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Encyclopedia > Super Audio CD
Super Audio CD
Media type: Optical disc
Encoding: Digital (DSD)
Capacity: up to 7.95 GiB
Read mechanism: 650 nm laser
Developed by: Sony & Philips
Usage: Audio storage

Super Audio CD (SACD) is a read-only optical audio disc format aimed at providing much higher fidelity digital audio reproduction than the Red Book audio CD. Introduced in 2000, it was developed by Sony and Philips Electronics, the same companies that created the Compact Disc. SACD was in a format war with DVD-Audio, but neither format managed to replace regular audio CDs. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (875x611, 33 KB) Official Super Audio CD logo, from a Philips document. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (730x730, 77 KB) Flat view of a CD-R, with interference colours. ... “Optical media” redirects here. ... Graphical representations of electrical data: analog audio content format (red), 4-bit digital pulse code modulated content format (black). ... Direct-Stream Digital (DSD) is an encoding technology to store audio signals on digital storage media and is used for the super audio compact disc (SACD). ... A gibibyte is a unit of information or computer storage. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ... Philips HQ in Amsterdam Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Royal Philips Electronics N.V.), usually known as Philips, (Euronext: PHIA, NYSE: PHG) is one of the largest electronics companies in the world, founded and headquartered in the Netherlands. ... “Optical media” redirects here. ... Audio storage refers to techniques and formats used to store audio with the goal to reproduce the audio later using audio signal processing to something that resembles the original. ... High Fidelity is also the title of a book by Nick Hornby and a film directed by Stephen Frears, based upon Hornbys book. ... Red Book is the standard for audio CDs (Compact Disc Digital Audio system, or CDDA). ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ... Philips HQ in Amsterdam Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Royal Philips Electronics N.V.), usually known as Philips, (Euronext: PHIA, NYSE: PHG) is one of the largest electronics companies in the world, founded and headquartered in the Netherlands. ... CD redirects here. ... A format war describes competition between mutually incompatible data storage devices and recording formats for electronic media, often forcing content publishers to take sides. ... DVD-Audio also known as DVDA is a digital format for delivering very high-fidelity audio content on a DVD. The first discs entered the marketplace in 2000. ...

