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Encyclopedia > Supercomputer

A supercomputer is a computer that is considered, or was considered at the time of its introduction, to be at the frontline in terms of processing capacity, particularly speed of calculation. The term "Super Computing" was first used by New York World newspaper in 1929[1] to refer to large custom-built tabulators that IBM had made for Columbia University. Look up supercomputer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the machine. ... The New York World was a newspaper published in New York from 1860 until 1931. ... Tabulating machine constructed by Hollerith The tabulating machine was a machine designed to assist in tabulations. ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... Alma Mater Columbia University is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ...


Supercomputers introduced in the 1960s were designed primarily by Seymour Cray at Control Data Corporation (CDC), and led the market into the 1970s until Cray left to form his own company, Cray Research. He then took over the supercomputer market with his new designs, holding the top spot in supercomputing for five years (1985–1990). Cray, himself, never used the word "supercomputer", a little-remembered fact is that he only recognized the word "computer". In the 1980s a large number of smaller competitors entered the market, in a parallel to the creation of the minicomputer market a decade earlier, but many of these disappeared in the mid-1990s "supercomputer market crash". Today, supercomputers are typically one-of-a-kind custom designs produced by "traditional" companies such as IBM and HP, who had purchased many of the 1980s companies to gain their experience. Seymour Roger Cray (September 28, 1925 â€“ October 5, 1996) was a U.S. electrical engineer and supercomputer architect who founded the company Cray Research. ... Control Data Corporation (CDC), was one of the pioneering supercomputer firms. ... Cray-2 supercomputer Cray Inc. ... Minicomputer (colloquially, mini) is a largely obsolete term for a class of multi-user computers which make up the middle range of the computing spectrum, in between the largest multi-user systems (traditionally, mainframe computers) and the smallest single-user systems (microcomputers or personal computers). ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... The Hewlett-Packard Company (NYSE: HPQ), commonly known as HP, is a very large, global company headquartered in Palo Alto, California, United States. ...

The Cray-2 was the world's fastest computer from 1985 to 1989.
The Cray-2 was the world's fastest computer from 1985 to 1989.

The term supercomputer itself is rather fluid, and today's supercomputer tends to become tomorrow's normal computer. CDC's early machines were simply very fast scalar processors, some ten times the speed of the fastest machines offered by other companies. In the 1970s most supercomputers were dedicated to running a vector processor, and many of the newer players developed their own such processors at a lower price to enter the market. The early and mid-1980s saw machines with a modest number of vector processors working in parallel become the standard. Typical numbers of processors were in the range of four to sixteen. In the later 1980s and 1990s, attention turned from vector processors to massive parallel processing systems with thousands of "ordinary" CPUs, some being off the shelf units and others being custom designs. (This is commonly and humorously referred to as the attack of the killer micros in the industry.) Today, parallel designs are based on "off the shelf" server-class microprocessors, such as the PowerPC, Itanium, or x86-64, and most modern supercomputers are now highly-tuned computer clusters using commodity processors combined with custom interconnects. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 2110 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Supercomputer Cray-2 ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 2110 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Supercomputer Cray-2 ... The Cray-2 is in the left foreground. ... This article is about the machine. ... Scalar processors represent the simplest class of computer processors. ... Processor board of a CRAY YMP vector computer A vector processor, or array processor, is a CPU design that is able to run mathematical operations on multiple data elements simultaneously. ... Parallel processing is the ability of the brain to simultaneously process incoming stimuli. ... CPU redirects here. ... Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) is a term for software or hardware products that are ready-made and available for sale to the general public. ... Microprocessors, including an Intel 80486DX2 and an Intel 80386 A microprocessor (abbreviated as µP or uP) is an electronic computer central processing unit (CPU) made from miniaturized transistors and other circuit elements on a single semiconductor integrated circuit (IC) (aka microchip or just chip). ... PowerPC is a RISC microprocessor architecture created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM. Originally intended for personal computers, PowerPC CPUs have since become popular embedded and high-performance processors as well. ... 2007 Itanium logo Itanium is the brand name for 64-bit Intel microprocessors that implement the Intel Itanium architecture (formerly called IA-64). ... The AMD64 or x86-64 is a 64-bit processor architecture invented by AMD. It is a superset of the x86 architecture, which it natively supports. ... An example of a Computer cluster A computer cluster is a group of tightly coupled computers that work together closely so that in many respects they can be viewed as though they are a single computer. ...

Contents

Software tools

Software tools for distributed processing include standard APIs such as MPI and PVM, and open source-based software solutions such as Beowulf, WareWulf and openMosix which facilitate the creation of a supercomputer from a collection of ordinary workstations or servers. Technology like ZeroConf (Rendezvous/Bonjour) can be used to create ad hoc computer clusters for specialized software such as Apple's Shake compositing application. An easy programming language for supercomputers remains an open research topic in computer science. Several utilities that would once have cost several thousands of dollars are now completely free thanks to the open source community which often creates disruptive technology in this arena. API and Api redirect here. ... Message Passing Interface (MPI) is computer software that allows many computers to communicate with one another. ... The Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) is a software tool for parallel networking of computers. ... Open source refers to projects that are open to the public and which draw on other projects that are freely available to the general public. ... The Borg, a 52-node Beowulf cluster used by the McGill University pulsar group to search for pulsations from binary pulsars. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Transfers in an openMosix cluster. ... Zeroconf or Zero Configuration Networking is a set of techniques that automatically create a usable IP network without configuration or special servers. ... Apple Inc. ... Shake is an image compositing package used in the post-production industry. ... A programming language is an artificial language that can be used to control the behavior of a machine, particularly a computer. ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ...


Common uses

Supercomputers are used for highly calculation-intensive tasks such as problems involving quantum mechanical physics, weather forecasting, climate research (including research into global warming), molecular modeling (computing the structures and properties of chemical compounds, biological macromolecules, polymers, and crystals), physical simulations (such as simulation of airplanes in wind tunnels, simulation of the detonation of nuclear weapons, and research into nuclear fusion), cryptanalysis, and the like. Major universities, military agencies and scientific research laboratories are heavy users. Modern weather predictions aid in timely evacuations and potentially save lives and property damage Human beings have attempted to predict the weather since time immemorial. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... Computational chemistry is a branch of chemistry that uses the results of theoretical chemistry incorporated into efficient computer programs to calculate the structures and properties of molecules and solids, applying these programs to complement the information obtained by actual chemical experiments, predict hitherto unobserved chemical phenomena, and solve related problems. ... NASA wind tunnel with the model of a plane A wind tunnel is a research tool developed to assist with studying the effects of air moving over or around solid objects. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing sustainable fusion power. ... Close-up of the rotors in a Fialka cipher machine Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptós, hidden, and analýein, to loosen or to untie) is the study of methods for obtaining the meaning of encrypted information, without access to the secret information which is normally required to do so. ...


A particular class of problems, known as Grand Challenge problems, are problems whose full solution requires semi-infinite computing resources. Grand Challenges were policy terms set as goals in the late 1980s for funding high-performance computing and communications research in part in response to the Japanese 5th Generation (or Next Generation) 10-year project. ...


Relevant here is the distinction between capability computing and capacity computing, as defined by Graham et al. Capability computing is typically thought of as using the maximum computing power to solve a large problem in the shortest amount of time. Often a capability system is able to solve a problem of a size or complexity that no other computer can. Capacity computing in contrast is typically thought of as using efficient cost-effective computing power to solve somewhat large problems or many small problems or to prepare for a run on a capability system.


