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Encyclopedia > Suomenlinna
Fortress of Suomenlinna*
UNESCO World Heritage Site
A view of Suomenlinna from a cruiseferry sailing through the narrow Kustaanmiekka strait. (June 2005)
State Party Flag of Finland Finland
Type Cultural
Criteria iv
Reference 583
Region Europe and North America
Inscription History
Inscription 1991  (15th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
† Region as classified by UNESCO.

Suomenlinna or Viapori (Finnish), or Sveaborg (Swedish), is an inhabited sea fortress built on six islands, today within Helsinki, the capital of Finland. It is a UNESCO World Heritage site and popular with both tourists and locals, who enjoy it as a picturesque picnic site. Originally named Sveaborg (Fortress of Svea), or Viapori as called by Finns, it was renamed Suomenlinna (Castle of Finland) in 1918 for patriotic and nationalist reasons, though it is still also known by its original name. It is an example of the Star Fort style of fortification. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1810x1360, 488 KB) Description: Suomenlinna, a fortress near Helsinki, Finland. ... As of 2006, there are a total of 830 World Heritage Sites located in 138 State Parties. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Europe. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Table of Fortification, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Location of Helsinki in Northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Finland Province Southern Finland Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Charter 1550 Capital city 1812 Government  - City manager Jussi Pajunen Area  - City 187. ... This article is about a city that serves as a center of government and politics. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Svea is a Swedish female name. ... A Star Fort is a fortification in the style that evolved during the Age of Blackpowder when the cannon came to dominate the battlefield. ...


Sweden started building the fortress in 1748 as a protection against Russian expansionism. The general responsibility for the fortification work was given to Augustin Ehrensvärd. The original plan of the bastion fortress was strongly influenced by the precepts of Vauban, the foremost military engineer of the time. Events April 24 - A congress assembles at Aix-la-Chapelle with the intent to conclude the struggle known as the War of Austrian Succession - at October 18 - The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle is signed to end the war Adam Smith begins to deliver public lectures in Edinburgh Building of... View over Sveaborg by Augustin Ehrensvärd Augustin Ehrensvärd (1710-1772) was a Swedish military architect, a lieutenant colonel in the artillery. ... Olomouc bastion fortress in Czech Republic in 1757 Bourtange bastion fortress in Groningen in Netherland plan of bastion fortress (in Finnish) The bastion fortress was once a very modern type of fortress. ... Sébastien Le Prestre, Seigneur de Vauban and later Marquis de Vauban (May 15, 1633 - March 30, 1707), commonly referred to as Vauban, was a Marshal of France and the foremost military engineer of his age, famed for his skill in both designing fortifications and in breaking through them. ... Polish military engineers at work in Pakistan A military engineer is primarily responsible for the design and construction of offensive, defensive and logistical structures for warfare. ...


In addition to the island fortress itself, seafacing fortifications on the mainland would ensure that an enemy would not acquire a beach-head from which to stage attacks. The plan was also to stock munitions for the whole Finnish contingent of the Swedish Army and Royal Swedish Navy there. In the Finnish War the fortress surrendered to Russia on May 3rd 1808, paving the way for the occupation of Finland by Russian forces in 1809. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Swedish Navy (Swedish Marinen) is the naval branch of the Swedish Armed Forces. ... Combatants Russia Sweden Commanders Fyodor Buxhoeveden Boris Knorring Barclay de Tolly Wilhelm Mauritz Klingspor Carl Johan Adlercreutz Georg Carl von Döbeln The Finnish War was fought between Sweden and Russia from February 1808 to September 1809. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1808 (MDCCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ...

Contents

The Swedish era

Map of Sveaborg at the 1790s
Map of Sveaborg at the 1790s

Sweden started building the fortress in 1748, when Finland was still a part of the Swedish kingdom. Augustin Ehrensvärd (1710–1772) and his gigantic fortification work on the islands off the town of Helsinki brought the district a new and unexpected importance. Download high resolution version (374x644, 27 KB)PD image, from Nordisk familjebok File links The following pages link to this file: Suomenlinna Categories: Public domain images ... Download high resolution version (374x644, 27 KB)PD image, from Nordisk familjebok File links The following pages link to this file: Suomenlinna Categories: Public domain images ... Events and Trends French Revolution (1789 - 1799). ... Österland, or Österlanden, is a historical land of Sweden. ...