Contents

Overview

Optical disc authoring
Optical media types
Standards

SACD uses a very different technology from CD and DVD-Audio to encode its audio data, a 1-bit delta-sigma modulation process known as Direct Stream Digital at the very high sampling rate of 2.8224 MHz. This is 64 times the sampling rate used in Compact Disc Digital Audio, which specifies 44.1 kHz at a resolution of 16-bit. In computing, optical disc authoring, including CD authoring and DVD authoring, known often as burning, is the process of recording source material—video, audio or other data—onto an optical disc (compact disc or DVD). ... “Optical media” redirects here. ... It has been suggested that ISO image be merged into this article or section. ... In computing, sound reproduction, and video, an optical disc is flat, circular, usually polycarbonate disc whereon data is stored. ... Optical disc authoring software is computer software for authoring optical discs including CD-ROMs and DVDs. ... Optical disc authoring requires a number of different technologies working in tandem, from the media to the firmware to the control electronics of the drive. ... In optical disc authoring, there are multiple modes for recording, including Disc-At-Once, Track-At-Once, and Session-At-Once. ... Packet writing is an optical disc recording technology used to allow writeable CD and DVD media to be used in a similar manner to a floppy disk. ... Not to be confused with disk laser, a type of solid-state laser in a flat configuration. ... CD redirects here. ... Photo Compact Disc (PCD) logo/trademark This image is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The CD-ROM (an abbreviation for Compact Disc Read-Only Memory (ROM)) is a non-volatile optical data storage medium using the same physical format as audio compact discs, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive. ... Compact Disc ReWritable (CD-RW) is a rewritable optical disc format. ... VCD redirects here. ... Super Video Compact Disc (SVCD) is a format used for storing video on standard compact discs or CD-Rs. ... A CD+G (also known as CD+Graphics) is a special audio compact disc that contains graphics data in addition to the audio data on the disc. ... CD-Text is an extension of the Red Book standard for audio CDs. ... CD-i or Compact Disc Interactive is the name of an interactive multimedia CD player developed and marketed by Royal Philips Electronics N.V. CD-i also refers to the multimedia Compact Disc standard utilized by the CD-i console, also known as Green Book, which was co-developed by... See also IBMs VM operating system family, where minidisk refers to a logical unit of storage. ... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is a popular optical disc storage media format. ... A DVD+R disc The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... DVD-D is a self-destructing disposable DVD format. ... DVD-R DL (Dual Layer) (Also Known as DVD-R9) is a derivative of the DVD-R format standard. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... DVD+R DL (Double Layer), also known as DVD+R9, is a derivative of the DVD+R format created by the DVD+RW Alliance. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... JVC has announced they have gotten around to developing dual layered DVD-RW discs (DVD-RW DL). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... You can recognize a DVD-RAM immediately because visually there are lots of little rectangles distributed on the surface of the data carrier. ... A Blu-ray Disc (also called BDray) is a high-density optical disc format for the storage of digital information, including high-definition video. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... HD-DVD disc HD DVD (for High Density Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital optical media format which is being developed as one standard for high-definition DVD. HD DVD is similar to the competing Blu-ray Disc, which also uses the same CD sized (120 mm diameter) optical data... HD DVD-R is the writable disc variant of HD DVD, and is now currently available with a single-layer capacity of 15GB. Currently, HD DVD-R has slower write speeds than the competing BD-R format (1–2x vs 1–4x) and lower storage capacity. ... HD DVD, or High-Definition DVD is a high-density optical disc format designed for the storage of data and high-definition video. ... An example of proposed HD DVD-RAM media. ... Ultra Density Optical (UDO) is a next-generation optical disc format designed for high-density storage of high-definition video and data. ... A UMD The Universal Media Disc (UMD) is an optical disc medium developed by Sony for use on the PlayStation Portable. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Holographic memory. ... Schematic representation of a cross-section through a 3D optical storage disc (yellow) along a data track (orange marks). ... Although research into optical data storage has been ongoing for many decades, the first popular system was CD-ROM, introduced in 1982, adapted to data storage (the CD-ROM format) with the 1985 Yellow Book, and re-adapted as the first mass market optical storage medium with CD-R and... The Rainbow Books are a collection of standards defining the allowed formats of Compact Discs. ... ISO 9660, a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization, defines a file system for CD-ROM media. ... Joliet is the name of an extension to the ISO 9660 file system. ... The Rock Ridge Interchange Protocol (RRIP, IEEE P1282) is an extension to the ISO 9660 volume format which adds POSIX file system semantics. ... The Rock Ridge Interchange Protocol (RRIP, IEEE P1282) is an extension to the ISO 9660 volume format which adds POSIX file system semantics. ... The El Torito Bootable CD Specification is an extension to the ISO 9660 CD-ROM specification. ... Overview Apple Macintosh computers use the HFS (or HFS+) file system on hard disks, mainly. ... The Universal Disk Format (UDF) is a format specification of a file system for storing files on optical media. ... The Mount Rainier logo Mount Rainier is a format for re-writable optical discs which provides for packet writing and defect management. ... DVD-Audio also known as DVDA is a digital format for delivering very high-fidelity audio content on a DVD. The first discs entered the marketplace in 2000. ... The Delta-Sigma (ΔΣ) modulation is a kind of analog-to-digital or digital-to-analog conversion. ... Direct-Stream Digital (DSD) is an encoding technology to store audio signals on digital storage media and is used for the super audio compact disc (SACD). ... MegaHertz (MHz) is the name given to one million (106) Hertz, a measure of frequency. ... The sampling frequency or sampling rate defines the number of samples per second taken from a continuous signal to make a discrete signal. ... CDDA logo/trademark Red Book is the standard for audio CDs (Compact Disc Digital Audio system, or CDDA). ...