Hardware and software design

Processor board of a CRAY YMP vector computer
Processor board of a CRAY YMP vector computer

Supercomputers using custom CPUs traditionally gained their speed over conventional computers through the use of innovative designs that allow them to perform many tasks in parallel, as well as complex detail engineering. They tend to be specialized for certain types of computation, usually numerical calculations, and perform poorly at more general computing tasks. Their memory hierarchy is very carefully designed to ensure the processor is kept fed with data and instructions at all times — in fact, much of the performance difference between slower computers and supercomputers is due to the memory hierarchy. Their I/O systems tend to be designed to support high bandwidth, with latency less of an issue, because supercomputers are not used for transaction processing. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2256x1412, 701 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Supercomputer Vector processor Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2256x1412, 701 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Supercomputer Vector processor Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... The hierarchical arrangement of storage in current computer architectures is called the memory hierarchy. ... Bandwidth is the difference between the upper and lower cutoff frequencies of, for example, a filter, a communication channel, or a signal spectrum, and is typically measured in hertz. ... In computer science, transaction processing is information processing that is divided into individual, indivisible operations, called Each transaction must succeed or fail as a complete unit; it cannot remain in an intermediate state. ...


As with all highly parallel systems, Amdahl's law applies, and supercomputer designs devote great effort to eliminating software serialization, and using hardware to address the remaining bottlenecks. The speedup of a program using multiple processors in parallel computing is limited by the sequential fraction of the program. ... In engineering, bottleneck is a phenomenon where the performance or capacity of an entire system is severely limited by a single component. ...


Supercomputer challenges, technologies

  • A supercomputer generates large amounts of heat and must be cooled. Cooling most supercomputers is a major HVAC problem.
  • Information cannot move faster than the speed of light between two parts of a supercomputer. For this reason, a supercomputer that is many meters across must have latencies between its components measured at least in the tens of nanoseconds. Seymour Cray's supercomputer designs attempted to keep cable runs as short as possible for this reason: hence the cylindrical shape of his Cray range of computers. In modern supercomputers built of many conventional CPUs running in parallel, latencies of 1-5 microseconds to send a message between CPUs are typical.
  • Supercomputers consume and produce massive amounts of data in a very short period of time. According to Ken Batcher, "A supercomputer is a device for turning compute-bound problems into I/O-bound problems." Much work on external storage bandwidth is needed to ensure that this information can be transferred quickly and stored/retrieved correctly.

Technologies developed for supercomputers include: HVAC may also stand for High-voltage alternating current HVAC systems use ventilation air ducts installed throughout a building that supply conditioned air to a room through rectangular or round outlet vents, called diffusers; and ducts that remove air from return-air grilles Fire-resistance rated mechanical shaft with HVAC... The speed of light in a vacuum is an important physical constant denoted by the letter c for constant or the Latin word celeritas meaning swiftness.[1] It is the speed of all electromagnetic radiation, including visible light, in a vacuum. ... Ken Batcher is one of the computer architects at Goodyear Aerospace [now Loral] in Dayton, Ohio, USA. Among the designs he worked on were the: Massively Parallel Processor (16,384 custom bit-serial processors {8 to a chip} organized in a SIMD 128 x 128 processor array with additional CPU... CPU bound refers to a condition where the time to complete a computation is determined principally by the speed of the central processor and main memory. ... IO bound refers to a condition in which the time it takes to complete a computation is determined principally by the speed of IO operations. ...

A vector processor, or array processor, is a CPU design that is able to run mathematical operations on a large number of data elements very quickly. ... Many components in a computer system unit produce large amout of heat during operation, including, but not limited to: the CPU, chipset, graphics card, and hard drives. ... Non-Uniform Memory Access or Non-Uniform Memory Architecture (NUMA) is a computer memory design used in multiprocessors, where the memory access time depends on the memory location relative to a processor. ... The term Data striping refers to the segmentation of logically sequential data, such as a single file, so that segments can be written to multiple physical devices (usually disk drives) in a round-robin fashion. ... In computing, a redundant array of inexpensive disks, also later known as redundant array of independent disks (commonly abbreviated RAID) is a system which uses multiple hard drives to share or replicate data among the drives. ... See Filing system for this term as it is used in libraries and offices In computing, a file system is a method for storing and organizing computer files and the data they contain to make it easy to find and access them. ...

Processing techniques

Vector processing techniques were first developed for supercomputers and continue to be used in specialist high-performance applications. Vector processing techniques have trickled down to the mass market in DSP architectures and SIMD processing instructions for general-purpose computers. A vector processor, or array processor, is a CPU design that is able to run mathematical operations on a large number of data elements very quickly. ... -1...


Modern video game consoles in particular use SIMD extensively and this is the basis for some manufacturers' claim that their game machines are themselves supercomputers. Indeed, some graphics cards have the computing power of several TeraFLOPS. The applications to which this power can be applied was limited by the special-purpose nature of early video processing. As video processing has become more sophisticated, Graphics processing units (GPUs) have evolved to become more useful as general-purpose vector processors, and an entire computer science sub-discipline has arisen to exploit this capability: General-Purpose Computing on Graphics Processing Units (GPGPU). The Nintendo GameCube is an example of a popular video game console. ... -1... A graphics/video/display card/board/adapter is a computer component designed to convert the logical representation of visual information into a signal that can be used as input for a display medium. ... For other uses, see Flop. ... GPU redirects here. ... General-purpose computing on graphics processing units (GPGPU, also referred to as GPGP and to a lesser extent GP²) is a recent trend focused on using GPUs to perform computations rather than the CPU. The addition of programmable stages and higher precision arithmetic to the rendering pipelines allowed software developers...


Operating systems

Supercomputers predominantly run some variant of Linux or UNIX. Linux has been the most popular operating system since 2004
Supercomputers predominantly run some variant of Linux or UNIX. Linux has been the most popular operating system since 2004

Supercomputer operating systems, today most often variants of Linux or UNIX, are every bit as complex as those for smaller machines, if not more so. Their user interfaces tend to be less developed, however, as the OS developers have limited programming resources to spend on non-essential parts of the OS (i.e., parts not directly contributing to the optimal utilization of the machine's hardware). This stems from the fact that because these computers, often priced at millions of dollars, are sold to a very small market, their R&D budgets are often limited. (The advent of Unix and Linux allows reuse of conventional desktop software and user interfaces.) Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (881x600, 54 KB) This figure shows the operating systems used on the supercomputers listed on the Top500 list from 1993-2006. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (881x600, 54 KB) This figure shows the operating systems used on the supercomputers listed on the Top500 list from 1993-2006. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®, sometimes also written as or ® with small caps) is a computer operating system originally developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ... An operating system (OS) is a software that manages computer resources and provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®, sometimes also written as or ® with small caps) is a computer operating system originally developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ...


Interestingly this has been a continuing trend throughout the supercomputer industry, with former technology leaders such as Silicon Graphics taking a back seat to such companies as AMD and NVIDIA, who have been able to produce cheap, feature-rich, high-performance, and innovative products due to the vast number of consumers driving their R&D. Silicon Graphics, Inc. ... Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. ... The American multinational Nvidia Corporation (NASDAQ: NVDA) (pronounced ) specializes in the manufacture of graphics-processor technologies for workstations, desktop computers, and handheld devices. ...


