary, the Messerschmitt Bf 109; both were among the finest fighters of their day. German Airfield, France, 1941 propaganda photo of the Luftwaffe, Bf 109 fighters on the tarmac The Messerschmitt Bf 109 was a German World War II fighter aircraft designed by Willy Messerschmitt in the early 1930s. ...

Contents

Design and development

The still unpainted Spitfire prototype K5054 shortly before its first flight
The still unpainted Spitfire prototype K5054 shortly before its first flight

Supermarine's Chief Designer, R.J. Mitchell, had won four Schneider Trophy seaplane races with his designs: (Sea Lion II in 1922, S 5 in 1927, S 6 in 1929 and S 6b in 1931), combining powerful Napier Lion and Rolls-Royce "R" engines with minute attention to streamlining. These same qualities are equally useful for a fighter design, and, in 1931, Mitchell produced such a plane in response to an Air Ministry specification (F7/30) for a new and modern monoplane fighter. Image File history File linksMetadata Supermarine_Spitfire_Protoype_K5054_Unpainted. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Supermarine_Spitfire_Protoype_K5054_Unpainted. ... A serial number is a unique number that is one of a series assigned for identification which varies from its successor or predecessor by a fixed discrete integer value. ... Reginald Joseph Mitchell (20 May 1895-11 June 1937) was an aeronautical engineer, most notable for his design of the Supermarine Spitfire. ... The Schneider Trophy The Schneider Trophy (or prize or cup) for seaplanes was announced by Jacques Schneider, a financier, balloonist and aircraft enthusiast, in 1911 with a prize of roughly £1,000. ... General characteristics Layout W-block inline Cooling water-cooled Cylinders 12 Valve type poppet Displacement 1462 in³ (25 l) Rotation rate 2050 rpm Power 500 hp Power 370 kW Weight 858 lb (290 kg) The Lion was a 12-cylinder W-block inline aircraft engine built by Napier & Son starting... The Rolls-Royce R was a racing aero engine. ... In fluid dynamics, a streamline is the path that an imaginary massless particle would make if it followed the flow of a fluid in which it was embedded. ... This is a partial list of the British Air Ministry specifications for aircraft. ...


This first attempt at a fighter resulted in an open-cockpit monoplane with gull-wings and a large fixed, spatted undercarriage powered by the evaporative cooled Rolls-Royce Goshawk engine.[3] The Supermarine Type 224 did not live up to expectations; nor did any of the competing designs, which were also deemed failures. Luftwaffe Junkers Ju 87s, with fixed conventional landing gear. ... The Rolls-Royce Goshawk was a development of the Rolls-Royce Kestrel featuring evaporative cooling. ... The Supermarine Type 224 was a design submitted by Reginald Mitchell for a RAF competition to select a new fighter in 1934. ...


Mitchell immediately turned his attention to an improved design as a private venture, with the backing of Supermarine's owner, Vickers-Armstrongs. The new design added undercarriage retraction, an enclosed cockpit, oxygen breathing-apparatus and the much more powerful newly developed Rolls-Royce PV-12 engine, later named the Merlin, powering all Spitfire Mk I to Mk IX variants after which the Rolls Royce Griffon engine was used. The Merlin was a 12 cylinder, 60° V, 27 litre, liquid cooled piston aircraft engine built during World War II by Rolls-Royce and under licence in the United States by Packard. ...


By 1935, the Air Ministry had seen enough advances in the industry to try the monoplane design again. They eventually rejected the new Supermarine design on the grounds that it did not carry the required eight-gun armament, and did not appear to have room to do so.

Spitfire flying over the English coast (from a period photograph)

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Elliptical wing design

Once again, Mitchell was able to solve the problem. It has been suggested that by looking at various Heinkel planes, likely a Heinkel He 70 which was flying in England as a Rolls Royce engine test platform, he settled on the use of an elliptical planform, which had much more chord to allow for the required eight guns, while still having the low drag of the earlier, simpler wing design. Mitchell's aerodynamicist, Beverley Shenstone, however, has pointed out that Mitchell's wing was not directly copied from the He 70, as some have claimed. In addition to the Spitfire wing being much thinner with a completely different section, the matter is one of parallel development of the same technical solution; the elliptical planform is the most efficient in terms of lift distribution along the span, having good qualities at stall as well— a fact which would not have escaped Mitchell.[4] In any event, the elliptical wing was enough to sell the Air Ministry on this new Type 300, which they funded by a new specification, F.10/35, drawn up around the Spitfire. Heinkel Flugzeugwerke was a German aircraft manufacturing company founded by and named after Ernst Heinkel. ... The Heinkel He 70 Blitz was designed in the early 1930s to serve as a fast mailplane for Deutsche Lufthansa. ... A planform or plan view is a vertical orthographic projection of an object on a horizontal plane, like a map. ... Cross section of an airfoil showing chord In reference to aircraft, chord refers to the distance between the front and back of a wing, measured in the direction of the normal airflow. ... The Heinkel He 70 Blitz was designed in the early 1930s to serve as a fast mailplane for Deutsche Lufthansa. ...


The Spitfire’s sleek lines contributed heavily to its superlative aerodynamic characteristics, epitomising grace and design cleanliness. This is especially true of the elliptical wing planform synonymous with the aircraft. It was to become apparent over time just how advanced the design was over contemporary types; the elliptical wing was able to reach higher speeds without encountering the problem of Mach-induced aileron flutter, a phenomenon which continued to blight many newer designs. The wing exhibited a safe Mach number of 0.83 and maximum Mach number of 0.86, and featured a dihedral of 6 degrees to give increased lateral stability. The ellipse is proven to be the most efficient wing shape in terms of optimum spanwise lift distribution, whilst the associated chord tapering results in a high aspect ratio, important for lessening induced drag so that airflow does not ‘break’ over the wing. Also of noteworthy importance is the type’s low thickness to chord ratio – the thin wings promote effective airflow, another vital factor in reducing drag. Efforts to retain the thin, low drag wing design resulted in outward-retracting undercarriage – the positioning of the bulky retraction mechanism in the thickest part of the wing close to the fuselage allowed the thickness to taper accordingly outwards across the span, thus retaining the favourable aerodynamic characteristics afforded by the design. This was however to the detriment of the aircraft's ground handling characteristics; Spitfires proved unstable during taxiing due to the narrow wheelbase.


The elliptical wing was chosen for superior aerodynamic attributes, but it was a complex wing to construct, and the Messerschmitt Bf 109's angular and easier-to-construct wing offered similar performance (model per model) to the Spitfire. It has been reported that the Bf 109 took one-third the man hours to construct compared to the Spitfire. German Airfield, France, 1941 propaganda photo of the Luftwaffe, Bf 109 fighters on the tarmac The Messerschmitt Bf 109 was a German World War II fighter aircraft designed by Willy Messerschmitt in the early 1930s. ... A man-hour or person-hour[1], [2] is the amount of work performed by an average worker in one hour. ...


One flaw in the thin-wing design of the Spitfire manifested itself when the plane was brought up to very high speeds. When the pilot attempted to roll the plane at these speeds, the aerodynamic forces subjected upon the ailerons were enough to twist the entire wingtip in the direction opposite of the aileron deflection (much like how an aileron trim tab will deflect the aileron itself). This so-called aileron reversal resulted in the Spitfire rolling in the opposite direction of the pilot's intention. For the band with a similar name, see The Ailerons Ailerons are hinged control surfaces attached to the trailing edge of the wing of a fixed-wing aircraft. ... Trim tabs are small surfaces that mechanically or electronically manipulate the rudder, elevator, and ailerons to help stabilize the plane. ... Control reversal is an adverse affect on the controllability of aircraft. ...


A novel feature in the final Spitfire design was its wing washout. The trailing edge of the wing twists slightly upward along its length, from −1/2 degree at its root to +2 degrees at its tip. This causes the wing roots to stall before the tips, reducing the potentially dangerous rolling moment in the stall known as a tip stall, that may result in a spin. When the root stalls, the turbulent separated slipstream, departing from the wing top side, shakes the elevator and thus the aircraft's control column in a characteristic "judder", warning the pilot that he is about to reach the limit of the aircraft's performance, while full control is retained at the wingtips and ailerons. This allowed even average pilots to hold the Spitfire in a steep turn right at the point of stall, hoping that the pursuing enemy would have to fall out of his own steep turn first or would have to follow in a more gradual turn, eventually appearing in the Spitfire's gunsight. The term washout can have various meanings. ... For other uses, see stall A stall is the slowing or stopping of a process. ... For other meanings of elevator see Elevator (disambiguation). ...


Name

The Air Ministry submitted a number of names to Vickers-Armstrongs for the new aircraft, tentatively known as the Type 300, including the improbable Shrew. The name Spitfire was suggested by Sir Robert MacLean, director of Vickers-Armstrongs at the time, who called his daughter Ann, "a little spitfire." The word dates from Elizabethan times and refers to a particularly fiery, ferocious type of person, and at the time, associated with a girl or woman of that temperament.[5] The name had previously been used unofficially for Mitchell's earlier F.7/30 Type 224 design. Mitchell is reported to have said that it was "just the sort of bloody silly name they would choose",[6] possibly an oblique reference to an earlier, much less successful aircraft of his design that had been given the same name. The Elizabethan Era is the period associated with the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558 - 1603) and is often considered to be a golden age in English history. ...