SACD authoring guidelines suggest that an SACD should always contain a 2-channel stereo mix[citation needed] though not all SACD have it (for example, in 2005 Sony Music Entertainment (Germany) GmbH released Charles Rosen's performance of the Goldberg Variations as a hybrid SACD with 16-bit PCM and DSD 5.1 surround but no DSD stereo). They may optionally contain a surround mix — either 5.0 or 5.1 layout. Although the disc always stores all channels, the surround mix does not have to use them all, and some may be mute; for example the 2001 SACD release of Mike Oldfield's Tubular Bells remains in the quadraphonic 4.0 mix made in 1975, and the RCA reissue of the 1957 Chicago Symphony Orchestra recording of Mussorgsky's Pictures at an Exhibition marks the first time the original 3.0 (three track) recording is available in a consumer format. The correct designation for the surround part of a SACD is "multi-channel", and usually has either the label "SACD Surround" or its own "Multi-Ch" logo on the back cover. Label for 2. ... Charles Rosen (born May 5, 1927) is an American pianist and music theorist. ... The Goldberg Variations, BWV 988, original title Aria mit verschiedenen Veränderungen[1] published as Clavierübung, bestehend in einer Aria. ... Multichannel audio is the name for a variety of techniques for expanding and enriching the sound of audio playback by recording additional sound channels that can be reproduced on additional speakers. ... Michael Gordon Oldfield (born May 15, 1953 in Reading, England) is a multi-instrumentalist musician and composer, working a style that blends progressive rock, folk, ethnic or world music, classical music, electronic music and more recently dance. ... This article is about the Mike Oldfield album. ... 4 channels quadraphonic label Quadraphonic sound uses four channels in which speakers are positioned at all four corners of the listening space, reproducing signals that are independent of each other. ... RCA, formerly an acronym for the Radio Corporation of America, is now a trademark owned by Thomson SA through RCA Trademark Management S.A., a company owned by Thomson. ... The Chicago Symphony Orchestra, based in Chicago, Illinois, is one of the leading orchestras in the world. ... Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky (Моде́ст Петро́вич Му́соргский) (March 21, 1839 – March 28, 1881; sometimes spelt Modeste Moussorgsky), was an innovative Russian composer famed for his colourful... Mussorgsky in 1874 This article refers to the original suite by Modest Mussorgsky. ...


There are three types of SACDs:

  • Hybrid: The most popular of the three types, hybrid discs include a "Red Book" layer compatible with most legacy Compact Disc players, dubbed the "CD layer," and a 4.7 GB SACD layer, dubbed the "HD layer." It is not uncommon for hybrid discs to carry the "Compact Disc Digital Audio" logo to show that the disc is CDDA-compliant.
  • Single-layer: Physically a DVD-5 DVD, a single-layer SACD includes a 4.7 GB HD layer with no CD layer.
  • Dual-layer: Physically a DVD-9 DVD, a dual-layer SACD includes two HD layers totalling 8.5 GB, with no CD layer. This type is rarely used. It enables nearly twice as much data to be stored, but eliminates CD player compatibility.

Red Book is the standard for audio CDs (Compact Disc Digital Audio system, or CDDA). ... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is a popular optical disc storage media format. ... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is a popular optical disc storage media format. ...

Integration

As of April 2007, there have been over 4,500 SACD releases, a little over half of which appear to be classical. Jazz appears to have fewer releases, and popular music, mainly remastered previously released albums, appears to have even fewer releases than jazz.[1][2]. Notable artists who have released some or all of their back catalog include Alice In Chains, Aerosmith, Peter Gabriel, Genesis, Depeche Mode, Bob Dylan, Elton John, The Moody Blues, The Rolling Stones, Nine Inch Nails and Santana. Pink Floyd's seminal album The Dark Side of the Moon (the 30th anniversary edition of 2003), The Who's seminal album Tommy (the 34th anniversary edition of 2003), and Roxy Music's Avalon (the 21st anniversary edition, 2003) were released on SACD to take advantage of the format's multi-channel capability. All three were remixed in 5.1 surround, and released as Hybrid SACDs with a stereo mix on the standard CD layer. Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... This article is about the grunge band. ... This article is about the band Aerosmith. ... Peter Brian Gabriel (born 13 February 1950, in Cobham,[1] Surrey, England) is an English musician. ... Genesis is an English rock band formed in 1967. ... Depeche Mode (pronounced ) are an electronic music group formed in 1980, in Basildon, Essex, England. ... This article is about the recording artist. ... Sir Elton Hercules[1] John CBE[2] (born Reginald Kenneth Dwight on 25 March 1947) is a five-time Grammy and one-time Academy Award-winning English pop/rock singer, composer and pianist. ... The Moody Blues are a British rock band originally from Birmingham, England. ... Rolling Stones redirects here. ... Nine Inch Nails (abbreviated as NIN) is an American industrial rock band, founded in 1988 by Trent Reznor in Cleveland, Ohio. ... Santana during concert in Barcelona 2003 Carlos Santana (born July 20, 1947) is a famous Mexican rock and roll guitarist, originally from Autlan de Navarro, Jalisco. ... Pink Floyd are an English rock band that initially earned recognition for their psychedelic rock music, and, as they evolved, for their progressive rock music. ... This article is about the album by Pink Floyd. ... The Who are a British rock band that first formed in 1964, and grew to be considered one of the greatest[1] and most influential[2] bands in the world. ... Tommy is a given name that is the English diminutive of Thomas and could refer to: Tommy Atkins, nickname for a British soldier Thompson submachine gun, also known as the Tommy Gun Tommy (rock opera), by The Who Tommy (film), based on the rock opera Tommy (comics) is a former... Roxy Music are an English art rock group founded in the early 1970s by art school graduate Bryan Ferry (vocals and keyboards). ... Avalon, released in June 1982, was Roxy Musics eighth studio album; it is generally regarded as the culmination of the smoother, more adult-oriented sound of the bands later work. ...