Historically, until the early-to-mid-1980s, supercomputers usually sacrificed instruction set compatibility and code portability for performance (processing and memory access speed). For the most part, supercomputers to this time (unlike high-end mainframes) had vastly different operating systems. The Cray-1 alone had at least six different proprietary OSs largely unknown to the general computing community. Similarly different and incompatible vectorizing and parallelizing compilers for Fortran existed. This trend would have continued with the ETA-10 were it not for the initial instruction set compatibility between the Cray-1 and the Cray X-MP, and the adoption of UNIX operating system variants (such as Cray's Unicos and today's Linux.) An instruction set is (a list of) all instructions, and all their variations, that a processor can execute. ... Fortran (previously FORTRAN[1]) is a general-purpose[2], procedural,[3] imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing. ... An ETA-10 supercomputer installation The ETA-10 was a line of supercomputers manufactured by ETA Systems (a spin-off division of CDC) in the 1980s and which implemented the instruction set of the CDC Cyber 205. ... UNICOS is the Unix successor of the Cray Operating System (COS) for Cray supercomputers. ...


For this reason, in the future, the highest performance systems are likely to have a UNIX flavor but with incompatible system-unique features (especially for the highest-end systems at secure facilities).


Programming

The parallel architectures of supercomputers often dictate the use of special programming techniques to exploit their speed. Special-purpose Fortran compilers can often generate faster code than C or C++ compilers, so Fortran remains the language of choice for scientific programming, and hence for most programs run on supercomputers. To exploit the parallelism of supercomputers, programming environments such as PVM and MPI for loosely connected clusters and OpenMP for tightly coordinated shared memory machines are being used. Fortran (previously FORTRAN[1]) is a general-purpose[2], procedural,[3] imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing. ... C is a general-purpose, block structured, procedural, imperative computer programming language developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie at the Bell Telephone Laboratories for use with the Unix operating system. ... C++ (pronounced ) is a general-purpose programming language. ... The Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) is a software tool for parallel networking of computers. ... Message Passing Interface (MPI) is computer software that allows many computers to communicate with one another. ... OpenMP logo The OpenMP (Open Multi-Processing) is an application programming interface (API) that supports multi-platform shared memory multiprocessing programming in C/C++ and Fortran on many architectures, including Unix and Microsoft Windows platforms. ...


Modern supercomputer architecture

The Columbia Supercomputer at NASA's Advanced Supercomputing Facility at Ames Research Center
The Columbia Supercomputer at NASA's Advanced Supercomputing Facility at Ames Research Center
The CPU Architecture Share of Top500 Rankings between 1998 and 2007: x86 family includes x86-64.
The CPU Architecture Share of Top500 Rankings between 1998 and 2007: x86 family includes x86-64.

As of November 2006, the top ten supercomputers on the Top500 list (and indeed the bulk of the remainder of the list) have the same top-level architecture. Each of them is a cluster of MIMD multiprocessors, each processor of which is SIMD. The supercomputers vary radically with respect to the number of multiprocessors per cluster, the number of processors per multiprocessor, and the number of simultaneous instructions per SIMD processor. Within this hierarchy we have: Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2100x1524, 3508 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Supercomputer NASA Advanced Supercomputing facility Computer/Temp ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2100x1524, 3508 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Supercomputer NASA Advanced Supercomputing facility Computer/Temp ... NASAs 10,240-processor Columbia supercomputer is built from 20 SGI Altix systems, each powered by 512 Itanium 2 processors. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 541 pixelsFull resolution‎ (885 × 598 pixels, file size: 56 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 541 pixelsFull resolution‎ (885 × 598 pixels, file size: 56 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Intel Pentium 4 (Northwood version), one example out of a huge number of x86 implementations from Intel, AMD, and others. ... The AMD64 or x86-64 is a 64-bit processor architecture invented by AMD. It is a superset of the x86 architecture, which it natively supports. ... The TOP500 project ranks and details the 500 most powerful publicly-known computer systems in the world. ... Multiple Instruction Multiple Data (MIMD) is a type of parallel computing architecture where many functional units perform different operations on different data. ... -1...

  • A computer cluster is a collection of computers that are highly interconnected via a high-speed network or switching fabric. Each computer runs under a separate instance of an Operating System (OS).
  • A multiprocessing computer is a computer, operating under a single OS and using more than one CPU, where the application-level software is indifferent to the number of processors. The processors share tasks using Symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) and Non-Uniform Memory Access (NUMA).
  • A SIMD processor executes the same instruction on more than one set of data at the same time. The processor could be a general purpose commodity processor or special-purpose vector processor. It could also be high performance processor or a low power processor.

As of November 2007 the fastest machine is Blue Gene/L. This machine is a cluster of 65,536 computers, each with two processors, each of which processes two data streams concurrently. By contrast, Columbia is a cluster of 20 machines, each with 512 processors, each of which processes two data streams concurrently. An example of a Computer cluster A computer cluster is a group of tightly coupled computers that work together closely so that in many respects they can be viewed as though they are a single computer. ... An operating system (OS) is a software that manages computer resources and provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. ... Symmetric multiprocessing, or SMP, is a multiprocessor computer architecture where two or more identical processors are connected to a single shared main memory. ... Non-Uniform Memory Access or Non-Uniform Memory Architecture (NUMA) is a computer memory design used in multiprocessors, where the memory access time depends on the memory location relative to a processor. ... -1... Processor board of a CRAY YMP vector computer A vector processor, or array processor, is a CPU design that is able to run mathematical operations on multiple data elements simultaneously. ... Blue Gene/L Blue Gene is computer architecture project designed to produce several next generation super computers, operating in the PFLOPS range. ...


As of 2005, Moore's Law and economies of scale are the dominant factors in supercomputer design: a single modern desktop PC is now more powerful than a 15-year old supercomputer, and the design concepts that allowed past supercomputers to out-perform contemporaneous desktop machines have now been incorporated into commodity PCs. Furthermore, the costs of chip development and production make it uneconomical to design custom chips for a small run and favor mass-produced chips that have enough demand to recoup the cost of production. A current model quad-core Xeon workstation running at 2.66 GHz will outperform a multimillion dollar Cray C90 supercomputer used in the early 1990s, lots of workloads requiring such a supercomputer in the 1990s can now be done on workstations costing less than 4000 US dollars. 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Gordon Moores original graph from 1965 Growth of transistor counts for Intel processors (dots) and Moores Law (upper line=18 months; lower line=24 months) For the observation regarding information retrieval, see Mooers Law. ... ...


Additionally, many problems carried out by supercomputers are particularly suitable for parallelization (in essence, splitting up into smaller parts to be worked on simultaneously) and, particularly, fairly coarse-grained parallelization that limits the amount of information that needs to be transferred between independent processing units. For this reason, traditional supercomputers can be replaced, for many applications, by "clusters" of computers of standard design which can be programmed to act as one large computer.