Production

The prototype (K5054) first flew on 5 March 1936, from Eastleigh Aerodrome (later Southampton Airport) just four months after the maiden flight of the contemporary Hawker Hurricane. Testing continued until 26 May 1936, when Captain J. "Mutt" Summers, (Chief Test Pilot for Vickers (Aviation) Ltd.) flew K5054 to RAF Martlesham Heath and handed the aircraft over to Squadron Leader Anderson of the Aeroplane & Armament Experimental Establishment (A&AEE). This article is about the day. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... This airport is located in the United Kingdom, for the airport in Canada, see Southampton Airport (Ontario) Southampton Airport (IATA: SOU, ICAO: EGHI) is the 20th largest airport in the UK, located in Eastleigh near Southampton. ... For other uses, see Southampton (disambiguation). ... The Hawker Hurricane was a British single-seat fighter aircraft designed and predominantly built by Hawker Aircraft Ltd. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Martlesham Heath Airfield - 9 July 1946. ... The Aeroplane and Armament Experimental Establishment was a research facility for British military aviation from 1918 to 1992. ...


The Air Ministry placed an order for 310 of the aircraft on 3 June 1936, before any formal report had been issued by the A&AEE, interim reports being issued on a piecemeal basis. The British public first saw the Spitfire at the RAF Hendon air-display on Saturday 27 June 1936. is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Hendon Aerodrome was an aerodrome in north London, England and between 1908 and 1968 was an important centre for aviation. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


To build the Spitfires in the numbers anticipated, a whole new 'Shadow Factory' was built at Castle Bromwich, near Birmingham, as a "shadow" to Supermarine's original Southampton factory. Although the project was ultimately led by Lord Nuffield who was an expert in mass construction in the motor-vehicle industry, the Spitfire's stressed-skin construction required skills and techniques outside the experience of the local labour force, and experienced staff from Supermarines and Vickers-Armstrongs engineers were needed. The site was set up quickly from July 1938 - machinery being installed two months after work started on the site. Castle Bromwich is a large village situated within the northern part of the Metropolitan Borough of Solihull in the English West Midlands area. ... This article is about the British city. ... For other uses, see Southampton (disambiguation). ... William Richard Morris, 1st Viscount Nuffield (10 October 1877 - 22 August 1963) was the founder of the Morris Motor Company and a philanthropist. ...


More than 20,300 examples of all variants were built, including two-seat trainers, with some Spitfires remaining in service well into the 1950s. Although its great wartime foe, the Messerschmitt Bf 109, in its many variants, exceeded the Spitfire's production statistics, the Spitfire was the only British fighter aircraft to be in continual production before, during, and after the Second World War. A trainer is a training aircraft used to develop piloting, navigational or weapon-aiming skills in flight crew. ... German Airfield, France, 1941 propaganda photo of the Luftwaffe, Bf 109 fighters on the tarmac The Messerschmitt Bf 109 was a German World War II fighter aircraft designed by Willy Messerschmitt in the early 1930s. ...


Variants

Duxford, 2001. The "Grace Spitfire," a preserved trainer version, ex-No. 485 Squadron RNZAF.
Duxford, 2001. The "Grace Spitfire," a preserved trainer version, ex-No. 485 Squadron RNZAF.

As its designer, R.J. Mitchell will forever be known for his most famous creation. However the development of the Spitfire did not cease with his premature death in 1937. Mitchell only lived long enough to see the prototype Spitfire fly. Subsequently a team led by his Chief Draughtsman, Joe Smith, would develop more powerful and capable variants to keep the Spitfire current as a front line aircraft. As one historian noted: 'If Mitchell was born to design the Spitfire, Joe Smith was born to defend and develop it.' The British Supermarine Spitfire was one of the finest fighter aircraft of its time. ... Image File history File links SpitfireDuxford2JM.jpg‎ Other versions Originally from en. ... Image File history File links SpitfireDuxford2JM.jpg‎ Other versions Originally from en. ... Manned by New Zealand pilots of the Royal New Zealand Air Force, but controlled by the Royal Air Force, 485 Squadron was formed on 1 March 1941 at Driffield, in Yorkshire. ...


There were 24 marks of Spitfire and many sub-variants. These covered the Spitfire in development from the Merlin to Griffon engines, the high speed photo-reconnaissance variants and the different wing configurations. The Spitfire Mk V was the most common type, with 6,479 built, followed by the 5,665 Mk IX airframes produced. Different wings, featuring a variety of weapons, were fitted to most marks; the A wing used eight .303 machine guns, the B with four .303 machine guns and two 20 mm Hispano cannon, and the C or Universal Wing which could mount either four 20 mm cannon or two 20 mm and four .303 machine guns. As the war progressed, the C wing became more common.[7]The final armament variation was the E wing which housed two 20 mm cannon and two .50 inch Browning heavy machine guns. The Merlin was a 12 cylinder, 60° V, 27 litre, liquid cooled piston aircraft engine built during World War II by Rolls-Royce and under licence in the United States by Packard. ... Rolls-Royce Griffon The Rolls-Royce Griffon was a 2,240 in³ (36. ... The Hispano-Suiza HS.404 20 mm autocannon was one of the most widely used aircraft weapons of the 20th century, used by British, American, French, and many other military services. ... It has been suggested that K6 HMG be merged into this article or section. ...


Supermarine developed a two-seat variant to be used for training and was known as the T Mk VIII, but no orders were received for this aircraft and only one example was ever constructed (identified as N32/G-AIDN by Supermarine). However, in the absence of an official two-seater variant, a number of airframes were crudely converted in the field. These included an RAF Mk VB in North Africa, where a second seat was fitted instead of the upper fuel tank in front of the cockpit, although it was not a dual control aircraft and is thought to have been used as the squadron "run-about." The only unofficial two seat conversions that were fitted with dual controls were a small number of Russian lend/lease Mk IX aircraft. These were referred to as Mk IX UTI and differed from the Supermarine proposals by using an in-line "greenhouse" style double canopy rather than the raised "bubble" type of the T Mk VIII. Variant may refer to: Look up variant in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Flight training is a course of study used when learning to pilot an aircraft. ... Variant may refer to: Look up variant in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In the postwar era, the idea was revived by Supermarine and a number of two-seat Spitfires were built by converting old Mk IX airframes with a second "raised" cockpit featuring a bubble canopy. These were then sold to the Indian Air Force and Irish Air Corps. Today, only a handful of the trainers are known to exist, including both the T Mk VIII and a T Mk IX based in the USA and the "Grace Spitfire" - ML407, a T Mk IX that is privately owned and operates out of Duxford, UK. The second cockpit of this aircraft has been lowered and is now behind the front cockpit. Closeup of the front view of an F-16 Fighting Falcon showing the bubble canopy A bubble canopy is a canopy made like a soap bubble, which attempts to provide 360° vision to the pilot. ... The Indian Air Force (भारतीय वायु सेना : Bharatiya Vayu Sena) is the air-arm of the Armed Forces of India and has the prime responsibility of conducting aerial warfare and securing the Indian airspace. ... The Irish Air Corps (in Irish: Aer Chór na hÉireann) provides the air defence function of Oglaigh na hÉireann (the Irish Defence Forces), in support of the Army and Naval Service, together with such other roles as may be assigned by the Government (e. ... Manned by New Zealand pilots of the Royal New Zealand Air Force, but controlled by the Royal Air Force, 485 Squadron was formed on 1 March 1941 at Driffield, in Yorkshire. ... Use of the term The concept of property or ownership has no single or universally accepted definition. ... Duxford is a village in Cambridgeshire, England, some ten miles south of Cambridge. ...


Naval variants

Main article: Supermarine Seafire

A naval version of the Supermarine Spitfire, called the Seafire, was specially adapted for operation from aircraft carriers. Although never conceived for the rough-and tumble of carrier-deck operations, the Spitfire was considered to be the best candidate available at the time and went on to serve with distinction. Modifications included an arrester hook, folding wings and other specialised equipment. Some features of the basic design were, whilst unproblematic for land operation, problematic for carrier-deck operations. One was poor visibility over the nose. Like the Spitfire, the Seafire had a relatively narrow undercarriage track, which meant that it was not ideally suited to deck operations. The addition of heavy carrier equipment also added to the weight of the machine and reduced low-speed stability, critical for such operations, and normally a forte of the Spitfire. Early marks of Seafire had relatively few modifications, however late marks of Seafire were heavily-adapted and highly potent machines. The Seafire II was able to outperform the A6M5 (Zero) at low altitudes when the two types were tested against each other during wartime mock combats. Contemporary Allied carrier fighters such as the F6F Hellcat and F4U Corsair, however, were considerably more robust and practical for carrier operations. A performance advantage was regained when late-war Seafire marks equipped with the Griffon engines supplanted their Merlin-engined predecessors. Seafire F XVII SX336 (Kennet Aviation) The Seafire was a naval version of the Supermarine Spitfire, specially adapted for operation from aircraft carriers. ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault carrier USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and in most cases recover aircraft, acting as a sea... Mitsubishi A6M5 Zero Model 52 The Mitsubishi A6M was a light-weight carrier-based fighter aircraft employed by the Imperial Japanese Navy from 1940 to 1945. ... The Grumman F6F Hellcat was a fighter plane descended from the earlier F4F Wildcat, but was a completely new design sharing only a familial resemblance to the Wildcat. ... The Chance Vought F4U Corsair was an American fighter aircraft that saw service in World War II and the Korean War (and in isolated local conflicts). ...