Because most SACDs are now issued in a hybrid format only, such as the remastered Rolling Stones and Bob Dylan albums released in 2002, many music buyers are building an SACD collection even if they have no SACD playback equipment and are not specifically inclined to purchase SACDs. This may give the SACD format an advantage over DVD-Audio because the hybrid discs are designed to play on all standard Red Book CD players. This article is about the rock band. ... This article is about the recording artist. ... Red Book is the standard for audio CDs (Compact Disc Digital Audio system, or CDDA). ...


The format continues to attract a few major artists; however, the main interest continues to be classical and older remastered albums rather than new releases. The record label Mobile Fidelity focuses on this type of remastering. SACD also faces some pressure from competing formats such as DVD-Audio and DualDisc releases. Today there are many affordable "universal" multiformat players which have made SACD reachable in price to the same level of an average audio CD, with the perks of its superior audio quality. Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... Mobile Fidelity Sound Lab (MFSL, or MoFi) is a company that produces audiophile releases of classic CDs and vinyl records. ...


Disc reading

How a hybrid Super Audio CD works

Objective lenses in conventional CD players have a longer working distance, or focal length, than lenses designed for SACD players. This means that when a hybrid SACD is placed into a conventional CD player, the laser beam passes the high-resolution layer and is reflected by the conventional layer at the standard 1.2 mm distance, and the high-density layer is out of focus. When the disc is placed into an SACD player, the laser is reflected by the high-resolution layer (at 600 µm distance) before it can reach the conventional layer. To the same point, if a conventional CD is placed into an SACD player, the laser will read the disc without difficulty since there is no high-resolution layer. ImageMetadata File history File links Sacd_model. ... This article is about focal length related to lenses and systems of lenses. ...


Playback hardware

Hybrid Super Audio CDs (which include both a Stereo CD and a Super Audio CD layer) can be played back on CD players. To hear the Super Audio CD Stereo, and on many discs the Super Audio CD Multichannel, layer requires a Super Audio CD player.


As would be expected, Sony and Philips, as designers of the CD and SACD formats, have the most players on the market in many guises such as standalone players, combined DVD/SACD players, in-car players,[1] and Sony's PlayStation 3 game console. (As of the 2.00 upgrade, PS3 is capable of SACD 5.1 playback via an OPTICAL CABLE. It achieves this by converting the audio to a 1.5mbps DTS format) Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ... Philips HQ in Amsterdam Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Royal Philips Electronics N.V.), usually known as Philips, (Euronext: PHIA, NYSE: PHG) is one of the largest electronics companies in the world, founded and headquartered in the Netherlands. ... The PlayStation 3 , trademarked PLAYSTATION®3,[3] commonly abbreviated PS3) is the third home video game console produced by Sony Computer Entertainment; successor to the PlayStation 2. ...


The Sony SCD-1 is a well-known player which was introduced concurrently with the SACD format. It weighs well over 26 kg (57 lbs) and is often modified by its owners to improve the sound. The SCD-1 was introduced before multi-channel SACDs existed and only plays two channel SACDs or red-book CDs. It is no longer sold. When introduced in 1999, it sold for US$5,000.[2] Kg redirects here. ... The pound or pound-mass (abbreviations: lb, , lbm, or sometimes in the United States: #) is a unit of mass (sometimes called weight in everyday parlance) in a number of different systems, including the imperial and US and older English systems. ...