Special-purpose supercomputers

Special-purpose supercomputers are high-performance computing devices with a hardware architecture dedicated to a single problem. This allows the use of specially programmed FPGA chips or even custom VLSI chips, allowing higher price/performance ratios by sacrificing generality. They are used for applications such as astrophysics computation and brute-force codebreaking. Historically a new special-purpose supercomputer has occasionally been faster than the world's fastest general-purpose supercomputer, by some measure. For example, GRAPE-6 was faster than the Earth Simulator in 2002 for a particular special set of problems. An Altera Stratix II GX FPGA. A field-programmable gate array is a semiconductor device containing programmable logic components called logic blocks, and programmable interconnects. ... It has been suggested that VHSIC be merged into this article or section. ... Spiral Galaxy ESO 269-57 Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that deals with the physics of the universe, including the physical properties (luminosity, density, temperature, and chemical composition) of celestial objects such as stars, galaxies, and the interstellar medium, as well as their interactions. ... Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptós, hidden, and analýein, to loosen or to untie) is the study of methods for obtaining the meaning of encrypted information without access to the secret information which is normally required to do so. ...


Examples of special-purpose supercomputers:

Kasparov vs. ... This article is about the Western board game. ... Reconfigurable computing is computer processing with highly flexible computing fabrics. ... For the graphics processing system, see GRAPE. Gravity Pipe, otherwise known as GRAPE, is a project which uses hardware acceleration to perform gravitational computations. ... The EFFs US$250,000 DES cracking machine contained over 18,000 custom chips and could brute force a DES key in a matter of days — the photo shows a DES Cracker circuit board fitted with several Deep Crack chips In cryptography, the EFF DES cracker (nicknamed Deep Crack... The Data Encryption Standard (DES) is a cipher (a method for encrypting information) selected as an official Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) for the United States in 1976, and which has subsequently enjoyed widespread use internationally. ... This article is about algorithms for encryption and decryption. ...

The fastest supercomputers today

Measuring supercomputer speed

The speed of a supercomputer is generally measured in "FLOPS" (FLoating Point Operations Per Second), commonly used with an SI prefix such as tera-, combined into the shorthand "TFLOPS" (1012 FLOPS, pronounced teraflops), or peta-, combined into the shorthand "PFLOPS" (1015 FLOPS, pronounced petaflops.) This measurement is based on a particular benchmark which does LU decomposition of a large matrix. This mimics a class of real-world problems, but is significantly easier to compute than a majority of actual real-world problems. For other uses, see Flop. ... An SI prefix (also known as a metric prefix) is a name or associated symbol that precedes a unit of measure (or its symbol) to form a decimal multiple or submultiple. ... tera- (symbol: T) is a prefix in the SI system of units denoting 1012, or 1 000 000 000 000. ... Peta can refer to: Peta (prefix), a prefix meaning times 1015 in the International System of Units People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), an animal-rights organization People Eating Tasty Animals, a parody of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals Peta, Greece, a town in the prefecture... Measurement is the estimation of the magnitude of some attribute of an object, such as its length or weight, relative to a unit of measurement. ... In computing, a benchmark is the act of running a computer program, a set of programs, or other operations, in order to assess the relative performance of an object, normally by running a number of standard tests and trials against it. ... In linear algebra, the LU decomposition is a matrix decomposition which writes a matrix as the product of a lower and upper triangular matrix. ...


The Top500 list

Main article: TOP500

Since 1993, the fastest supercomputers have been ranked on the Top500 list according to their LINPACK benchmark results. The list does not claim to be unbiased or definitive, but it is the best current definition of the "fastest" supercomputer available at any given time. The TOP500 project ranks and details the 500 most powerful publicly-known computer systems in the world. ... The TOP500 project ranks and details the 500 most powerful publicly-known computer systems in the world. ... LINPACK is a software library for performing numerical linear algebra on digital computers. ...


Current fastest supercomputer system

A BlueGene/P node card
A BlueGene/P node card

As of November 2007, the IBM Blue Gene/L at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the fastest operational supercomputer, with a sustained processing rate of 478.2 TFLOPS.[2] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (984x920, 786 KB) A BlueGene/P rack. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (984x920, 786 KB) A BlueGene/P rack. ... Aerial view of the lab and surrounding area, facing NW. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California is a United States Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory, managed and operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS), a limited liability consortium comprised of Bechtel National, the University of...


On June 26, 2007, IBM unveiled Blue Gene/P, the second generation of the Blue Gene supercomputer. These computers can sustain one PFLOPS. IBM has announced that several customers will install these systems later in 2007. One of these is likely to become the fastest deployed supercomputer at that time.[3] is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... This article is about the supercomputer. ...


The MDGRAPE-3 supercomputer, which was completed in June 2006, reportedly reached one PFLOPS calculation speed, though it may not qualify as a general-purpose supercomputer as its specialized hardware is optimized for molecular dynamics simulations.[4][5][6] MDGrape 3 is a high peformance computer processor being developed by RIKEN in Japan. ...


Quasi-supercomputing

Some types of large-scale distributed computing for embarrassingly parallel problems take the clustered supercomputing concept to an extreme. Distributed computing is a method of computer processing in which different parts of a program are run simultaneously on two or more computers that are communicating with each other over a network. ... In the jargon of parallel computing, an embarrassingly parallel workload (or embarrassingly parallel problem) is one for which no particular effort is needed to segment the problem into a very large number of parallel tasks, and there is no essential dependency (or communication) between those parallel tasks. ...


One such example is the BOINC platform, a host for a number of distributed computing projects. On March 16, 2008, BOINC recorded a processing power of over 960 TFLOPS through over 550,000 active computers on the network.[7] The largest project, [email protected], reported processing power of over 450 TFLOPS through almost 350,000 active computers.[8] The Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC) is a distributed computing infrastructure intended to be useful to fields beyond SETI. It is being developed by a team based at the University of California, Berkeley led by the project director of [email protected], David Anderson. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... [email protected] logo [email protected] (SETI at home) is a distributed computing project using Internet-connected computers, hosted by the Space Sciences Laboratory, at the University of California, Berkeley, in the United States. ...


Another distributed computing project, [email protected], reported nearly 1.3 PFLOPS of processing power in late September 2007. A little over 1 PFLOPS of this processing power is contributed by clients running on PlayStation 3 systems.[9] [email protected] (also known as FAH or [email protected]) is a distributed computing project designed to perform computationally intensive simulations of protein folding and other molecular dynamics. ... The PlayStation 3 , trademarked PLAYSTATION®3,[3] commonly abbreviated PS3) is the third home video game console produced by Sony Computer Entertainment; successor to the PlayStation 2. ...


GIMPS's distributed Mersenne Prime search achieves currently 27 TFLOPS (as of March 2008). The Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search, or GIMPS, is a collaborative project of volunteers, who use Prime95 and MPrime, special software that can be downloaded from the Internet for free, in order to search for Mersenne prime numbers. ... In mathematics, a Mersenne number is a number that is one less than a power of two. ...


Google's search engine system may be faster with estimated total processing power of between 126 and 316 TFLOPS. The New York Times estimates that the Googleplex and its server farms contain 450,000 servers.[10] This article is about the corporation. ... It has been suggested that Google File System be merged into this article or section. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... This article is about the Google headquarters. ... A typical server farm. ...


Research and development

On September 9, 2006 the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) selected IBM to design and build the world's first supercomputer to use the Cell Broadband Engine™ (Cell B.E.) processor aiming to produce a machine capable of a sustained speed of up to 1,000 trillion (one quadrillion) calculations per second, or one PFLOPS. Another project in development by IBM is the Cyclops64 architecture, intended to create a "supercomputer on a chip". is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government responsible for energy policy and nuclear safety. ... The United States National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) is part of the United States Department of Energy. ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... Blue Gene/L Blue Gene is computer architecture project designed to produce several next generation super computers, operating in the PFLOPS range. ...