The name Seafire was arrived at by collapsing the longer name Sea Spitfire.


Griffon-engined variants

The first Griffon-powered Spitfire, DP845.
The first Griffon-powered Spitfire, DP845.

The first Griffon-engined Mk XII flew on August 1942, but only five had reached service status by the end of the year. This mark could nudge 400 mph in level flight and climb to an altitude of 30,000 feet (10,000 m) in under eight minutes. Although the Spitfire continued to improve in speed and armament, range and fuel capacity were major issues: it remained short-legged throughout its life except in the dedicated photo-reconnaissance role, when its guns were replaced by extra fuel tanks. Image File history File linksMetadata Spitfire_IV_XII_DP845. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Spitfire_IV_XII_DP845. ...


Newer Griffon-engined Spitfires were being introduced as home-defence interceptors, where limited range was not an impediment. These faster Spitfires were used to defend against incursions by high-speed "tip-and-run" German fighter-bombers and V-1 flying bombs over Great Britain. The Vergeltungswaffe 1 Fi 103 / FZG-76 (V-1), known as the Flying bomb, Buzz bomb or Doodlebug, was the first modern guided missile used in wartime and the first cruise missile. ...


As American fighters took over the long-range escorting of USAAF daylight bombing raids, the Griffon-engined Spitfires progressively took up the tactical air superiority role as interceptors, while the Merlin-engined variants (mainly the Mk IX and the Packard-engined XVI) were adapted to the fighter-bomber role. USAAF recruitment poster. ...


Although the Griffon-engined marks lost some of the favourable handling characteristics of their Merlin-powered predecessors, they maintained their combat manoeuvring advantage over nearly all contemporary German (and American) designs in Europe throughout their production.


Griffon-engined Spitfires and Seafires continued to be flown by many squadrons of the Royal Auxiliary Air Force and Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve until reequipped in 1951–52. The last flight of a Spitfire in RAF service took place on 9 June 1957 by a PR19, PS583, from RAF Woodvale as part of the Temperature and Humidity Flight. This is the last known flight of a piston-engined fighter in the RAF. June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... RAF Woodvale (IATA: N/A, ICAO: EGOW) is a Royal Air Force airfield located four miles south of Southport, Merseyside. ...


In late 1962, Air Marshal Sir John Nicholls instigated an interesting trial when he flew a Spitfire against the supersonic Lightning F 3 in mock combat at RAF Binbrook. At the time British Commonwealth forces were involved in possible action against Indonesia and Nicholls decided to identify tactics to fight the Indonesian Air Force P-51 Mustang, a fighter that had a similar performance to the Spitfire PR XIX. [8] He concluded that the most effective and safest way for a modern jet-engined fighter to attack a piston-engined fighter was from below and behind; contrary to all established fighter-on-fighter dictum.[9] The English Electric Lightning (later the BAC Lightning) was a supersonic fighter aircraft of the Cold War era, particularly remembered for its great speed and natural metal exterior. ...


Operational history

Early RAF service

Flight of RAF Spitfires.

The first Spitfire to enter service with the RAF arrived at 19 Squadron, Duxford, on 4 August 1938, and over the next few weeks aircraft were delivered at the rate of one a week to both 19 and 66 Squadrons (also based at Duxford). The next to be equipped with Spitfires was 41 Squadron at Catterick, followed by a succession of squadrons stationed at Hornchurch in Essex. The public's first sight of the Spitfire in RAF colours was on Empire Air Day, 20 May 1939 during a display at Duxford in which the pilot "belly-landed" his aircraft having forgotten to lower his undercarriage and was consequently fined £5 by the Air Ministry. By the outbreak of the Second World War, there were around 400 Spitfires in service with the RAF, and a further 2,000 on order.[10] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (860x612, 132 KB) Flight of British Spitfires. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (860x612, 132 KB) Flight of British Spitfires. ... Duxford Aerodrome (IATA: QFO, ICAO: EGSU) is located 8 nautical miles (14. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Catterick airfield first opened in 1914 as a Royal Flying Corps aerodrome with the role of training pilots and to assist in the defence of the North East of England. ... RAF Hornchurch was an airfield in the south of Hornchurch in what is now the London Borough of Havering. ... For other meanings of Essex, see Essex (disambiguation). ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Air Ministry was formerly a department of the United Kingdom Government, established in 1918 with the responsibility of managing the affairs of the (then newly formed) Royal Air Force. ...


In an incident known as the Battle of Barking Creek on 6 September 1939, Spitfires were first blooded on a pair of unfortunate Hawker Hurricanes from no. 56 RAF Squadron. The Hurricanes were shot down by Spitfires of no. 74 RAF Squadron in a friendly fire incident over the Medway, leading to the death of P/O Montague Leslie Hulton-Harrop, the first British pilot fatality of the Second World War. The Battle of Barking Creek was an incident that happened on September 6, 1939, resulting in the first death of a British fighter pilot in World War II. An air raid siren prompted a squadron of Royal Air Force Hurricanes to take off from North Weald Airfield, followed by two... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Friendly Fire (disambiguation). ...


Battle of Britain

R.J. Mitchell and his Spitfire are often credited with winning the Battle of Britain. This is a view often propagated within popular culture, such as in the film The First of the Few. However, the maintenance of civilian morale under air attack is vital and, no doubt, the Spitfire and its legend contributed to this. Combatants United Kingdom Including combatants from:[1] Poland New Zealand Canada Czechoslovakia Belgium Australia South Africa France Ireland United States Jamaica Palestine Rhodesia Germany Including combatants from Italy Commanders Hugh Dowding Hermann Göring Strength 754 single-seat fighters 149 two-seat fighters 560 bombers 500 coastal 1,963 total... The First of the Few, (known as Spitfire in the United States), is a 1942 British film, starring and directed by Leslie Howard, and co-starring David Niven. ...


The Spitfire was one of the finest fighters of the war; aviators, aviation historians and laymen alike often claim it to be the most aesthetically appealing. It is, however, frequently compared to the Hawker Hurricane, which was used in greater numbers during the critical stages of 1940. Although early Spitfires and Hurricanes carried identical armament (eight .303 in / 7.696 mm machine guns), the placement of the Hurricane's guns was better, yielding a closer pattern of fire. A lower top speed and poorer performance at altitude, however, made the Hurricane more vulnerable against the German fighter escorts. Wherever possible, the RAF tactic during the Battle of Britain was to use the Hurricane squadrons to attack the bombers, holding the Spitfires back to counter the German escort fighters. In total numbers, the Hurricane shot down more Luftwaffe aircraft, both fighters and bombers, than the Spitfire, mainly due to the higher proportion of Hurricanes in the air. Seven of every ten German planes destroyed during the Battle of Britain were shot down by Hurricane pilots. Losses were also higher among the more numerous Hurricanes. Post war analysis shows that even though used in more limited numbers the Spitfire's kill ratio - compared to the Hurricane's - was marginally better. [11] The Parthenons facade showing an interpretation of golden rectangles in its proportions. ... The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, literally Air Weapon, pronounced lufft-va-fa, IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ...


The Mark I and Mark II models saw service during the Battle and beyond, into 1941. Both of these used eight .303 Browning machine guns. It was relatively common during the Battle of Britain for the German planes to return safely to base with surprisingly high numbers of .303 bullet holes as the Luftwaffe machines were receiving progressively more armour in critical areas. The use of a smaller number of heavier, larger calibre guns would have been far more effective, and this was rectified in later versions of the Spitfire. The Mark V entered service in early 1941 and was the first to feature an effective and reliable cannon armament (the Mark IBs of 19 Squadron were tried out with two 20 mm Hispano-Suiza cannon fitted in 1940, although frequent stoppages meant the types were replaced by conventionally armed aircraft in September 1940). The "B" configuration of two 20 mm cannon and four .303 machine guns was standard during the mid-war years. M242 Bushmaster autocannon on an M2 Bradley. ... The Hispano-Suiza HS.404 20 mm autocannon was one of the most widely used aircraft weapons of the 20th century, used by British, American, French, and many other military services. ...


Another contemporary, the Luftwaffe's Messerschmitt Bf 109, was similar in physical dimensions, attributes and performance to the Spitfire. Some inherent advantages helped the Spitfires win many dogfights, most notably manoeuvrability: the Spitfire had higher rates of turn than the Messerschmitt. Good cockpit visibility was probably a factor as well, as the early Bf 109s had a narrow enclosure with heavily-framed, panelled cockpit windows. In fairness, these did offer less optical distortion than "blown" Plexiglass. When German pilots saw what they thought was the Spitfire, irrespective of the actual aircraft type, they would call each other through the wireless phones and say "Achtung! Schpitfeur" which later led to what was called, the "Spitfire complex." Over Malta, unable to launch a defensive force, a Canadian pilot equipped with a ground-based radio set, gave out dummy orders in German resulting in two Bf 109s shooting each other down in a panic over a Spitfire supposedly being in the air. [12] German Airfield, France, 1941 propaganda photo of the Luftwaffe, Bf 109 fighters on the tarmac The Messerschmitt Bf 109 was a German World War II fighter aircraft designed by Willy Messerschmitt in the early 1930s. ... This article is about the aerial combat maneuver. ...