Many other vendors offer SACD playback capabilities in their product lines, although none has offered a portable Walkman-style SACD player capable of playing the high definition layer of an SACD. Most portable CD players will play the conventional CD layer of a Hybrid SACD. Sony Walkman Official Logo (2000 — present) Various products of the Walkman line Walkman is a popular Sony brand used to market its portable audio and video players. ...


SACD players are not permitted to digitally output an unencrypted stream of DSD. Players initially supported only analog output; later some proprietary digital interfaces such as Denon Link permitted encrypted transmission of DSD. There are now two standard digital connection methods capable of carrying DSD in encrypted form: i.Link and HDMI (version 1.2 or later, standardised in August 2005). Direct-Stream Digital (DSD) is an encoding technology to store audio signals on digital storage media and is used for the super audio compact disc (SACD). ... Denon is a Japanese electronics company that specializes in high-fidelity audio equipment. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... The High-Definition Multi-media Interface (HDMI) is an industry-supported, uncompressed, all-digital audio/video interface. ...


The older i.Link interface is generally found on older mid- to high-end equipment and some current top of the line units from the Japanese manufacturers. HDMI is more common, being the standard digital connection method for high-definition video+audio. Most new mid-level and higher 2007 model year and later A/V processors support the HDMI 1.2 specification's DSD over HDMI feature. Most boutique manufacturers still do not support DSD. Some HDMI 1.1 spec DVD players convert DSD to LPCM and then pass it to an HDMI 1.1 spec or later processor. Lower end processors usually convert the DSD to LPCM, higher end ones usually convert it to LPCM for bass management or DSP but can also process it natively at the expense of DSP and bass management. Some new DVD players from Oppo Digital, Pioneer, Onkyo, etc. now support HDMI 1.2 or 1.3 and will pass DSD over HDMI as well as LPCM. The older i.Link interface has been dropped from all but high end A/V processors and DVD players. This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...


Some players, such as the PlayStation 3, don't output DSD over HDMI, but instead convert it to PCM. The PlayStation 3 , trademarked PLAYSTATION®3,[3] commonly abbreviated PS3) is the third home video game console produced by Sony Computer Entertainment; successor to the PlayStation 2. ...


DSD

SACD audio is stored in a format called Direct Stream Digital (DSD), which differs from the conventional PCM used by the compact disc or conventional computer audio systems. Image File history File links DSDlogo. ... Direct-Stream Digital (DSD) is an encoding technology to store audio signals on digital storage media and is used for the super audio compact disc (SACD). ... PCM redirects here. ... CD redirects here. ...


DSD is 1-bit, has a sampling rate of 2.8224 MHz, and makes use of noise shaping quantization techniques in order to push 1-bit quantization noise up to inaudible ultrasonic frequencies. This gives the format a greater dynamic range and wider frequency response than the CD. Promotional materials about SACD supplied by Philips and Sony suggest that the system is capable of delivering a dynamic range of 120 dB from 20 Hz to 20 kHz and an extended frequency response up to 100 kHz, although most currently available players list an upper limit of 80–90 kHz. This article is about the unit of information. ... A megahertz (MHz) is one million (106) hertz, a measure of frequency. ... Similar to dither, noise shaping is a bit reduction technique used to minimize quantization error. ... In sound processing, quantization is the process of aligning a set of musical notes to conform to a grid. ... For other uses, see Dynamic range (disambiguation). ... Frequency response is the measure of any systems response to frequency, but is usually used in connection with electronic amplifiers and similar systems, particularly in relation to audio signals. ... For other uses, see Dynamic range (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Decibel (disambiguation). ... Frequency response is the measure of any systems response to frequency, but is usually used in connection with electronic amplifiers and similar systems, particularly in relation to audio signals. ... This article is about the SI unit of frequency. ...


