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A supermajority or a qualified majority is a requirement for a proposal to gain a specified level or type of support which exceeds a simple majority in order to have effect. For example: in some jurisdictions, parliamentary procedure requires that any action that may alter the rights of the minority has a supermajority requirement (such as a two-thirds majority). Changes to constitutions, especially those with entrenched clauses, commonly require supermajority support in a legislature. A simple majority is the most common requirement in voting for a measure to pass, especially in deliberative bodies and small organizations. ... A parliamentary procedure is the individual process used for decision making by a deliberative assembly. ... The definition of a minority group can vary, depending on specific context, but generally refers to either a sub-group that does not form either a majority or a plurality of the total population, or a group that, while not necessarily a numerical minority, is disadvantaged or otherwise has less... An entrenched clause of a constitution is a provision which makes certain amendments either more difficult than others or impossible. ... Chamber of the Estates-General, the Dutch legislature. ...


The European Union Council of Ministers, in order to balance the interests of small and large member states, uses a qualified majority system for its decision-making. This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Qualified Majority Voting (QMV) is a voting procedure employed in the Council of the European Union for some decisions. ...


The United States Senate requires a supermajority of 60 percent to move to a vote through a cloture motion, which closes debate on a bill or nomination, thus ending a filibuster by a minority of members. Jump to: navigation, search Seal of the Senate The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the Congress of the United States, the other being the House of Representatives. ... In parliamentary procedure, cloture (pr: KLO-cher) (also called closure) is a motion or process aimed at bringing debate to a quick end. ... Jump to: navigation, search In a legislature or other decision making body, a filibuster is an attempt to obstruct a particular decision from being taken by using up the time available, typically through an extremely long speech. ...


The United States Constitution requires a supermajority of two-thirds of both houses of Congress to propose a Congress-driven constitutional amendment; it also requires a three-quarters supermajority of state legislatures for final adoption of any constitutional amendment, as well as a two-thirds supermajority to pass a bill over the president's veto. Jump to: navigation, search The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... The Congress of the United States is the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States of America. ... Jump to: navigation, search A U.S. state is any one of the fifty states (four of which officially favor the term commonwealth) which, together with the District of Columbia and Palmyra Atoll (an uninhabited incorporated unorganized territory), form the United States of America. ...


Two-thirds majority

A two-thirds majority is a common supermajoritarian requirement in elections, especially whenever minority rights can be changed (e.g. constitutional amendments). There are two kinds of two-thirds majority: the simple or the absolute. The term is a corruption of the proper term (used in Robert's Rules of Order) - a two-thirds vote. Jump to: navigation, search An election is a decision making process whereby people vote for preferred political candidates or parties to act as representatives in government. ... The definition of a minority group can vary, depending on specific context, but generally refers to either a sub-group that does not form either a majority or a plurality of the total population, or a group that, while not necessarily a numerical minority, is disadvantaged or otherwise has less... Roberts Rules of Order is a book containing rules of order, intended to be adopted by a deliberative assembly as its parliamentary authority. ...


A two-thirds majority means that the number of votes for a proposition or candidate must equal or exceed twice the number of votes against it. If unqualified, two-thirds majority by itself always means simple two-thirds majority.


As an example, let's take the case of a hypothetical papal election. At this hypothetical conclave, only 100 cardinals vote of the 120 that can vote. The results are that Cardinal A had 67 votes, Cardinal B had 20 votes, and Cardinal C had 13 votes. Cardinal A in this case has a simple two-thirds majority. The Sistine Chapel is the location of the conclave. ... The Sistine Chapel is the location of the conclave. ... A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official in the Roman Catholic Church, ranking just below the Pope and appointed by him as a member of the College of Cardinals during a consistory. ...


An absolute two-thirds majority means that two-thirds of the entire membership of a body or more must agree to the proposition. It is much stronger than a simple requirement. In the above case, if it required an absolute two-thirds majority of the 120 cardinals that can vote, then Cardinal A would not win, since he then would need 80 votes.


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
SingaporeMoms - Parenting Encyclopedia - Supermajority (186 words)
A supermajority or a qualified majority is a requirement for a proposal to gain a specified level or type of support which exceeds a simple majority in order to have effect.
The United States Senate requires a supermajority of 60 percent to move to a vote through a cloture motion, allowing a large minority to filibuster.
The United States Constitution requires a supermajority of two-thirds of both houses of Congress to propose a Congress-driven constitutional amendment; it also requires a three-fourths supermajority of state legislatures for final adoption of any constitutional amendment, as well as a two-thirds supermajority to pass a bill over the president's veto.
Democracy - Facts, Information, and Encyclopedia Reference article (7395 words)
One is to argue that the presence of a constitution in many democratic countries acts as a safeguard.
Generally, changes in these constitutions require the agreement of a supermajority of the elected representatives, or require a judge and jury to agree that evidentiary and procedural standards have been fulfilled by the state, or two different votes by the representatives separated by an election, or, sometimes, a referendum.
The separation of powers into legislative branch, executive branch, judicial branch also makes it more difficult for a small majority to impose their will.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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