Other PFLOP projects include one by Dr. Narendra Karmarkar[11] in India, a CDAC effort targeted for 2010,[12] and the Blue Waters Petascale Computing System funded by the NSF ($200 million) that is being built by the NCSA at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (slated to be completed by 2011).[13] Narendra K. Karmarkar (b. ... Centre for Development of Advanced Computing - Mumbai (C-DAC - Mumbai, formerly known as National Centre for Software Technology) is a scientific society of the Department of Information Technology, Government of India. ... The logo of the National Science Foundation The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering. ... National Center for Supercomputing Applications NCSA Building, 1205 W. Clark St. ... A Corner of Main Quad The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC, U of I, or simply Illinois), is the oldest, largest, and most prestigious campus in the University of Illinois system. ...


Timeline of supercomputers

This is a list of the record-holders for fastest general-purpose supercomputer in the world, and the year each one set the record. For entries prior to 1993, this list refers to various sources[citation needed]. From 1993 to 2007, the list reflects the Top500 listing. The TOP500 project ranks and details the 500 most powerful publicly-known computer systems in the world. ...

Year Supercomputer Peak speed Location
1942 Atanasoff–Berry Computer (ABC) 30 OPS Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA
TRE Heath Robinson 200 OPS Bletchley Park
1944 Flowers Colossus 5 kOPS Post Office Research Station, Dollis Hill, UK
1946
 
UPenn ENIAC
(before 1948+ modifications)
100 kOPS Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, USA
 
1954 IBM NORC 67 kOPS U.S. Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia, USA
1956 MIT TX-0 83 kOPS Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Lexington, Massachusetts, USA
1958 IBM AN/FSQ-7 400 kOPS 25 U.S. Air Force sites across the continental USA and 1 site in Canada (52 computers)
1960 UNIVAC LARC 250 kFLOPS Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, California, USA
1961 IBM 7030 "Stretch" 1.2 MFLOPS Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, USA
1964 CDC 6600 3 MFLOPS Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, California, USA
1969 CDC 7600 36 MFLOPS
1974 CDC STAR-100 100 MFLOPS
1975 Burroughs ILLIAC IV 150 MFLOPS NASA Ames Research Center, California, USA
1976 Cray-1 250 MFLOPS Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, USA (80+ sold worldwide)
1981 CDC Cyber 205 400 MFLOPS (numerous sites worldwide)
1983 Cray X-MP/4 941 MFLOPS Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Battelle; Boeing
1984 M-13 2.4 GFLOPS Scientific Research Institute of Computer Complexes, Moscow, USSR
1985 Cray-2/8 3.9 GFLOPS Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, California, USA
1989 ETA10-G/8 10.3 GFLOPS Florida State University, Florida, USA
1990 NEC SX-3/44R 23.2 GFLOPS NEC Fuchu Plant, Fuchu, Japan
1993 Thinking Machines CM-5/1024 65.5 GFLOPS Los Alamos National Laboratory; National Security Agency
Fujitsu Numerical Wind Tunnel 124.50 GFLOPS National Aerospace Laboratory, Tokyo, Japan
Intel Paragon XP/S 140 143.40 GFLOPS Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, USA
1994 Fujitsu Numerical Wind Tunnel 170.40 GFLOPS National Aerospace Laboratory, Tokyo, Japan
1996 Hitachi SR2201/1024 220.4 GFLOPS University of Tokyo, Japan
Hitachi/Tsukuba CP-PACS/2048 368.2 GFLOPS Center for Computational Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan
1997 Intel ASCI Red/9152 1.338 TFLOPS Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, USA
1999 Intel ASCI Red/9632 2.3796 TFLOPS
2000 IBM ASCI White 7.226 TFLOPS Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, California, USA
2002 NEC Earth Simulator 35.86 TFLOPS Earth Simulator Center, Yokohama, Japan
2004 IBM Blue Gene/L 70.72 TFLOPS U.S. Department of Energy/IBM, USA
2005 136.8 TFLOPS U.S. Department of Energy/U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration,
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, California, USA
280.6 TFLOPS
2007 478.2 TFLOPS
2008 TACC Ranger Sun Grid Engine/Constellation 504 TFLOPS[14] Texas Advanced Computing Center, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, USA