In 1703 Peter the Great had founded his new capital, St. Petersburg, in the furthest-flung corner of the Gulf of Finland. In the approach to it he built the fortified naval base of Kronstadt. Russia became a maritime power and a force to be reckoned with in the Baltic Sea. Events February 2 - Earthquake in Aquila, Italy February 4 - In Japan, the 47 samurai commit seppuku (ritual suicide) February 14 - Earthquake in Norcia, Italy April 21 - Company of Quenching of Fire (ie. ... Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekséyevich) (9 June 1672–8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.][1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his weak and sickly... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... The Baltic Sea The Gulf of Finland is an arm of the Baltic Sea that extends between Finland (to the north) and Estonia (to the south) all the way to the city of Saint Petersburg in Russia, where the river Neva drains into it. ... 1888 map of Kronstadt bay Kronstadt (Russian: Кронштадт; also Kronshtadt, Cronstadt) is a strongly fortified Russian seaport town, located on Kotlin Island, near the head of the Gulf of Finland, at 59°5930 N and 29°4630 E. It lies... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ...


The situation posed a threat to Sweden; Russian naval units made skirmishes right up to the Swedish coast. Other European states were also concerned about developments, especially France, with which Sweden had concluded a military alliance. After lengthy debate the Swedish parliament decided in 1747 to fortify the Russian frontier and to establish a naval base at Helsinki as a counter to Kronstadt. The frontier fortifications were established at Loviisa (Lovisa). The Riksdag of the Estates, or Ståndsriksdagen, was the name used for the Estates of the Swedish realm, or Rikets ständer, when they were assembled. ... Year 1747 (MDCCXLVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Coordinates: , Country Finland Province Southern Finland Region Eastern Uusimaa Incorporated (city) 1745 Government  - City Manager Olavi Kaleva Area  - City 44. ...

Utsikt över Sveaborg ("View over Sveaborg"), painting by Augustin Ehrensvärd
Utsikt över Sveaborg ("View over Sveaborg"), painting by Augustin Ehrensvärd

Fortification of Helsinki and its islands began in January 1748, when Augustin Ehrensvärd, as a young lieutenant colonel, came to direct the operations. A number of fortifications were also built on the Russian side of the new border during the 18th century and some of the existing Swedish ones were added to. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... View over Sveaborg by Augustin Ehrensvärd Augustin Ehrensvärd (1710-1772) was a Swedish military architect, a lieutenant colonel in the artillery. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...


Following a pact between Alexander I and Napoleon, Russia launched a campaign against Sweden and occupied Finland in 1808. By the Treaty of Fredrikshamn in 1809 Finland was ceded from Sweden and became an autonomous grand duchy within the Russian Empire. The Swedish period in Finnish history, which had lasted some seven centuries, came to an end. Aleksandr I Pavlovich (Russian: Александр I Павлович) (December 23, 1777–December 1, 1825?), was Emperor of Russia from 23 March 1801-1 December 1825 and Ruler of Poland from 1815–1825, as well as the first Grand Duke of Finland. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... Combatants Russia Sweden Commanders Fyodor Buxhoeveden Boris Knorring Barclay de Tolly Wilhelm Mauritz Klingspor Carl Johan Adlercreutz Georg Carl von Döbeln The Finnish War was fought between Sweden and Russia from February 1808 to September 1809. ... The Treaty of Fredrikshamn (Freden i Fredrikshamn in Swedish and Haminan rauha in Finnish ) was a peace treaty concluded between Sweden and Russia on September 17, 1809. ... The Grand Duchy of Finland was a state that existed 1809–1917 as part of the Russian Empire. ... Anthem God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Religion Russian Orthodoxy Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721–1725 Peter the Great  - 1894–1917 Nicholas II History  - Accession of Peter I May 7, 1682 NS, April 27, 1682 OS²  - Empire proclaimed October 22, 1721 NS... The land area that now makes up Finland was settled immediately after the Ice Age, beginning from around 8500 BC. Finland was part of Kingdom of Sweden from the 13th century to 1809, when it was ceded to the Russian Empire becoming the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland. ...


