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Encyclopedia > Superior mesenteric artery
Artery: Superior mesenteric artery
The pancreas and duodenum from behind. (Superior mesenteric artery labeled at upper right.)
Frontal view of the superior mesenteric artery and its branches. The large vessel (blue) beside the SMA is the superior mesenteric vein. A considerable number of different branching patterns exist.
Latin arteria mesenterica superior
Gray's subject #154 606
Supplies intestine
Source abdominal aorta
Branches inferior pancreaticoduodenal
middle colic
right colic
intestinal branches (jejunal, ileal)
ileocolic
Vein superior mesenteric vein
MeSH Mesenteric+Artery,+Superior
Dorlands/Elsevier a_61/12155072

In human anatomy, the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) arises from the anterior surface of the abdominal aorta, just inferior to the origin of the celiac trunk, and supplies the intestine from the lower part of the duodenum to the left colic flexure and the pancreas. Image File history File links Gray1099. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 492 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (500 × 609 pixel, file size: 93 KB, MIME type: image/gif) superior mesenteric artery Grays Anatomy - copyright expired thus public domain from http://education. ... The portal vein and its tributaries. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... In anatomy, the intestine is the segment of the alimentary canal extending from the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine (or colon). ... AORTA can also mean always-on real-time access, referring to WAN computer networks. ... The inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery is given off from the superior mesenteric or from its first intestinal branch, opposite the upper border of the inferior part of the duodenum. ... The middle colic artery is a branch of the superior mesenteric artery that mostly supplies the transverse colon. ... The Right Colic Artery arises from about the middle of the concavity of the superior mesenteric artery, or from a stem common to it and the ileocolic. ... The Ileocolic Artery is the lowest branch arising from the concavity of the superior mesenteric artery. ... The portal vein and its tributaries. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Elseviers logo. ... List of bones of the human skeleton Human anatomy is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the adult human body. ... AORTA can also mean always-on real-time access, referring to WAN computer networks. ... The celiac artery, also known as the celiac trunk, is the first major branch of the abdominal aorta and branches from the aorta around the level of the T12 vertebra in humans. ... In anatomy, the intestine is the segment of the alimentary canal extending from the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine (or colon). ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube connecting the stomach to the jejunum. ... Colic flexure can refer to: Hepatic flexure (right) Splenic flexure (left) Category: ... The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine systems of vertebrates[2]. It is both exocrine (secreting pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes) and endocrine (producing several important hormones, including insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin). ...

Contents

Location and path

It arises anterior to vertebra L1 in an adult. It is usually 1cm lower than the celiac trunk. It initially travels in an anterior/inferior direction, passing behind/under the neck of the pancreas and the splenic vein. Located under this portion of the superior mesenteric artery, between it and the aorta, are the following: The portal vein and its tributaries - the largest are the superior mesenteric vein and splenic vein. ...

  • left renal vein - travels between the left kidney and the inferior vena cava (can be compressed by the SMA at this location, leading to the so-called nutcracker syndrome.
  • the third part of the duodenum, part of the small intestines
  • uncinate process of the pancreas - this is a small part of the pancreas that hooks around the SMA

The SMA typically runs to the left of the similarly named vein, the superior mesenteric vein. After passing the neck of the pancreas it starts giving off its branches. The renal veins are veins that drain the kidney. ... The kidneys are organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. ... A picture of a nutcracker. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube connecting the stomach to the jejunum. ... Diagram showing the small intestine In biology the small intestine is the part of the gastrointestinal tract between the stomach and the large intestine (colon). ... The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine systems of vertebrates[2]. It is both exocrine (secreting pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes) and endocrine (producing several important hormones, including insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin). ... The portal vein and its tributaries. ...


Branches

Branch Supplies
inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery head of the pancreas and to the descending and inferior parts of the duodenum
middle colic artery to the transverse colon
right colic artery to ascending colon
intestinal arteries branches to ileum, branches to jejunum
ileocolic artery (terminal branch of the SMA) supplies last part of ileum, cecum, and appendix

The middle, right, and ileocecal branches anastomose with each other to form a marginal artery along the inner border of the colon. This artery is completed by branches of the left colic which is a branch of the inferior mesenteric artery. The inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery is given off from the superior mesenteric or from its first intestinal branch, opposite the upper border of the inferior part of the duodenum. ... The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine systems of vertebrates[2]. It is both exocrine (secreting pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes) and endocrine (producing several important hormones, including insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin). ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube connecting the stomach to the jejunum. ... The middle colic artery is a branch of the superior mesenteric artery that mostly supplies the transverse colon. ... The Right Colic Artery arises from about the middle of the concavity of the superior mesenteric artery, or from a stem common to it and the ileocolic. ... The Intestinal Arteries (vasa intestini tenuis) arise from the convex side of the superior mesenteric artery. ... Grays Fig. ... Diagram of the Human Intestine In anatomy of the digestive system, the jejunum is the central of the three divisions of the small intestine and lies between the duodenum and the ileum. ... The Ileocolic Artery is the lowest branch arising from the concavity of the superior mesenteric artery. ... The cecum or caecum (from the Latin caecus meaning blind) is a pouch connected to the ascending colon of the large intestine and the ileum. ... In human anatomy, the vermiform appendix (or appendix, pl. ... The Ileocolic Artery is the lowest branch arising from the concavity of the superior mesenteric artery. ... Frontal view of the abdominal aorta and the territory supplied by the inferior mesenteric artery. ... In human anatomy, the inferior mesenteric artery, often abbreviated as IMA, supplies the large intestine from the left colic (or splenic) flexure to the upper part of the rectum, which includes the descending colon, the sigmoid colon, and part of the rectum. ...


Pathology

  • Compared to other vessels of similar size, the SMA is largely spared the effects of atherosclerosis. This is likely due to protective haemodynamic conditions
  • Occlusion of the SMA almost invariably leads to intestinal ischemia and often has devastating consequences; up to 80% of SMA occlusions lead to death.[1]
  • The SMA can compress the left renal vein, leading to the nutcracker syndrome and/or the third (horizontal) part of the duodenum, leading to SMA syndrome.

Ischemic colitis is inflammation of the intestine (colitis) caused by inadequate blood supply (ischemia) to meet the metabolic demands. ... The renal veins are veins that drain the kidney. ... A picture of a nutcracker. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube connecting the stomach to the jejunum. ... SMA syndrome occurs when the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) dilates and compresses the third (horizontal) part of the duodenum between it and the abdominal aorta. ...

Additional images

Reference

  1. ^ Redaelli CA, Schilling MK, Buchler MW. Intraoperative laser Doppler flowmetry: a predictor of ischemic injury in acute mesenteric infarction. Dig Surg. 1998;15(1):55-9. PMID 9845564. Full Text.

External link


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