Early in its development, the Merlin engine's lack of direct fuel injection meant that both Spitfires and Hurricanes, unlike the Bf 109E, were unable simply to nose down into a deep dive. This meant the Luftwaffe fighters could simply "bunt" into a high-power dive to escape attack, leaving the Spitfire spluttering behind as its fuel was forced by negative "g" out of the carburettor. RAF fighter pilots soon learned to "half-roll" their aircraft before diving to pursue their opponents. The use of uninjected carburettors was calculated to give a higher specific power output, due to the lower temperature, and hence the greater density, of the fuel/air mixture fed into the motor, compared to injected systems. In March 1941, a metal diaphragm with a hole in it was fitted across the float chambers. It partly cured the problem of fuel starvation in a dive, and became known as "Miss Shilling's orifice" as it was invented by a female engineer, Beatrice "Tilly" Shilling. Further improvements were introduced throughout the Merlin series, with injection introduced in 1943. Production of the Griffon-engined Spitfire Mk XII had begun the year before. This article is about a measure of force or acceleration. ... In mechanics, a diaphragm is a sheet of a semi-flexible material anchored at its periphery and most often round in shape. ... Fuel starvation (also known as fuel exhaustion and fuel depletion) is a problem that predominantly affects petrol-fuelled internal combustion engines, and is caused when the engine is literally starved of fuel. ... The Miss Shilling orifice was a very simple technical device made to counter engine cut-out in early Spitfire and Hurricane fighter aeroplanes during the Battle of Britain. ... Beatrice Tilly Shilling OBE MSc Doctor of the University of Surrey CEng MIMechE MWES (8 March, 1909 — 1990) was an aeronautical engineer who was responsible for correcting a serious defect in the Rolls-Royce Merlin engine during the Second World War. ...


European offensive 1941–43

The introduction of the Focke-Wulf Fw 190 in late 1941 along the Channel front proved a shock to RAF Fighter Command; the new German fighter proved superior to the then-current Mark VB in all aspects except turning radius. Losses inflicted on Fighter Command's Spitfires were heavy, as air superiority switched to the Luftwaffe through most of 1942, until the Merlin 61-engined Mark IX version started to see service in sufficient numbers. In an attempt to achieve some degree of parity with the Fw 190, some squadrons still operating the Mark V received specially modified versions that had four feet of wing-tip removed (to improve their rate of roll) and reduced supercharger blades on the Merlin for optimum performance at lower altitudes. These aircraft were designated LF Mark V officially, but were also known by their pilots as "Clipped, Clapped and Cropped Spits," also referring to the fact that many of these Spitfires, thus modified, had seen better days. The Focke-Wulf Fw 190 Würger (shrike), often called Butcher-bird, was a single-seat, single-engine fighter aircraft of Germanys Luftwaffe, and one of the best fighters of its generation. ...


As the American strategic bombing campaign gathered momentum in mid-1943, the need for fighter escort meant much of Fighter Command's Spitfire force was utilized in this role while the US fighter groups worked up to operational status. The inadequate range of the Spitfire, however, meant the RAF support operations were limited to northwestern France and the Channel. As the battle intensified over occupied Europe, USAAF fighters like the P-47, P-38 and P-51 bore the brunt of bomber protection. Spitfire IX squadrons had to bide their time until the invasion of Europe before fully engaging the Luftwaffe's Jagdwaffe. The American Republic P-47 Thunderbolt, also known as Jug, was the largest single-engined fighter of its day. ... The Lockheed P-38 Lightning was a World War II American fighter aircraft. ... The North American Aviation P-51 Mustang was an American long-range single-seat fighter aircraft that entered service with Allied air forces in the middle years of World War II. The P-51 became one of the conflicts most successful and recognizable aircraft. ... Jagdwaffe, meaning Fighter Force was the term used to describe the Luftwaffes fighter force during World War Two. ...


Mediterranean service

The first Spitfires to see overseas service were Mark Vs flown from the deck of the aircraft carrier HMS Eagle to Malta in March 1942. In the months that followed, some 275 Spitfires were delivered to the beleaguered island. To counter the prevalent dusty conditions, the Spitfires were fitted with a large Vokes air filter under the nose, which lowered the performance of the aircraft through induced drag. The Spitfire V and, later, much-improved, longer-ranged Mark VIIIs also soon became available in the North African Theatre and, henceforth, featured heavily with the RAF, South African Air Force and USAAF during the campaigns in Sicily and Italy. HMS Eagle was an aircraft carrier of the Royal Navy sunk during World War II. The Eagle was laid down at the Armstrong yards at Newcastle-on-Tyne on February 20, 1913. ... The South African Air Force roundel The South African Air Force (SAAF) (Afrikaans: Suid-Afrikaanse Lugmag) is the air force of South Africa. ...


After the fall of Mussolini, and the 9 September 1943 Armistice, the Italian Co-Belligerent Air Force (ICAF) was equipped with surplus Spitfire Mk Vs with the first ground-attack mission flown by 20imo Gruppo, 51 imo Stormo on 23 October 1944 over Albania. By 31 December 1944 there were 17 Mk V Spitfires on charge (a total of 40 MK Vs were eventually acquired). Two Italian Spitfires flew the last mission of the European conflict on 5 May 1945. [13] Benito Mussolini created a fascist state through the use of propaganda, total control of the media and disassembly of the working democratic government. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Italian Co-Belligerent Air Force was an air force formed in 1943 in Southern Italy, whose pilots flew with the Allies after the Italian Armistice. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... // is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Asia and the Pacific

Spitfire versus Zero: Clive "Bardie" Wawn
Spitfire versus Zero: Clive "Bardie" Wawn
Spitfire Mk XIV versus Hap "Zero": Clive "Killer" Caldwell

The Royal Australian Air Force, the Royal Indian Air Force and the RAF also used Spitfires against Japanese forces in the Pacific theatre. The first Spitfires in the Far East were two photo-reconnaissance (PR IV) aircraft in October 1942. Japanese air raids on Northern Australia prompted the formation in late 1942 of No. 1 Wing RAAF (No. 54 Squadron RAF, 452 and 457 squadrons RAAF), flying the Spitfire Vb. The wing arrived at Darwin in February 1943, and saw constant action until September. In the Burma-India Theatre, the first Spitfire Vs were not received until September 1943. The Spitfire VIII were received by the RAAF in April 1944. Spitfire pilots in Asia and the Pacific were surprised to find that they could not follow many Japanese fighters, such as the Mitsubishi Zero, through a turn. Ironically, they were forced to adopt tactics similar to those used by German pilots when facing Spitfires; utilizing their higher speed, especially in a dive, to make swooping attacks, and pursuing Japanese planes which had reached the limits of their range. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 638 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1016 × 955 pixel, file size: 526 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) An article by Bardie Wawn published in the Wings magazine 20/3/1945 who flew a Spitfire against the Zero in Top Secret conditions at the... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 638 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1016 × 955 pixel, file size: 526 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) An article by Bardie Wawn published in the Wings magazine 20/3/1945 who flew a Spitfire against the Zero in Top Secret conditions at the... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 780 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1072 × 824 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 780 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1072 × 824 pixel, file size: 1. ... The Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) is the Air Force branch of the Australian Defence Force. ... The Indian Air Force (भारतीय वायु सेना : Bharatiya Vayu Sena) is the air-arm of the Armed Forces of India and has the prime responsibility of conducting aerial warfare and securing the Indian airspace. ... Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Capital Tokyo Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1868–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1926 Emperor Taishō  - 1926–1989 Emperor Shōwa Prime Minister (many other Prime Ministers preceded the below list)  - 1916–1918 Count Masatake Terauchi  - 1937-1939, 1940-1941 Prince Fumimaro Konoe  - 1941–1944 Hideki... For other uses, see Pacific War (disambiguation). ... An Australian gun camera photograph of a Japanese Betty bomber during a raid on Darwin in June 1943 Between February 1942 and November 1943, during the Pacific War, the Australian mainland, domestic airspace, offshore islands and coastal shipping were attacked at least 97 times by aircraft from the Imperial Japanese... “Port Darwin” redirects here. ... Mitsubishi A6M5 Zero Model 52 The Mitsubishi A6M was a light-weight carrier-based fighter aircraft employed by the Imperial Japanese Navy from 1940 to 1945. ...


D-day and beyond

After the Normandy landings, Spitfire squadrons were moved across the Channel, operating from tactical airfields close to enemy lines. As the Allied air forces achieved air supremacy, Spitfire pilots had fewer opportunities to combat German aircraft, concentrating their efforts on roaming over German territory, attacking ground targets of opportunity and providing tactical ground support to the army units. The Merlin's glycol cooling system proved particularly vulnerable to small arms fire, with one hit in the wrong place being enough to eventually cause the engine to seize.


The newer, faster marks of Spitfire were retained in Britain to counter the V-1 flying bomb offensive in mid-1944, although these aircraft were deployed across the Channel before the war in Europe ended.


Postwar service

Following the Second World War, the Spitfire remained in use with many air forces around the world.