Sveaborg did not fight until the very last end in the hopeless war. The Russians easily took Helsinki in early 1808 and began bombarding the fortress. Its commander, Carl Olof Cronstedt, negotiated a cease-fire, and when no Swedish reinforcements had arrived by May, Sveaborg, with almost 7,000 men, surrendered. The reasons for Cronstedt's actions remain somewhat unclear; but the hopeless situation, psychological warfare by the Russians, some (possibly) bribed advisors, fear for the lives of a large civil population, lack of gun-powder combined with total isolation are some likely causes for the surrender Carl-Olof Cronstedt senior (3 october 1756 – 7 april 1820) Carl-Olof Constedt senior was commander at the fortress of Sveaborg during the Finnish war 1808, wich was fought between Sweden and Russia. ...

Bombardment of Sveaborg during the Crimean War.
Bombardment of Sveaborg during the Crimean War.
Augustin Ehrensvärd's grave at Suomenlinna
Augustin Ehrensvärd's grave at Suomenlinna

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (900x699, 184 KB)British fleet bombarding Sveaborg during the Crimean War. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (900x699, 184 KB)British fleet bombarding Sveaborg during the Crimean War. ... Utsikt över Sveaborg (View over Sveaborg), painting by Augustin Ehrensvärd Suomenlinna (Finnish), or Sveaborg (Swedish), is an inhabited sea fortress built on six islands, today within Helsinki, the capital of Finland. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 192 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Augustin Ehrensvärds grave at Suomenlinna. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 192 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Augustin Ehrensvärds grave at Suomenlinna. ...

Under Russian rule

The long period of peace following the transfer of power was shattered by the Crimean War of 185456. The allies decided to engage Russia on two fronts and sent an Anglo-French fleet to the Baltic Sea. For two summers the fleet shelled the towns and fortifications along the Finnish coast. Bombardment of Suomenlinna (then known as Sveaborg or Viapori) lasted 47 hours and the fortress was badly damaged. Combatants Allies: Second French Empire British Empire Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,194 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1853–1856) was fought... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


After the Crimean War extensive restoration work was begun at Suomenlinna. A new ring of earthworks with artillery emplacements was built at the western and southern edges of the islands.


The next stage in the arming of Suomenlinna and the Gulf of Finland came in the build-up to the World War I. The fortress and its surrounding islands became part of "Peter the Great's naval fortification" designed to safeguard the capital, St. Petersburg. “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Present

No longer very practical as a military base, Suomenlinna was turned over to civilian administration in 1973. An independent government department was formed to administer the unique complex. At the time there was some debate over its Finnish name, with some suggesting that the old name Viapori be restored, but the newer name was retained. The military is still present on the islands, as part of the local community. Suomenlinna also still flies the war flag, or the swallow-tailed state flag of Finland.

M/S Mariella passing trough the Kustaanmiekka strait after leaving Helsinki
M/S Mariella passing trough the Kustaanmiekka strait after leaving Helsinki

Suomenlinna is now one of the greatest tourist attractions in Helsinki as well as a popular picnicking spot for the city's inhabitants, and on a sunny summer day the islands, and in particular the ferries, can get quite crowded. A number of museums exist on the island, as well as the last surviving Finnish submarine Vesikko. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 269 KB) M/S Mariella on Kustaanmiekka strait. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 269 KB) M/S Mariella on Kustaanmiekka strait. ... Mariella in Helsinki 2004. ... Another view of the vessel Vesikko was a submarine of the Finnish Navy in World War II. It was designed by Dutch Ingenieurskantoor voor Scheepsbouw den Haag (I.v. ...