Atanasoff–Berry Computer replica at 1st floor of Durham Center, Iowa State University The Atanasoff–Berry Computer (ABC) was the first electronic digital computing device. ... The Iowa State University of Science and Technology (ISU) is a public land-grant and space-grant university located in Ames, Iowa, USA. Iowa State has produced a number of astronauts, Nobel laureates, Pulitzer Prize winners and a variety of other notable individuals in their respective fields. ... Main Street in downtown Ames in 2006 Ames is a city located in the central part of the U.S. state of Iowa, about 30 miles north of Des Moines in Story County. ... The Telecommunications Research Establishment (TRE) was established in Malvern, England in 1940 as the central research group for RAF applications of radar. ... Heath Robinson was a machine used by British codebreakers at Bletchley Park during World War II to solve messages in a German teleprinter cipher, the Lorenz SZ40/42. ... During World War II, codebreakers at Bletchley Park decrypted and interpreted messages from a large number of Axis code and cipher systems, including the German Enigma machine. ... Thomas (Tommy) Harold Flowers, MBE (22 December 1905 – 28 October 1998) was a British engineer. ... A Colossus Mark II computer. ... The Post Office Research Station at Dollis Hill, London, was first established in 1921 and opened by the Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald in 1933. ... Dollis Hill is an area of north-west London. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... This article is about the private Ivy League university in Philadelphia. ... ENIAC ENIAC, short for Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer,[1] was the first large-scale, electronic, digital computer capable of being reprogrammed to solve a full range of computing problems,[2] although earlier computers had been built with some of these properties. ... Aberdeen Proving Ground is a United States Army facility located at Aberdeen, Maryland (in Harford county). ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... The IBM Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) was a one-of-a-kind first-generation (vacuum tube) electronic computer built by IBM for the United States Navys Bureau of Ordnance. ... The United States Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Division (NSWCDD), named for Rear Admiral John A. Dahlgren, is located in Dahlgren, Virginia and is part of the Naval Surface Warfare Center. ... Dahlgren is a census-designated place located in King George County, Virginia. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... “MIT” redirects here. ... The TX-0, for Transistorized Experimental computer zero but affectionately referred to as the tixo, was the first fully transistorized computer to enter service and contained a then-huge 64K of 18-bit words of core memory. ... “MIT” redirects here. ... Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex Settled 1642 Incorporated 1713 Government  - Type Representative town meeting Area  - Total 16. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... The AN/FSQ-7 (aka Whirlwind II) intercept computer, developed by Cambridge Research Laboratory and IBM in partnership with the US Air Force, was, as its alias suggests, a modified Whirlwind computer. ... USAF redirects here. ... The continental United States is a term referring to the United States situated on the North American continent. ... UNIVAC serves as the catch-all name for the American manufacturers of the lines of mainframe computers by that name, which through mergers and acquisitions underwent numerous name changes. ... The UNIVAC LARC (Livermore Advanced Research Computer) was Remington Rands first attempt at building a supercomputer. ... Aerial view of the lab and surrounding area, facing NW. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California is a United States Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory, managed and operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS), a limited liability consortium comprised of Bechtel National, the University of... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The IBM 7030, also known as Stretch, was IBMs first attempt at building a supercomputer. ... Los Alamos National Laboratory, aerial view from 1995. ... Official language(s) None Spoken language(s) English 68. ... The CDC 6600 was a mainframe computer from Control Data Corporation, first manufactured in 1965. ... Aerial view of the lab and surrounding area, facing NW. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California is a United States Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory, managed and operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS), a limited liability consortium comprised of Bechtel National, the University of... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The CDC 7600 was the Seymour Cray-designed successor to the CDC 6600, extending Control Datas dominance of the supercomputer field into the 1970s. ... The STAR-100 was a supercomputer from Control Data Corporation, one of the first machines to use a vector processor for improved math performance. ... William Seward Burroughs (1857-1898), US inventor William S. Burroughs (1914-1997), author and grandson of William Seward Burroughs Edgar Rice Burroughs (1875-1950), American author of Tarzan fame The Burroughs Corporation began in 1886 as the American Arithmometer Company in St. ... The ILLIAC IV was one of the most infamous supercomputers ever, destined to be the last in a series of research machines from the University of Illinois. ... Aerial View of Moffett Field and NASA Ames Research Center. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... CRAY-1 at the EPFL in Switzerland. ... Los Alamos National Laboratory, aerial view from 1995. ... Official language(s) None Spoken language(s) English 68. ... The CDC Cyber range of mainframe/super-computers were Control Data Corporation (CDC)s primary products during the 1970s and 1980s. ... The Cray X-MP was a supercomputer designed, built and sold by Cray Research. ... Los Alamos National Laboratory, aerial view from 1995. ... Aerial view of the lab and surrounding area, facing NW. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California is a United States Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory, managed and operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS), a limited liability consortium comprised of Bechtel National, the University of... Headquarters in Columbus The Battelle Memorial Institute is a private not-for-profit applied science and technology development company headquartered in Columbus, Ohio. ... The Boeing Company (NYSE: BA, TYO: 7661) is a major aerospace and defense corporation, originally founded by William Edward Boeing. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... The Cray-2 is in the left foreground. ... Aerial view of the lab and surrounding area, facing NW. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California is a United States Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory, managed and operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS), a limited liability consortium comprised of Bechtel National, the University of... This article is about the U.S. state. ... An ETA10 supercomputer installation The ETA10 was a line of supercomputers manufactured by ETA Systems (a spin-off division of CDC) in the 1980s and which implemented the instruction set of the CDC Cyber 205. ... Florida State University (commonly referred to as Florida State or FSU)[8] is a public research university located in Tallahassee. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... NEC Corporation (Jp. ... NEC Corporation (Jp. ... Fuchu is the name of several places in Japan: Fuchu City, Tokyo Prefecture Fuchu City, Hiroshima Prefecture Fuchu Town, Hiroshima Prefecture As of 2004, this is the only case that two Japanese cities share the exactly same name. ... Thinking Machines Corporation was a supercomputer manufacturer founded in Waltham, Massachusetts in 1982 by W. Daniel Hillis and Sheryl Handler to turn Hilliss doctoral work at MIT on massively parallel computing architectures into a commercial product called the Connection Machine. ... Thinking Machines CM-2 at the Computing Museum in San Jose. ... Los Alamos National Laboratory, aerial view from 1995. ... For other uses of NSA, see NSA (disambiguation). ... For the district in Saga, Japan, see Fujitsu, Saga. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... The Intel Paragon was a series of massively parallel supercomputers produced by Intel. ... It has been suggested that Sandia Base be merged into this article or section. ... Official language(s) None Spoken language(s) English 68. ... For the district in Saga, Japan, see Fujitsu, Saga. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Hitachi Works be merged into this article or section. ... Todai redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Hitachi Works be merged into this article or section. ... Tsukuba (Japanese: つくば市; -shi; from Han character 筑波) is a planned city located in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. ... The University of Tsukuba has a modern campus The University of Tsukuba ), located in the city of Tsukuba, Ibaraki Prefecture in the Kantō region, is one of Japans most prestigious national universities. ... Tsukuba (Japanese: つくば市; -shi; from Han character 筑波) is a planned city located in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... ASCI Red or ASCI Option Red, is a supercomputer installed at Sandia National Laboratories, located in Albuquerque, New Mexico. ... It has been suggested that Sandia Base be merged into this article or section. ... Official language(s) None Spoken language(s) English 68. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... ASCI Red or ASCI Option Red, is a supercomputer installed at Sandia National Laboratories, located in Albuquerque, New Mexico. ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... IBM ASCI White is a supercomputer at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California. ... Aerial view of the lab and surrounding area, facing NW. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California is a United States Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory, managed and operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS), a limited liability consortium comprised of Bechtel National, the University of... This article is about the U.S. state. ... NEC Corporation (Jp. ... The Earth Simulator (ES) was the fastest supercomputer in the world from 2002 to 2004. ... The Japanese Earth Simulator Center is a supercomputing center. ... For the town of Yokohama in Aomori Prefecture, see Yokohama, Aomori. ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... This article is about the supercomputer. ... The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government responsible for energy policy and nuclear safety. ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government responsible for energy policy and nuclear safety. ... The United States National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) is part of the United States Department of Energy. ... Aerial view of the lab and surrounding area, facing NW. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California is a United States Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory, managed and operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS), a limited liability consortium comprised of Bechtel National, the University of... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Mission The Texas Advanced Computing Center (TACC) at The University of Texas at Austin (UT Austin) enhances research and education programs and activities through applied research & development, operation, and support of advanced computing technologies. ... Sun Microsystems, Inc. ... Sun Grid Engine (SGE), earlier known as CODINE (COmputing in DIstributed Networked Environments) or GRD (Global Resource Director) is an open source batch-queuing system, supported by Sun Microsystems. ... Mission The Texas Advanced Computing Center (TACC) at The University of Texas at Austin (UT Austin) enhances research and education programs and activities through applied research & development, operation, and support of advanced computing technologies. ... University of Texas redirects here. ... Austin is the capital of the U.S. state of Texas and the seat of Travis County. ...

See also

Electronics Portal
General concepts, history
Other classes of computer
Supercomputer companies in operation

These companies make supercomputer hardware and/or software, either as their sole activity, or as one of several activities. Image File history File links Nuvola_apps_ksim. ... Beowulf is a design for high-performance parallel computing clusters on inexpensive personal computer hardware. ... Distributed computing is a method of computer processing in which different parts of a program are run simultaneously on two or more computers that are communicating with each other over a network. ... A flash mob computer (also flash mob computing) is a temporary ad-hoc computer cluster running specific software to coordinate the individual computers into one single supercomputer. ... Grid computing is a phrase in distributed computing which can have several meanings: Multiple independent computing clusters which act like a grid because they are composed of resource nodes not located within a single administrative domain. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Supercomputing. ... Computing hardware has been an important component of the process of calculation and computer data storage since it became useful for numerical values to be processed and shared. ... MOSIX is a management system for Linux clusters and organizational Grids that provides a Single-System Image (SSI), i. ... Parallel computing is the simultaneous execution of the same task (split up and specially adapted) on multiple processors in order to obtain results faster. ... Metacomputing is all computing and computing-oriented activitiy which involves computing knowledge (science and technology) common for the research, development and application of different types of computing. ... The Bloch sphere is a representation of a qubit, the fundamental building block of quantum computers. ... Minisupercomputers constituted a class of computers that emerged in the mid-1980s. ... For other uses, see Mainframe. ... A supermini can be: A car size class used in Europe. ... Minicomputer (colloquially, mini) is a largely obsolete term for a class of multi-user computers which make up the middle range of the computing spectrum, in between the largest multi-user systems (traditionally, mainframe computers) and the smallest single-user systems (microcomputers or personal computers). ... The Commodore 64 was one of the most popular microcomputers of its era, and is the best selling model of home computer of all time. ...