The process of creating a DSD signal is conceptually similar to taking a 1-bit delta-sigma analog-to-digital (A/D) converter and removing the decimator which converts the 1-bit bitstream into multibit PCM. Instead, the 1-bit signal is recorded directly and in theory only requires a lowpass filter to reconstruct the original analog waveform. In reality it is a little more complex, and the analogy is incomplete in that 1-bit sigma-delta converters are these days rather unusual, one reason being that a 1-bit signal cannot be dithered properly: most modern sigma-delta converters are multibit. The Delta-Sigma (ΔΣ) modulation is a kind of analog-to-digital or digital-to-analog conversion. ... An analog-to-digital converter (abbreviated ADC, A/D or A to D) is an electronic circuit that converts continuous signals to discrete digital numbers. ... A low-pass filter passes low frequencies fairly well, but attenuates high frequencies. ... For other uses, see Dither (disambiguation). ...


Because of the nature of sigma-delta converters, one cannot make a direct comparison between DSD and PCM. An approximation is possible, though, and would place DSD in some aspects comparable to a PCM format that has a bit depth of 20 bits and a sampling frequency of 192 kHz. PCM sampled at 24 bits provides a (theoretical) additional 24 dB of dynamic range. Due to the effects of quantization noise, the usable bandwidth of the SACD format is approximately 100 kHz, which is similar to 192 kHz PCM.


Because it has been extremely difficult to carry out DSP operations (for example performing EQ, balance, panning and other changes in the digital domain) in a 1-bit environment, and because of the prevalence of studio equipment such as Pro Tools, which is solely PCM-based, the vast majority of SACDs — especially rock and contemporary music which relies on multitrack techniques — are in fact mixed in PCM (or mixed analog and recorded on PCM recorders) and then converted to DSD for SACD mastering.


To address some of these issues, a new studio format has been developed, usually referred to as "DSD-wide", which retains standard DSD's high sample rate but uses an 8-bit, rather than single-bit digital word length, but still relies heavily on the noise shaping principle. It becomes almost the same as PCM (it's sometimes disparagingly referred to as "PCM-narrow") but has the added benefit of making DSP operations in the studio a great deal more practical. The main difference is that "DSD-wide" still retains 2.8224 MHz (64Fs) sampling frequency while the highest frequency in which PCM is being edited is 352.8 kHz (8Fs). The "DSD-wide" signal is down-converted to regular DSD for SACD mastering. As a result of this technique and other developments there are now a few digital audio workstations (DAWs) which operate, or can operate, in the DSD domain, notably Pyramix and some SADiE systems. This article is about the unit of information. ... Similar to dither, noise shaping is a bit reduction technique used to minimize quantization error. ...


Note that high-resolution PCM (DVD-Audio, HD DVD and Blu-ray Disc) and DSD (SACD) may still differ in terms of fidelity at high-frequencies since DSD, owing to its high sampling frequency, does not show the typical ringing effects of reconstruction filters used with PCM.[citation needed] On the other hand, DSD's dynamic range decreases quickly at frequencies over 20 kHz due to the use of strong noise shaping techniques which push the noise out of the audio band resulting in a rising noise floor just above 20 kHz. PCM's dynamic range, on the other hand, is the same at all frequencies. (Some high-end SACD players employ an optional low-pass filter set at 30 kHz for compatibility and safety reasons, suitable for situations where amplifiers or loudspeakers can't deliver an undistorted output if noise above 30 kHz is present in the signal.) Similar to dither, noise shaping is a bit reduction technique used to minimize quantization error. ...


DST

To reduce the space and bandwidth requirements of DSD (2.8 Mbit/s per channel), a lossless compression scheme called Direct Stream Transfer (DST) is used — DST compression is compulsory for multi-channel regions and optional for stereo regions. This typically compresses by a factor of between two and three, allowing a disc to contain 80 minutes of both 2-channel and 5.1-channel sound. Direct Stream Transfer is a lossless compression technique for compressing DSD audio data. ...


PSP

SACD includes various copy protection measures of which the most prominent is Pit Signal Processing (PSP), a physical watermarking feature that contains a digital watermark modulated in the width of pits on the disc (data is stored in the pit length). The optical pickup must contain special circuitry to read the PSP watermark, which is then compared to information on the disc to make sure it's legitimate. Because the majority of DVD players and all DVD-ROM drives use an optical pickup that lacks this specialized watermark detection circuitry they cannot read the data on the SACD layer of a protected SACD disc.[3] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Copy prevention, also known as copy protection, is any technical measure designed to prevent duplication of information. ... Digital watermarking is a technique which allows to add hidden copyright or other verification messages to digital audio, video, or image signals and documents. ...