Europe

Soon after the end of the Second World War, the Swedish Air Force equipped a photo reconnaissance wing, F 11 in Nyköping (just south of Stockholm), with 50 Mk XIXs, designated S 31. Several S 31 photographic missions in the late 1940s entailed flagrant violations of Soviet and, at least once, Finnish airspace in order to document activities at the air and naval installations in the Baltic and Kola regions. At that time, no Soviet fighter was able to reach the operational altitude of the S 31. No Swedish planes were lost during those clandestine operations. However, by the early 1950s, Soviet air defenses had become so effective that such practices had to cease. The S 31s were replaced by jet-powered SAAB S 29Cs in the mid-1950s. Coat of arms of the Swedish Air Force. ... Nyköping is a Municipality in Södermanland County, in central Sweden. ... For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ... SAAB J 29 Tunnan (The Barrel) was a Swedish fighter aircraft designed and manufactured by Saab 1950 - 1956. ...


Spitfires played a major role in the Greek Civil War, flown by the RAF and SAAF during October–December 1944, and by the Hellenic Air Force from 1946 to the end of the war in August 1949. Combatants Hellenic Army, Royalist forces, Republicans United Kingdom Communist Party of Greece (ELAS, DSE) Commanders Alexander Papagos, Thrasyvoulos Tsakalotos, James Van Fleet Markos Vafiadis Strength 150,000 men 50,000 men and women Casualties 15,000 killed 32,000+ killed or captured The Greek Civil War (Ελληνικός εμφύλιος πόλεμος [ellinikos emfilios polemos]) was... SAAF flag The South African Air Force (SAAF) is the Air Force of South Africa. ... Hellenic Air Force ensign The Hellenic Air Force (HAF) (Greek: (ΠΑ), Polemikí Aeroporía) is the air force of Greece. ...


After the Second World War, a small number of eight flyable Italian Air Force Mk Vs were supplemented by 145 Mk IXs (obtained in two batches of 60 and 85 aircraft). The Spitfire went into service with 51 and 5 imo Stormo (wing) flying reconnaissance missions over the Balkans as well as acting in cooperation with the Italian Army and providing a defensive force. Well liked by pilots, the Spitfires were involved in several postwar air races and trophy competitions including the Zerbinati Trophy. Italian P-51s and Spitfires were entered in the handicap race with P-51s penalized by a minute for speed, and Spitfires penalized a similar amount in climb rate. The Spitfire Mk IX remained in service until 1950-52 when a small group of 30 survivors were supplied to the Israeli Air Force (HHA); eventually, these ex-Italian aircraft were sent to Burma in 1954-55.[13] Today, one ex-Italian Air Force Spitfire Mk IX, MM4084, is on display at Vigna di Valle, Rome. The Aeronautica Militare Italiana is the Italian air force. ...

Middle East

Spitfires last saw combat during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, when, in a strange twist, Israeli Air Force Spitfires flown by former RAF pilots such as Ezer Weizman engaged Egyptian Spitfires and Royal Air Force Spitfires. Combatants  Israel Haganah Irgun Lehi Palmach Foreign Volunteers Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin John Bagot Glubb, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji, Ahmed Ali al-Mwawi Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially rising... The Israeli Air Force (IAF; Hebrew: זרוע האויר והחלל, Zroa HaAvir VeHaḤalal, Air and Space Division, commonly known as חיל האוויר Hel HaAvir) is the air force of the Israel Defense Forces. ... “RAF” redirects here. ... Ezer Weizman (עזר ויצמן) (Tel Aviv, June 15, 1924 – Caesarea Maritima, April 24, 2005) was the seventh President of the State of Israel (1993-2000). ...

Private

One notable variant was the privately owned LV-NMZ (Argentine registration). This was a PRXI, PL-972, purchased by James Elwyn Storey and his brother Jack to do aerial photography for the Argentine government. Both served in the RAF during the Second World War. James flew his Spitfire from Bournemouth (UK) to Gibraltar, on to Dakar in Senegal, from Dakar to Natal in Brazil, then Rio de Janeiro, Porto Alegre and finally Buenos Aires. He used external wing tanks and a belly ferry tank. He established two records, one for the heaviest fuel load ever carried by a Spitfire and one for the longest flight for a Spitfire, the Dakar to Natal leg – approximately 1,870 miles.


Some air forces retained Spitfires in service well into the 1960s.


Speed and altitude records

The Spitfire Mk XI flown by Sqn. Ldr. Martindale, seen here after its flight on 27 April 1944 during which it was damaged achieving a true airspeed of 606 mph (975 km/h).
The Spitfire Mk XI flown by Sqn. Ldr. Martindale, seen here after its flight on 27 April 1944 during which it was damaged achieving a true airspeed of 606 mph (975 km/h).

Beginning in late 1943, high-speed diving trials were undertaken at Farnborough to investigate handling characteristics of aircraft near the sound barrier (i.e. the onset of compressibility effects). Because it had the highest limiting Mach number of any aircraft at that time, a Spitfire XI was chosen to take part in these trials. Due to the high altitudes necessary for these dives, a fully feathering Rotol propeller was fitted to prevent overspeeding. It was during these trials that EN409, flown by Squadron Leader J. R. Tobin, reached 606 mph (975 km/h)(Mach 0.891) in a 45-degree dive. In April 1944 the same aircraft suffered engine failure in another dive when being flown by Squadron Leader A. F. Martindale, and the propeller and reduction gear broke off. Martindale successfully glided the 20 miles (30 km) back to the airfield and landed safely. Download high resolution version (800x709, 89 KB)Spitfire XI EN 409 which was used in high speed diving trials in 1944. ... Download high resolution version (800x709, 89 KB)Spitfire XI EN 409 which was used in high speed diving trials in 1944. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Farnborough is a town in the Hampshire borough of Rushmoor in South East England. ... U.S. Navy F/A-18 at transonic speed. ... The Critical Mach number (Mcr) is the maximum Mach number (airspeed in relation to the speed of sound - Mach 1. ... Rotol was a British company set up jointly by Rolls-Royce and the Bristol Aeroplane Company during World War Two for the manufacture of aircraft propellers. ... An engine allowed or forced to turn beyond its design limit is said to overspeed. ...

That any operational aircraft off the production line, cannons sprouting from its wings and warts and all, could readily be controlled at this speed when the early jet aircraft such as Meteors, Vampires, P-80s, etc could not, was certainly extraordinary ― Jeffrey Quill[14]

On 5 February 1952, a Spitfire Mk 19 of No. 81 Squadron RAF based in Hong Kong achieved probably the highest altitude ever achieved by a Spitfire. The pilot, Flight Lieutenant Ted Powles, was on a routine flight to survey outside air temperature and report on other meteorological conditions at various altitudes in preparation for a proposed new air service through the area. He climbed to 50,000 feet (15 240 m) indicated altitude, with a true altitude of 51,550 feet (15 712 m), which was the highest height ever recorded for a Spitfire. The cabin pressure fell below a safe level, and in trying to reduce altitude, he entered an uncontrollable dive which shook the aircraft violently. He eventually regained control somewhere below 3,000 feet (900 m). He landed safely with no discernible damage to his aircraft. Evaluation of the recorded flight data suggested that, in the dive, he achieved a speed of 690 mph (1110 km/h) or Mach 0.94, which would have been the highest speed ever reached by a propeller-driven aircraft. Today, it is generally believed that this speed figure is the result of inherent instrument errors and has to be considered unrealistic. is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A Flight Lieutenants sleeve/shoulder insignia Flight Lieutenant (abbreviated as Flt Lt and pronounced as flight lef-tenant, see Lieutenant) is a junior commissioned rank in the Royal Air Force and the air forces of many Commonwealth countries. ... // Meteorology (from Greek: μετέωρον, meteoron, high in the sky; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ...


However, the critical Mach number of the Spitfire's elliptic wing was higher than the subsequently used wing with laminar-flow-section, straight-tapering planform wing of the follow-on Spiteful/Seafang/Attacker aircraft, bringing comment on the wisdom of replacing the old but better wing with the new one.


Survivors

Preserved Spitfire at Duxford. Notice the late-war "bubble" cockpit
Preserved Spitfire at Duxford. Notice the late-war "bubble" cockpit

There are approximately 44 Spitfires and a few Seafires airworthy, although many air museums have static examples. For example, Chicago's Museum of Science and Industry has paired a static Spitfire with a static Ju 87 R-2/Trop. Stuka dive bomber. The RAF maintains some for flying display and ceremonial purposes in the Battle of Britain Memorial Flight at RAF Coningsby in Lincolnshire. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3367x2112, 2695 KB) Supermarine Spitfire XVI at Duxford, September 2006. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3367x2112, 2695 KB) Supermarine Spitfire XVI at Duxford, September 2006. ... Closeup of the front view of an F-16 Fighting Falcon showing the bubble canopy A bubble canopy is a canopy made like a soap bubble, which attempts to provide 360° vision to the pilot. ... A view from the lagoon behind the Museum of Science and Industry, the only in-place surviving building from the 1893 World Columbian Exposition and a National Historic Landmark. ... Junkers Ju 87 Dive-Bombers The Junkers Ju 87 or Stuka was the most famous Sturzkampfflugzeug (German dive bomber) in World War II, instantly recognisable by its inverted gull-wings and fixed undercarriage. ... “RAF” redirects here. ... The Battle of Britain Memorial Flight is a Royal Air Force flight which provides an aerial display group comprising an Avro Lancaster, a Supermarine Spitfire and a Hawker Hurricane. ... RAF Coningsby, is a Royal Air Force station in Lincolnshire, England. ... For other places with the same name, see Lincolnshire (disambiguation). ...