Defunct supercomputer companies

These companies have either folded, or no longer operate in the supercomputer market. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Cray Inc. ... For the district in Saga, Japan, see Fujitsu, Saga. ... Groupe Bull (also known as Bull Computer or, informally, as Bull) is a French computer company based in Paris. ... Centre for Development of Advanced Computing - Mumbai (C-DAC - Mumbai, formerly known as National Centre for Software Technology) is a scientific society of the Department of Information Technology, Government of India. ... BARC could mean In India, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre British Automobile Racing Club Brooklyn Animal Resource Coalition Birmingham Amateur Radio Club In Boston, MA, Boston Amateur Radio Club In Beltsville, MD, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... Microsoft Cluster Server (MSCS) is software designed to allow servers to work together as one machine, to provide failover and increased availability of applications, or parallel calculating power in case of high-performance computing (HPC) clusters (as in supercomputing). ... The correct title of this article is nCUBE. The initial letter is capitalized due to technical restrictions. ... NEC Corporation (Jp. ... NVIDIA Corporation (NASDAQ: NVDA) is a major supplier of graphics processors (graphics processing units, GPUs), graphics cards, and media and communications devices for PCs and game consoles (Xbox). ... This is an article about the computing company, for use in mathematics, see quadric. ... Sun Microsystems, Inc. ... Silicon Graphics, Inc. ... Three firms have held, simultaneously, the name Supercomputer Systems or Supercomputing Systems. ...

Control Data Corporation (CDC), was one of the pioneering supercomputer firms. ... Convex Computer was a company that produced a number of vector minisupercomputers, supercomputers for small-to-medium-sized businesses. ... Kendall Square Research (KSR) was a supercomputer company headquartered originally in Kendall Square in Cambridge, Massachusetts in 1986, near MIT. It was co-founded by Henry Burkhardt III who had previously helped found Data General and Encore Computer and was one of the original team that designed the PDP-8... MasPar Computer Corporation was a minisupercomputer vendor that was founded in 1987 by Jeff Kalb. ... Meiko Scientific Ltd. ... Sequent Computer Systems, or Sequent, was a computer company that designed and manufactured multiprocessing computer systems. ... Three firms have held, simultaneously, the name Supercomputer Systems or Supercomputing Systems. ... Location within the state of Wisconsin. ... Three firms have held, simultaneously, the name Supercomputer Systems or Supercomputing Systems. ... San Diego redirects here. ... Thinking Machines Corporation was a supercomputer manufacturer founded in Waltham, Massachusetts in 1982 by W. Daniel Hillis and Sheryl Handler to turn Hilliss doctoral work at MIT on massively parallel computing architectures into a commercial product called the Connection Machine. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Eames, Charles; Eames, Ray (1973). A Computer Perspective. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 95. . Page 95 identifies the article as "Super Computing Machines Shown", New York World, March 1, 1920. . However the article shown on page 95 references the Statistical Bureau in Hamilton Hall and an article at the Columbia Computing History web site states that such did not exist until 1929. See The Columbia Difference Tabulator - 1931
  2. ^ November 2007. TOP500.Org. Retrieved on 2008-03-16.
  3. ^ "IBM Triples Performance of World's Fastest, Most Energy-Efficient Supercomputer". IBM (26 Jun 2007). Retrieved on 2008-03-16.
  4. ^ "Completion of a one-petaflops computer system for simulation of molecular dynamics". RIKEN (The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research), Intel K.K., and SGI Japan. Retrieved on 2008-03-16.
  5. ^ "MDGRAPE-3: A Petaflops special-purpose computer for molecular dynamics simulations". RIKEN. Retrieved on 2008-03-16.
  6. ^ http://www.newsfactor.com/news/Japan-Bests-IBM-in-Supercomputer-Stakes/story.xhtml?story_id=1220059R0ADY[dead link]
  7. ^ BOINCstats: BOINC Combined. BOINC. Retrieved on 2008-03-16.
  8. ^ BOINCstats: [email protected] BOINC. Retrieved on 2008-03-16.
  9. ^ [email protected]: OS Statistics. Stanford University.
  10. ^ Markoff, John; Saul Hensell (June 14, 2006). "Hiding in Plain Sight, Google Seeks More Power". The New York Times. Retrieved on 2008-03-16.
  11. ^ Athley, Gouri Agtey; Rajeshwari Adappa (30 Oct, 2006). "Tatas get Karmakar to make super comp". The Economic Times. Retrieved on 2008-03-16.
  12. ^ C-DAC's Param programme sets to touch 10 teraflops by late 2007 and a petaflops by 2010.[dead link]
  13. ^ "National Science Board Approves Funds for Petascale Computing Systems". U.S. National Science Foundation (August 10, 2007). Retrieved on 2008-03-16.
  14. ^ TACC > Powering Discoveries. Texas Advanced Computing Center (February 18, 2008). Retrieved on 2008-04-08.

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC) is a distributed computing infrastructure intended to be useful to fields beyond SETI. It is being developed by a team based at the University of California, Berkeley led by the project director of [email protected], David Anderson. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Stanford redirects here. ... John Markoff (born October 24, 1949) is an American writer and journalist. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Economic Times, launched in 1961, is Indias largest financial daily and the worlds second largest financial daily after The Wall Street Journal, with a daily readership of over 650,000 copies. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The logo of the National Science Foundation The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ...

Information resources

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Supercomputers
  • TOP500 Supercomputer list
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  • LinuxHPC.org Linux High Performance Computing and Clustering Portal
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  • Cluster Resources
  • Cluster Builder
  • CDAC
  • Microsoft Windows Compute Cluster Server (CCS)
  • Infiscale Cluster Portal - Free GPL HPC Resources
  • Supercomputing Online Homepage for the World's High-Performance Computing, Networking & Storage Professionals
  • Degree Project about best alternatives to implement HPC Cluster

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Supercomputing centers, organizations

Organizations

Centers The University of Edinburgh (Scottish Gaelic: ), founded in 1582,[4] is a renowned centre for teaching and research in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Research Computing Services (separated in August 2007 from the former Manchester Computing at the University of Manchester), provides the focus for the University of Manchesters activities in supercomputing or high-performance computing, grid computing or e-science and computational science. ... Affiliations: Russell Group, EUA, N8 Group, NWUA, Worldwide Universities Network (WUN), Association of Commonwealth Universities Website: http://www. ...