On hybrid SACD discs, PSP is only applied to the SACD layer — not to the CD layer.


Comparing SACD and CD

Many people feel that even a moderately good system should reveal a significant difference between SACD and either CD or DVD-Audio.[citation needed] The late film composer Jerry Goldsmith, for example, fiercely backed SACD and several albums of his film scores and compositions are available as Hybrid Multichannel SACDs. Jerrald King Goldsmith (February 10, 1929 – July 21, 2004) was a famous American film score composer from Los Angeles, California. ...


Few home audio systems can accurately reproduce sounds above 20 kHz, and most recording chains are designed around this limit. Modern pop music is typically compressed to a small percentage of the maximum available dynamic range, and thus would not benefit from the extended dynamic range available in SACD. In comparison, acoustic performances of jazz, folk, classical and alternative music can definitely benefit from the lack of amplitude compression that an extended dynamic range affords. Audio level compression, also called dynamic range compression, volume compression, compression, limiting, or DRC (often seen in DVD player settings) is a process that manipulates the dynamic range of an audio signal. ... Audio level compression, also called dynamic range compression, volume compression, compression, limiting, or DRC (often seen in DVD player settings) is a process that manipulates the dynamic range of an audio signal. ...


Conversely, the properties of DSD and the authoring process tend to discourage the kind of extreme compression and unpleasant-sounding hard digital clipping often found on PCM recordings. Unlike CD, which sets the 0 dB level right at the theoretical PCM signal limit, and doesn't take into account oversampling, SACD sets the 0 dB level at 6 dB below the theoretical full-scale DSD signal, and prohibits peaks above +3 dB. DSD processing is less amenable to simple clipping to meet these limits, forcing more care to be taken during mastering. The extra headroom also eases the job of DACs in playback equipment, which often suffer overload distortion when fed the full-scale PCM common on heavily-compressed CDs.[4][5] Thus, improved quality may result from simply preventing the kinds of poor mastering often found on PCM, rather than from any fundamental audible difference between DSD and PCM; PCM mastered several dB lower would also obtain the same benefit. In electronics, a digital-to-analog converter (DAC or D-to-A) is a device for converting a digital (usually binary) code to an analog signal (current, voltage or electric charge). ...


Increasingly, home audio playback systems are home cinema multichannel and this single feature may prove to be the most important when considering the differences between Compact Discs and the newer distribution formats. CDs are stereo and both SACD and DVD are multichannel-capable. In addition, SACDs can be authored to be both forward and backward compatible with existing CD players. A 3 metres/119 inch projection screen with a high-definition television image. ...


It can be argued that SACD and DVD-Audio are merely attempts to add copy-protection features rather than actual improvements in recording and listening technology, and allowing an 80 kHz upper limit when human hearing is less than 22 kHz may be considered useless. Sony and other supporting company's response is that in the hands of a competent engineer and producer, these formats provide additional capabilities and features that can create a more engaging and compelling listening experience. Record label owner David Chesky of Chesky Records has said that "we can give you a much better ride" with Super Audio CD discs and has set August 2007 as the date when all of his company's music releases will be issued only on Hybrid Super Audio CD discs, compatible with both CD and SACD players.


An article published in the Journal of the Audio Engineering Society Vol. 55 Number 9, September 2007, entitled "Audibility of a CD-Standard ADA Loop Inserted Into High-Resolution Audio Playback" by E. Brad Meyer and David Moran reported the results of their study, which concluded that listeners could not hear the difference between a high-resolution two-channel recording and a CD-quality downsampling of the same recording except when "unpleasantly (often unbearably) loud." The article concluded that many high-resolution releases sounded better than their CD counterparts, but attributes this to mastering differences.


Copy protection

SACD has several copy prevention features at the physical level which, for the moment, appear to make SACD discs impossible to copy without resorting to the analog hole. These include physical pit modulation and 80 bit encryption of the audio data, with a key encoded on a special area of the disk that is only readable by a licensed SACD device. The HD layer of an SACD disc cannot be played back on computer CD/DVD drives, nor can SACDs be created except by the licensed disc replication facilities in Shizuoka and Salzburg.[6] Copy prevention, also known as copy protection, is any technical measure designed to prevent duplication of information. ... The analog hole is a fundamental, and inevitable vulnerability in copy prevention schemes for noninteractive digital content which is intended to be played back using analog means. ... Encrypt redirects here. ... Shizuoka (静岡市; -shi) is the capital city of Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. ... This article is about the capital of the Austrian state of Salzburg. ...