The Temora Aviation Museum in Temora, New South Wales, Australia, has two airworthy Spitfires: a Mk VIII and a Mk XVI, which are flown regularly during the museum's flying weekends.[15] Spitfire at Temora Aviation Museum Temora is a town located in south western New South Wales in Australia. ...


In the Polish Aviation Museum a Supermarine Spitfire LF Mk XVIE is on display. Albatros B.II Grigorovich M-15 Curtiss Export Hawk II De Havilland 82A Tiger Moth II Jak-17UTI Lim-6bis in Museum (behind it - the MiG alley) LWD Szpak-4T PWS-26 PZL M-4 Tarpan RWD-13 SAAB J 35J Draken SAAB AJSF 37 Viggen WSK-Mielec M-15...


The Hellenic Air Force Museum own and displays a Supermarine Spitfire Mk IXc [16].


Kennet Aviation, a British company specializing in ex-military aircraft has a Seafire XVII and a number of Seafire projects at its home airfield at North Weald Airfield.[17] North Weald Airfield (IATA: N/A, ICAO: EGSX) is an operational airfield, near the village of North Weald Bassett in Epping Forest, Essex. ...


The Black Spitfire is a black-painted Spitfire which belonged to Israeli pilot and former president Ezer Weizmann. It is on exhibit in the Israeli Air Force Museum in Hatserim and is used for ceremonial flying displays. Ezer Weizman (born June 15, 1924 in Tel Aviv) was the seventh President of the State of Israel (1993-2000). ... Hatserim Israeli Air Force Base (ICAO: LLHB) is an airfield of the Israeli Air Force located in the Negev Desert on the the western outskirts of Beer Sheva. ...


Kermit Weeks keeps a restored Mk XVI at his Fantasy of Flight museum in Florida.[18] Kermit Weeks Kermit Weeks (b. ... Fantasy of Flight is an aviation-related attraction in Polk City, Florida, USA. 1400 Broadway Blvd SE Polk City, FL 33868 (863) 984-3500 Located midway between Tampa and Orlando in Polk City, Florida, Fantasy of Flight is an aviation-themed attraction that takes visitors back to Early Flight, World... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami metropolitan area Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ...


The "Asas de Um Sonho" Museum, located in São Carlos, Brazil, owns the only airworthy Spitfire in South America, a Mk IXc donated to the museum by Rolls Royce and painted in the colors and markings of RAF ace Johnnie Johnson. South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... This article is about the aircraft engine company. ... RAF is an three letter acronym for: Royal Air Force -- the Air Force of the United Kingdom (see also Air Ministry) Red Army Faction (Rote Armee Fraktion) -- a German terror organisation Rigas Autobusu Fabrika -- a factory making buses in Riga, Latvia Rapid Action Force in India Računarski Fakultet RAF... There are two famous people of that name: Johnnie Johnson (musician) Johnnie Johnson (pilot) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


One of the newest Spitfires to fly in Canadian skies is Michael Potter's Supermarine Mk XVI Spitfire SL721/N721WK/C-GVZB, refinished in the markings of No. 421 Squadron RCAF and is now registered in Gatineau, Quebec as part of the Vintage Wings of Canada Collection. Motto: Fortunae meae, multorum faber[1] Location of Gatineau in Quebec, Canada Coordinates: , Country  Canada Province  Quebec Administrative Region Outaouais Amalgamated 2002 Government  - Mayor Marc Bureau  - Governing body Gatineau City Council  - MPs Lawrence Cannon, Richard Nadeau, Marcel Proulx  - MNAs Roch Cholette, Stéphanie Vallée, Charlotte LÉcuyer, Norman MacMillan... , Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Pierre Duchesne - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area  Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² (595...


Spitfire in film and television

  • Malta Story (1953) starring Alec Guinness, Jack Hawkins, Anthony Steel and Muriel Pavlow, is a black and white war film based on the heroic defence of Malta in 1942, the island itself, its people, and the RAF aviators who fought to defend it. The unique footage used in the film is equivalent to true historic archive material. Additionally many scenes were shot next to the real types of aircraft still existing in Malta at that time. The Spitfires shown in action are, however, mainly of the Mark IX, XIV and XVI types that flew from Malta after 1943-44. In 1942 the RAF was mainly using the Mark V type only that appears rarely in the film. In the footage one can see however the aircraft that attacked Malta, such as the Italian SM79 and the German Bf109F.
  • Battle of Britain (1969) starring Sir Laurence Olivier, Michael Caine, Christopher Plummer, Ralph Richardson, Michael Redgrave, Susannah York and many others. Set in 1940, this film features several sequences involving a total of 12 flying Spitfires, as well as a number of other flying examples of Second World War-era British and German aircraft. The film's production company was "Spitfire Productions, Steven S.A."
  • Piece of Cake (television) (1987) starring Tom Burlinson. When it aired on the ITV network in 1987, this was the most watched miniseries in history. Based on the novel by Derek Robinson, the six-part miniseries covered the prewar era to "Battle of Britain Day," 15 September 1940. The series had time to develop its large cast, and depicted the air combat over the skies of France and Britain during the early stages of the Second World War, though using five flying examples of late model Spitfires in place of the novel's early model Hawker Hurricanes. There were shots of several Spitfires taking off and landing together from grass airstrips.
  • The movie Dark Blue World (2001), starring Ondřej Vetchý was about a Free Czech pilot flying a Spitfire during the Second World War. Besides original footage, it also used out-takes from the earlier Battle of Britain film.
  • Spitfire Ace (2004) was a four-part mini series from RDF Media that depicted four young pilots undergoing the same training that Battle of Britain pilots would have received. One pilot was eventually selected to proceed to training in the "Grace Spitfire."
  • The First of the Few (also known as Spitfire in the US and Canada) (1942) was a British film produced and directed by Leslie Howard, with Howard in the starring role of R.J. Mitchell. It tells the story of Mitchell's life and how he developed the design for the famous British fighter plane. David Niven plays his friend and test pilot Geoffrey Crisp, who narrates the biography in flashback. Leslie Howard bore little resemblance to R. J. Mitchell, however, as Mitchell was a large and athletic man. Howard portrayed Mitchell as upper-class and mild-mannered. Mitchell - "the Guv'nor" - was in fact working-class and had an explosive temper; apprentices were told to watch the colour of his neck and to run if it turned red.
  • Several episodes of the ITV series Foyle's War focus on young RAF pilots who fly Spitfires. A real Spitfire Mark V was used in the filming.
  • American pilots in the movie Pearl Harbor are shown flying Spitfires during part of the film, but with a disregard to historical accuracy that matches the rest of the movie. Ben Affleck's character gets shot down in one of these (a Mark IX, which would appear three years or so later) over the English Channel.

// Film Malta Story (1953) Malta Story is a B/W war film on the heroic defense of Malta, the island itself its people and the RAF aviators who fought to defend it. ... Sir Alec Guinness CH, CBE (April 2, 1914 – August 5, 2000) was an Academy Award and Tony Award-winning English actor who became one of the most versatile and best-loved performers of his generation. ... John Edward Jack Hawkins (September 14, 1910 - July 18, 1973) was a British film actor of the 1950s and 1960s. ... Anthony Maitland Steel (21 May 1920 - 21 March 2001) was an English actor. ... Muriel Pavlow (born 27th June 1921) is a British actress. ... The war film is a film genre concerned with warfare, usually about naval, air or land battles, sometimes focusing instead on prisoners of war, covert operations, military training or other related subjects. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... “RAF” redirects here. ... The Savoia-Marchetti SM.79 Sparviero (Italian: Sparrowhawk) was an Italian bomber of World War II. The three-engined airplane served well as torpedo and medium bomber. ... German Airfield, France, 1941 propaganda photo of the Luftwaffe, Bf 109 fighters on the tarmac The Messerschmitt Bf 109 was a German World War II fighter aircraft designed by Willy Messerschmitt in the early 1930s. ... Battle of Britain is a 1969 film directed by Guy Hamilton, and produced by Harry Saltzman and S Benjamin Fisz. ... Laurence Olivier, as photographed in 1939 by Carl Van Vechten Laurence Kerr Olivier, Baron Olivier, OM (May 22, 1907 – July 11, 1989) was an English actor and director, esteemed by many as the greatest actor of the 20th century. ... This article is about the English actor. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Sir Ralph David Richardson (19 December 1902 – 10 October 1983) was an English actor, one of a group of theatrical knights of the mid-20th century who, though more closely associated with the stage, did their best to make the transition to film. ... Sir Michael Scudamore Redgrave CBE (March 20, 1908—March 21, 1985) was an English actor of great renown. ... York to the right together with Ilya Salkind on the set of Superman: The Movie, circa 1977 Susannah York (born Susannah Yolande Fletcher on January 9, 1939[1]) is an English actress. ... Piece of Cake was a 1988 television mini-series depicting the life of a Royal Air Force fighter squadron from the day of the British entry into World War II through to one of the toughest days in the Battle of Britain (7 September, 1940). ... Tom Burlinson is an Australian actor. ... A miniseries (sometimes mini-series), in a serial storytelling medium, is a production which tells a story in a limited number of episodes. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dark Blue World (Czech: Tmavomodrý svět) is a 2001 film by Czech director Jan Svěrák about Czechoslovakian pilots who fought for the British Royal Air Force during World War II. The screenplay was written by Zdeněk Svěrák, the father of... OndÅ™ej Vetchý (born 16 May 1962, Jihlava, Czechoslovakia) is a Czech actor. ... The First of the Few, (known as Spitfire in the United States), is a 1942 British film, starring and directed by Leslie Howard, and co-starring David Niven. ... Leslie Howard (April 3, 1893 - June 1, 1943) was a British stage and Academy Award nominated film actor. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Independent Television (generally known as ITV, but also as ITV Network) is a public service network of British commercial television broadcasters, set up under the Independent Television Authority (ITA) to provide competition to the BBC. ITV is the oldest commercial television network in the UK. Since 1990 and the Broadcasting... Foyles War is a detective television programme created by screen-writer and author Anthony Horowitz, and commissioned by ITV after the long-running detective series Inspector Morse came to an end in 2000. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Benjamin Géza Affleck (born August 15, 1972) is an American Golden Globe Award-nominated film actor, director, and Academy Award-winning and Golden Globe Award-winning screenwriter. ... Satellite view of the English Channel The English Channel (French: , the sleeve) is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean that separates the island of Great Britain from northern France and joins the North Sea to the Atlantic. ...