  • ARSC Arctic Region Supercomputing Center at University of Alaska Fairbanks
  • BSC Barcelona Supercomputing Center - Spanish national supercomputing facility and R&D center
  • CESCA Supercomputing Centre of Catalonia - Centre de Supercomputacio de Catalunya
  • CESGA Galicia Supercomputing Center - Centro de Supercomputación de Galicia
  • CINECA CINECA Interuniversity Consortium, Italy
  • CSAR UK national supercomputer service operated by Manchester Computing
  • GSIC Global Scientific Information and Computing Center at the Tokyo Institute of Technology
  • HPCx UK national supercomputer service operated by EPCC and Daresbury Lab
  • IRB
  • Minnesota Supercomputer Institute (Formerly Minnesota Supercomputer Center) operated by University of Minnesota
  • NASA Advanced Supercomputing facility
  • National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)
  • National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA)
  • National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC)
  • Ohio Supercomputer Center (OSC)
  • Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center operated by University of Pittsburgh and Carnegie Mellon University.
  • San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC)
  • SARA (Stichting Academisch Rekencentrum Amsterdam), Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  • System X at Virginia Tech
  • Texas Advanced Computing Center (TACC)
  • WestGrid
  • TCHPC Trinity Centre for High Performance Computing. Based in the University of Dublin.
  • DCSC Danish Centre for Scientific Computing. Based at the University of Copenhagen.
  • PSNC (Poznan Supercomputing and Networking Center), Poznan, Poland
  • NSC National Supercomputer Centre in Sweden at Linköping University, Sweden

The University of Alaska Fairbanks, located in Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, is the second largest campus of the University of Alaska System, and is abbreviated as UAF. UAF is a land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant institution, as well as participating in the sun-grant program through Oregon State University. ... This article is about the oldest and largest campus of the University of Minnesota. ... The University of Pittsburgh, commonly referred to as Pitt, is a state-related, doctoral/research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States. ... Carnegie Mellon University is a private research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States. ... Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, better known as Virginia Tech, is a public land grant polytechnic university in Blacksburg, Virginia, U.S. Although it is a comprehensive university with many departments, the agriculture, engineering, architecture, forestry, and veterinary medicine programs from its historical polytechnic core are still considered to... The University of Dublin, corporately designated the Chancellor, Doctors and Masters of the University of Dublin located in Dublin, Ireland, was founded in 1592 by Queen Elizabeth I, making it Irelands oldest university. ... Main campus on Frue Plads. ... Linköping University (Swedish: Linköpings universitet, LiU) is a university in Linköping, Sweden. ...

Specific machines, general-purpose

  • Linux NetworX press release: Linux NetworX to build "largest" Linux supercomputer
  • ASCI White press release
  • Article about Japanese "Earth Simulator" computer
  • "Earth Simulator" website (in English)
  • NEC high-performance computing information
  • Superconducting Supercomputer
  • Blue Waters Petascale Computing System

Specific machines, special-purpose

  • Papers on the GRAPE special-purpose computer
  • More special-purpose supercomputer information
  • Information about the APEmille special-purpose computer
  • Information about the apeNEXT special-purpose computer
  • Information about the QCDOC project, machines
This List of computer size categories attempts to list commonly used categories of computer by size. ... Minisupercomputers constituted a class of computers that emerged in the mid-1980s. ... For other uses, see Mainframe. ... Minicomputer (colloquially, mini) is a largely obsolete term for a class of multi-user computers which make up the middle range of the computing spectrum, in between the largest multi-user systems (traditionally, mainframe computers) and the smallest single-user systems (microcomputers or personal computers). ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 2110 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Supercomputer Cray-2 ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (966x1280, 101 KB) Summary Sony Ericsson P910i with Opera web browser. ... Bold text Desktop computer with several common peripherals (Monitor, keyboard, mouse, speakers, microphone and a printer) A desktop computer is a gay electronic machine computer which convert raw data into meaningful information, made for use on a desk in an office or home and is distinguished from portable computers such... The Commodore 64 was one of the most popular microcomputers of its era, and is the best selling model of home computer of all time. ... Children playing on a Amstrad CPC 464 in the 1980s. ... A stylised illustration of a personal computer A personal computer (PC) is a computer whose original sales price, size, and capabilities make it useful for individuals, intended to be operated directly by an end user, with no intervening computer operator. ... The Apple iMac, an All-in-One PC. An All-in-One PC is a PC built into hardware which is usually a separate peripheral, such as a monitor or keyboard. ... Sun SPARCstation 1+, 25 MHz RISC processor from early 1990s A workstation, such as a Unix workstation, RISC workstation or engineering workstation, is a high-end desktop or deskside microcomputer designed for technical applications. ... In information technology, a server is an application or device that performs services for connected clients as part of a client-server architecture. ... Mobile Computing is a generic term describing your ability to use technology untethered, that is not physically connected, or in remote or mobile (non static) environments. ... Mobile, full size computers - cart computers - allow high mobility for a full size computer. ... A Portable computer is a computer that is designed to be moved from one place to another (in other words, it is a computer that is portable). ... Desktop replacement computers are personal computers that are designed to provide the full capabilities of a desktop computer while remaining portable. ... For the band, see Laptop (band). ... Sony VAIO model C1 subnotebook A subnotebook is a small and lightweight portable computer, with most of the features of a standard notebook computer but smaller. ... A Tablet PC is a notebook- or slate-shaped mobile computer. ... The Ultra-Mobile PC (abbreviated UMPC), previously known by its codename Project Origami, is a specification for a small form factor tablet PC. It was developed as a joint development exercise by Microsoft, Intel, and Samsung, among others. ... An electronic organizer is a small calculator-sized computer, often with an in-built diary application but few other functions such as an address book and calendar. ... A pocket computer is a small calculator-sized computer programmable in BASIC. This specific category of computers existed primarily in the 1980s. ... A handheld game console is a lightweight, portable electronic machine for playing video games. ... A typical PDT A portable data terminal, or PDT, is an electronic device that is used to enter or retrieve data via wireless transmission (WLAN or WWAN). ... A mobile data terminal (MDT) is a computerized device used in police cars, taxicabs, courier vehicles, service trucks, commercial trucking fleets, military logistics, fishing fleets, warehouse inventory control, and emergency vehicles to communicate with a central dispatch office. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... User with Treo (PDA with smartphone functionality) Personal digital assistants (PDAs) are handheld computers, but have become much more versatile over the years. ... An information appliance (IA) is any device that can process information, signals, graphics, animation, video and audio; and can exchange such information with another IA device. ... Sharp Mobilon PRO PV5000A, one of the many Handheld PCs produced. ... An O2 Pocket PC phone A Pocket PC, abbreviated P/PC or PPC, is a hardware specification for a handheld-sized computer (Personal digital assistant) that runs the Microsoft Windows Mobile operating system. ... A Sony Ericsson Smartphone (Model P910i) with touch screen and QWERTY keyboard Look up smartphone in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... // Definition A PDA Phone is a combination of mobile phone (cellular phone) and personal digital assistant functionality in one device. ... For other uses, see Calculator (disambiguation). ... A router, an example of an embedded system. ... “WSN” redirects here. ... Smartdust is a hypothetical network of tiny wireless microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) sensors, robots, or devices, installed with wireless communications, that can detect anything from light and temperature, to vibrations, etc. ... Nanocomputer is the logical name for a computer smaller than the microcomputer, which is smaller than the minicomputer. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Supercomputer - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2225 words)
Supercomputers introduced in the 1960s were designed primarily by Seymour Cray at Control Data Corporation (CDC), and led the market into the 1970s until Cray left to form his own company, Cray Research.
Today, supercomputers are typically one-of-a-kind custom designs produced by "traditional" companies such as IBM and HP, who had purchased many of the 1980s companies to gain their experience, although Cray Inc. still specializes in building supercomputers.
In the 1970s most supercomputers were dedicated to running a vector processor, and many of the newer players developed their own such processors at a lower price to enter the market.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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