It is possible to capture the DSD digital audio signal after the decryption stage right before the digital to analog converters of an SACD player, but since there is practically no way for the public to make their own SACD discs this does not pose a major threat.


A number of new SACD players have encrypted IEEE 1394 (also called FireWire or i. Link) digital outputs carrying DSD data, and it may be possible to get the raw DSD data from these links. The protection mechanism used is Digital Transmission Content Protection (DTCP), which can be used in "Copy Once" or "Copy Never" modes. It is unlikely, however, that the SACD license agreement rules permit anything but the "Copy Never" mode to be used. The 6-pin and 4-pin FireWire Connectors The alternative ethernet-style cabling used by 1394c FireWire is Apple Inc. ... DTCP, or Digital Transmission Content Protection, which was issued by DTLA (Digital Transmission Licensing Administrator) to protect the multimedia distribution in the Digital Home. ...


There seems to be one solution for obtaining digital non-DRM output on SACD as well as DVD-A players. A Switzerland-based company is offering a modified output-board that taps into the digital datastream prior to D/A conversion as well as converting DSD to PCM that the S/PDIF port can transfer. [3] S/PDIF or S/P-DIF, for Sony/Philips Digital Interconnect Format (also IEC 958 type II, part of IEC-60958), is a system for carrying stereo digital audio signals between various devices and stereo components. ...


See also

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with audio storage. ... Audio storage refers to techniques and formats used to store audio with the goal to reproduce the audio later using audio signal processing to something that resembles the original. ... DualDisc is a type of double-sided optical disc product developed by a group of record companies including EMI Music, Universal Music Group, Sony/BMG Music Entertainment, Warner Music Group, and 5. ... DVD-Audio also known as DVDA is a digital format for delivering very high-fidelity audio content on a DVD. The first discs entered the marketplace in 2000. ... XRCD (short for eXtended Resolution Compact Disc) is a special mastering and manufacture process patented by JVC that is used for producing high fidelity redbook Compact Discs. ... Categories: Computer stubs ...

References

  1. ^ Sony Announces Three Super Audio CD Car Stereo Players. HighFidelityReview.com. Retrieved on 2007-01-18.
  2. ^ The Sony SCD-1 SACD Player. @udiophilia. Retrieved on 2006-05-18.
  3. ^ Details of DVD-Audio and SACD. DVDdemystified.com. Retrieved on 2007-07-12.
  4. ^ Issues with 0dBFS+ Levels On Digital Audio Playback Systems. Audioholics. Retrieved on 2007-05-10.
  5. ^ Overload in Signal Conversion (PDF). AES 23rd International Conference. Retrieved on 2007-05-10.
  6. ^ Sony Starts Hybrid Super Audio CD Production Facilities in Europe. SA-CD.net (2003-01-22). Retrieved on 2007-07-12.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Sony Music SA-CD FAQ
  • SA-CD.net SA-CD Reference (Includes full list of available albums and comprehensive FAQ)
  • Multichannel SACD Rating - album guide for surround-sound lovers.
  • PS3SACD.com FAQ: a dedicated FAQ about SACD functionality on PlayStation3
  • Super Audio Compact Disc: A Technical Proposal (PDF), Sony.
  • The SA-CD explained
  • "Breaking the Sound Barrier: Mastering at 96 kHz and Beyond" (PDF) Audio Engineering Society Convention Paper 4357 on "HD" audio.
  • "A Native Stereo Editing System for Direct-Stream Digital" (PDF) Audio Engineering Society Convention Paper 4719 on the 1st DSD commercial editor.
  • "Why 1-Bit Sigma-Delta Conversion is Unsuitable for High-Quality Applications" (PDF) Audio Engineering Society Convention Paper 5395.
  • Janssen, E.; Reefman, D. "Super-audio CD: an introduction". Signal Processing Magazine, IEEE/ Volume 20, Issue 4, July 2003 Page(s): 83 - 90

 
 

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