Memorials

  • Sentinel is a sculpture by Tim Tolkien in Castle Bromwich, England, commemorating the main Spitfire factory.
  • A sculpture of the prototype Spitfire, K5054, stands on the roundabout at the entrance to Southampton International Airport, which, as Eastleigh Aerodrome, saw the first flight of the aircraft in March 1936
  • There is also a Spitfire on display on the Thornaby Road roundabout near the school named after Douglas Bader who flew a Spitfire in the Second World War. This memorial is in memory of the old RAF base in Thornaby which is now a residential estate.
  • In Canberra, Australia, the last remaining Spitfire in its original paint, remains on display; it has not been repainted since the Second World War.

Sentinel, by Tim Tolkien Sentinel (grid reference SP13789065) is a 16m high sculpture by Tim Tolkien, installed upon a traffic island at the intersection of the Chester Road and the A47 Fort Parkway at the entrance to the Castle Vale estate in Birmingham, England. ... Sentinel, by Tim Tolkien, near the Jaguar works in Castle Bromwich, formerly the Spitfire factory Tim Tolkien is a British sculptor who has designed several monumental sculptures, including the award-winning Sentinel. ... Castle Bromwich is a large village situated within the northern part of the Metropolitan Borough of Solihull in the English West Midlands area. ... Group Captain Sir Douglas Robert Steuart Bader, CBE, DSO and Bar, DFC and Bar, FRAeS, DL, RAF (21 February 1910–5 September 1982); surname pronounced ) was a successful fighter pilot in the Royal Air Force during the Second World War. ...

Operators

See also: List of Supermarine Spitfire operators
The Spitfire Mk VIII "Grey Nurse" which saw action with No. 457 Squadron RAAF in the South West Pacific Area is one of two Spitfires still flying in Australia, both owned by Temora Aviation Museum.
Polish Spitfire Mk V from the 303 Kościuszko Squadron flown by S/Ldr Zumbach
Polish Spitfire Mk V from the 303 Kościuszko Squadron flown by S/Ldr Zumbach
American Spitfire MK V of the 334th Fighter Squadron, 4th Fighter Group.
American Spitfire MK V of the 334th Fighter Squadron, 4th Fighter Group.
Flag of Australia Australia
Flag of Belgium Belgium
Flag of Burma Burma
 Canada
Flag of the Republic of China Republic of China
Flag of Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakia
Flag of Denmark Denmark
Flag of Egypt Egypt
Flag of France France
Flag of Germany Germany
Flag of Greece Greece
Flag of Hong Kong Hong Kong
Flag of India India
Flag of Ireland Ireland
Flag of Israel Israel
Flag of Italy Italy
Flag of the Netherlands Netherlands
Flag of New Zealand New Zealand
Flag of Norway Norway
Flag of Poland Poland[19]
Flag of Portugal Portugal
Flag of the Philippines Philippines
Flag of Rhodesia Rhodesia
Flag of South Africa South Africa
Flag of the Soviet Union Soviet Union
Flag of Sweden Sweden
Flag of Syria Syria
Flag of Thailand Thailand
Flag of Turkey Turkey
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom
Flag of the United States United States
Flag of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslavia

// Royal Australian Navy Royal Australian Air Force Belgian Air Force Burma Air Force Royal Canadian Air Force Royal Canadian Navy Czech Air Force in exile in Great Britain Czechoslovakian Air Force Danish Air Force Royal Egyptian Air Force Free French Air Force French Air Force (Armee de lAir) Aviation... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1090x568, 47 KB) // edited by User:Guinnog from [1] to improve levels and composition Original file tag was: Australias only flying spitfire at Temora aviation museum, NSW. I took the photo Cfitzart 05:53, 1 September 2005 (UTC) I, the... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1090x568, 47 KB) // edited by User:Guinnog from [1] to improve levels and composition Original file tag was: Australias only flying spitfire at Temora aviation museum, NSW. I took the photo Cfitzart 05:53, 1 September 2005 (UTC) I, the... Binomial name Carcharias taurus Rafinesque, 1810 Not to be confused with nurse shark. ... Pilots of No. ... South West Pacific Area (SWPA) was the name given to one of the four major Allied commands in the Pacific theatre of World War II, during 1942-45. ... Temora is home to many historic aircraft that vary from World War Two all the way into Vietnam. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... No. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1037x584, 91 KB) Photo of Spitfire from 4th Fighter Group in 1941. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1037x584, 91 KB) Photo of Spitfire from 4th Fighter Group in 1941. ... The 4th Fighter Group was an American element of the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) Eighth Air Force during World War II. // History Founded in 1942 chiefly from the American volunteers of the Eagle squadrons that joined the RAF before the USA entered the war. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Myanmar. ... Image File history File links Canadian_Red_Ensign_1921. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Czechoslovakia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt_1922. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece_(1828-1978). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hong_Kong_1959. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ireland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Philippines. ... Image File history File links Flag of Rhodesia, 1965–1968. ... This article is about the former British colony of Southern Rhodesia, todays Zimbabwe. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Africa_1928-1994. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Image File history File links Syria-flag_1932-58_1961-63. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Thailand. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_SFR_Yugoslavia. ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throuout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ...

Popular culture

The original Bristol Temple Meads station, first terminus of the GWR, is the building to the left of this picture The Great Western Railway (GWR) was a British railway company, linking South West England, the West Country and South Wales with London. ... 5034 Corfe Castle fresh from Swindon Works, 1954. ...

Specifications (Spitfire Mk Vb)

Data from The Great Book of Fighters[20] and Jane’s Fighting Aircraft of World War II[21]

General characteristics

Performance

Armament

  • Guns: Early version (generally Mk I and Mk II's)

Later versions
This article is about a foot as a unit of length. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... The distance AB is the wing span of this Aer Lingus Airbus A320. ... The pound or pound-mass (abbreviations: lb, lbm, or sometimes in the United States, #) is a unit of mass (sometimes called weight in everyday parlance) in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... In aviation, the Maximum Take-Off Weight (or MTOW) is the maximum weight with which an aircraft is allowed to try to achieve flight. ... The Merlin was a 12 cylinder, 60° V, 27 litre, liquid cooled piston aircraft engine built during World War II by Rolls-Royce and under licence in the United States by Packard. ... A supercharger (also known as a blower) is an air compressor used to force more air (and hence more oxygen) into the combustion chamber(s) of an internal combustion engine than can be achieved at ambient atmospheric pressure (natural aspiration). ... Colombo Type 125 Testa Rossa engine in a 1961 Ferrari 250TR Spyder V-12 engine simplified cross-section V12 redirects here. ... VNO of an aircraft is the V speed which refers to the velocity of normal operation. ... A knot is a unit of speed abbreviated kt or kn. ... A nautical mile or sea mile is a unit of length. ... In aeronautics, the service ceiling is the maximum density altitude where the best rate of climb airspeed will produce a 100 feet per minute climb(twin engine) and 50 feet(single engine) at maximum weight while in a clean configuration with maximum continuous power. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... In aerodynamics, wing loading is the loaded weight of the aircraft divided by the area of the wing. ... Power-to-weight ratio is a measure commonly used when comparing various vehicles (or engines), including automobiles, motorcycles and aircraft. ... This article is about a unit of measurement. ... The Browning M1919 was a . ...

  • Bombs:
    • 2× 250 lb (110 kg) bombs

The 20mm caliber is a specific size of cannon or autocannon ammunition, commonly the smallest caliber which is unambiguously a cannon (or more commonly today, autocannon) and not a heavy machine gun. ... The Hispano-Suiza HS.404 20 mm autocannon was one of the most widely used aircraft weapons of the 20th century, used by British, American, French, and many other military services. ... M242 Bushmaster autocannon on an M2 Bradley. ... The Browning M1919 was a . ...

References

Notes
  1. ^ Morgan, Eric B. and Shacklady, Edward. Spitfire: The History. London: Key Publishing, 1992. ISBN 0-946219-10-9.
  2. ^ Green, William. Famous Fighters of the Second World War, 3rd ed. New York: Doubleday, 1975. ISBN 0-356-08334-9.
  3. ^ Avia.russia.ee Accessed 6 March 2007.
  4. ^ Carpenter, Chris. Flightwise: Part 1, Principles of Aircraft Flight. Shrewsbury, UK: AirLife, 1996. ISBN 1-85310-719-0.
  5. ^ Wikidictionary: spitfire
  6. ^ Deighton 1977
  7. ^ Flintham 1990, p. 254-263.
  8. ^ Green, Peter. "Spitfire Against a Lightning." Flypast No. 315, October 2007, p. 91.
  9. ^ John Nicholls writing in Spitfire, A Complete Fighting History, ed. Alfred Price, 1991 p. 158.
  10. ^ Bader 2004, p. 46.
  11. ^ Bungay, Stephen. The Most Dangerous Enemy: A History of the Battle of Britain . London: Aurum Press, 2000. ISBN 1-85410-801-8.
  12. ^ Bader 1973, p. 91, 125 164.
  13. ^ a b Gueli 1998, p. 4-14.
  14. ^ Quill 1983.
  15. ^ Aviation Museum, AU.
  16. ^ Spitfire
  17. ^ Area 51.
  18. ^ Spitfire at Fantasy of Flight.
  19. ^ List of Spitfire I and II aircraft used by Polish Air Force squadrons (PDF file)
  20. ^ Green, William and Swanborough, Gordon. The Great Book of Fighters. St. Paul, Minnesota: MBI Publishing, 2001. ISBN 0-7603-1194-3.
  21. ^ Jane, Fred T. “The Supermarine Spitfire.” Jane’s Fighting Aircraft of World War II. London: Studio, 1946. p. 139-141. ISBN 1 85170 493 0.
Bibliography
  • Bader, Douglas. Fight for the Sky: The Story of the Spitfire and Hurricane. London: Cassell Military Books, 2004. ISBN 0-30435-674-3.
  • Bungay, Stephen. The Most Dangerous Enemy - A History of the Battle Of Britain. London: Aurum, 2006. ISBN 1-85410-801-8.
  • Deighton, Len. Fighter: The True Story of the Battle of Britain. London: Grafton 1977. ISBN 0-78581-208-3.
  • Dibbs, John and Holmes, Tony. Spitfire: Flying Legend. Southampton UK: Osprey Publishing, 1997. ISBN 1-84176-005-6.
  • Flintham, Victor. Air Wars and Aircraft: A Detailed Record of Air Combat, 1945 to the Present. New York: Facts on File, 1990. ISBN 0-81602-356-5.
  • Gueli, Marco. "Spitfire con Coccarde Italiane (Spitfire in Italian service)." Storia Militare n.62, November 1998.
  • Palfrey, Brett R. and Whitehead, Christopher. Supermarine Spitfire - History of a Legend. Royal Air Force (RAF). [2] Access date: 27 December 2006.
  • Quill. Jeffrey. Spitfire: A Test Pilot’s Story. London: Arrow Books, 1983. ISBN 0-09-937020-4.
  • Price, Alfred. The Spitfire Story. London: Silverdale Books, 1995. ISBN 1-85605-702-X.
  • Spick, Mike. Supermarine Spitfire. New York: Gallery Books, 1990. ISBN 0-8317-14034.
  • Bungay, Stephen. The Most Dangerous Enemy: A History of the Battle of Britain . London, Aurum Press, 2000. ISBN 1-85410-801-8

External links

Duxford, 2001. High-speed flypast.
Duxford, 2001. High-speed flypast.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1330x930, 42 KB) Summary Taken and donated by John Mullen Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1330x930, 42 KB) Summary Taken and donated by John Mullen Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Temora is home to many historic aircraft that vary from World War Two all the way into Vietnam. ...

Related content

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Supermarine Spitfire

Related development

Comparable aircraft

Designation sequence

Walrus - Spitfire - Sea Otter - Spiteful - Attacker - Seagull - Swift - Scimitar Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Supermarine S.6B was a racing seaplane developed by Reginald Mitchell for the Supermarine company in order to win the Schneider Trophy in 1931. ... Seafire F XVII SX336 (Kennet Aviation) The Seafire was a naval version of the Supermarine Spitfire, specially adapted for operation from aircraft carriers. ... The Supermarine Spiteful was a British Rolls-Royce Griffon-engined fighter aircraft designed by Supermarine to Air Ministry specification F.1/43 during World War II as a successor to the Spitfire. ... The Supermarine Seafang was a British Rolls-Royce Griffon-engined fighter aircraft designed by Supermarine to Air Ministry specification N.5/45. ... The Bell P-39 Airacobra was one of the principal fighter aircraft in service with American forces at the start of World War II. At first for a short time designated XP_45, it had just a single_speed, single_stage supercharger for its engine, instead of an exhaust_driven turbo_supercharger as initially fitted... The Curtiss P-40 was a US single-engine, single-seat, low-wing, all-metal fighter and ground attack aircraft which first flew in 1938, and was used in great numbers in World War II. It was a direct adaptation of the existing P-36 airframe to enable mass production... The Dewoitine D.520 was a French fighter aircraft that entered service in early 1940, shortly after the opening of World War II. Unlike the Morane-Saulnier M.S.406, which was at that time the Armée de lAirs most numerous fighter, the Dewoitine D.520 came... The Focke-Wulf Fw 190 Würger (shrike), often called Butcher-bird (usually for the radial engined version), was a single-seat, single-engine fighter aircraft of Germanys Luftwaffe, and one of the best fighters of its generation. ... The Hawker Hurricane was a British single-seat fighter aircraft designed and predominantly built by Hawker Aircraft Ltd. ... Hawker Tempest II, RAF Museum, Hendon The Hawker Tempest was a Royal Air Force (RAF) fighter aircraft of World War II, an improved derivative of the Hawker Typhoon, and one of the most powerful fighters used in the war. ... The Heinkel He 112 was a fighter aircraft designed by Walter and Siegfried Günter at Heinkel. ... The Kawasaki [1]Ki-61 Hien (飛燕, flying swallow) was a Japanese World War II fighter aircraft used by the Imperial Japanese Army Air Force. ... The Macchi MC.202 Folgore (Lightning) was a World War II Italian fighter aircraft built by Macchi Aeronautica, a development of its earlier MC.200 Saetta, with a more powerful German Daimler-Benz DB 601 engine. ... The Macchi C.205 Veltro (Greyhound) was an Italian World War II fighter aircraft built by the Aeronautica Macchi. ... The sole M.B.5 prototype during flight testing. ... German Airfield, France, 1941 propaganda photo of the Luftwaffe, Bf 109 fighters on the tarmac The Messerschmitt Bf 109 was a German World War II fighter aircraft designed by Willy Messerschmitt in the early 1930s. ... The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-3 (Микоян-Гуревич МиГ-3) was a Soviet fighter aircraft of World War II. It was a development of the MiG-1 in an attempt to curb some of that aircrafts handling problems. ... The North American P-51 Mustang was a successful long range fighter aircraft which entered service in the middle years of World War II. Mostly used to escort bomber raids over Germany, the P-51 was a key factor in the defeat of the German Luftwaffe and, by the middle... Yak-9 Yak-9D The Yakovlev Yak-9 was a single-engine fighter aircraft used by the Soviet Union in World War II. Like the Yak-3, it was a development of the earlier Yak-1. ... The Supermarine Walrus was an amphibious reconnaissance aircraft designed by R. J. Mitchell and operated by the Fleet Air Arm. ... The Supermarine Sea Otter, the developement of the Walrus, was intended to have a longer range. ... The Supermarine Spiteful was a British Rolls-Royce Griffon-engined fighter aircraft designed by Supermarine to Air Ministry specification F.1/43 during World War II as a successor to the Spitfire. ... The Supermarine Attacker was a single-seat jet fighter of the Fleet Air Arm (FAA), built by the Supermarine company, and was the first jet fighter of the FAA. The Attacker developed from a Royal Air Force (RAF) fighter jet project, the E10//44. ... For the air/sea rescue aircraft, see Supermarine Seagull ASR-1 The Supermarine Seagull was a development of the Supermarine Seal by the Supermarine company. ... The Supermarine Swift was a single-seat fighter-jet of the Royal Air Force (RAF), built by Supermarine. ... This refers to the aircraft, for other uses see Scimitar (disambiguation) The Supermarine Scimitar was a fighter aircraft in the British Fleet Air Arm. ...

Related lists

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Supermarine Spitfire - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2884 words)
The Spitfire was one of the finest fighters of the war; aviation historians and laymen alike often claim it to be the most aesthetically appealing.
Spitfires played a major role in the Greek Civil War, flown by the RAF and SAAF during 1944 and 1945, and by the Hellenic Air Force, from 1946 through the end of the war in 1948.
Spitfires last saw major action during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, when — in a strange twist — Spitfires flown by Zionist pilots were engaged by both RAF and Egyptian Air Force Spitfires.
Supermarine Spitfire variants - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4859 words)
Realizing that the initial order for 310 Spitfires was but the first of what was likely to be a long production run Vickers started construction of a huge new factory in Castle Bromwich to build Spitfires (in addition to their existing line in Woolston).
However the Spitfire did not perform well enough at that altitude to be decisive; whenever the pilot had a shot lined up it would slew and fall out of the sky.
The XV and 17 marks were reserved for the naval version, the Seafire, in an effort to reconcile the Spitfire numbering scheme with that of the Seafire.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m