Suomenlinna has always been much more than just a part of Helsinki — it is a town within the town. Nowadays there are about 900 permanent inhabitants on the islands, and 350 people work there all year round. The Naval Academy of Finland is located on one of the islands. This is one of the features that make Suomenlinna unique: the fortress is not merely a museum. Location of Helsinki in Northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Finland Province Southern Finland Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Charter 1550 Capital city 1812 Government  - City manager Jussi Pajunen Area  - City 187. ...


There is a minimum-security prison in Suomenlinna, whose inmates work on the maintenance and reconstruction of the fortifications.


For the general public Suomenlinna is served by ferries all year around, but a service tunnel supplying heating, water and electricity was built in 1982. From the beginning of 1990s it was modified so that it can also be used for emergency transports.


Suomenlinna has been known as an avant-garde of culture, the influence of which has affected the cultural life throughout Finland. Many buildings have been converted into artists' studios, which are let by the administration at reasonable rates, and there is an art school for children. The performances of the Suomenlinna summer theatre regularly draw full houses. But the easiest way to get acquainted with local culture is through the architecture of Suomenlinna. On the islands, styles from different periods form a harmonious whole. But as a monument to military architecture, the fortress is unique in the world.


Timeline

  • 1748: Building of Sveaborg (Fortress of Svea/Sweden - Swedish), later to be named Suomenlinna (Fortress of Finland - Finnish), begins under command of Augustin Ehrensvärd.
  • 1914 - 1917: A ring of ground and sea fortifications, called Krepost Sveaborg, is built around Helsinki.
  • 1918: Name Suomenlinna becomes official name of the fortress. Prison camp of Red rebels is located in Suomenlinna after the Finnish Civil War.
  • 1973: Suomenlinna becomes civil administration area.
  • 1998: Suomenlinna's 250th birthday.
The M/S Suomenlinna transports residents, tourists and vehicles to and from the harbour at Suomenlinna
The M/S Suomenlinna transports residents, tourists and vehicles to and from the harbour at Suomenlinna

Events April 24 - A congress assembles at Aix-la-Chapelle with the intent to conclude the struggle known as the War of Austrian Succession - at October 18 - The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle is signed to end the war Adam Smith begins to deliver public lectures in Edinburgh Building of... View over Sveaborg by Augustin Ehrensvärd Augustin Ehrensvärd (1710-1772) was a Swedish military architect, a lieutenant colonel in the artillery. ... Year 1808 (MDCCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants Russia Sweden Commanders Fyodor Buxhoeveden Boris Knorring Barclay de Tolly Wilhelm Mauritz Klingspor Carl Johan Adlercreutz Georg Carl von Döbeln The Finnish War was fought between Sweden and Russia from February 1808 to September 1809. ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Treaty of Fredrikshamn (Freden i Fredrikshamn in Swedish and Haminan rauha in Finnish ) was a peace treaty concluded between Sweden and Russia on September 17, 1809. ... Year 1855 (MDCCCLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants Allies: Second French Empire British Empire Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,194 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1853–1856) was fought... Motto  2(French) God and my right Anthem God Save the Queen 3 United Kingdom() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() Capital London Largest conurbation (population) Greater London Urban Area Official languages English (de facto)4 Government  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime Minister Gordon Brown Formation  -  Acts of... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Viapori Rebellion was a rebellion which started June 30 in 1906 in Suomenlinna as part of the Russian Revolution of 1905-1907. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... “Red October” redirects here. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Combatants Whites: White Guards, German Empire, Swedish volunteers Reds: Red Guards, Russian SFSR Commanders C.G.E. Mannerheim Ali Aaltonen, Eero Haapalainen, Eino Rahja, Kullervo Manner Strength 80,000–90,000 Finns, 550 Swedish volunteers, 13,000 Germans[1] 80,000–90,000 Finns, 4,000–10,000 Russians[1... Year 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the 1973 Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 890 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The M/S Suomenlinna, along with M/S Tor carries visitors and residents to and from the Suomenlinna harbour. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 890 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The M/S Suomenlinna, along with M/S Tor carries visitors and residents to and from the Suomenlinna harbour. ...

Geography

Suomenlinna district of Helsinki consists of eight islands. Five of them - Kustaanmiekka (which has most of the fortifications), Pikku Mustasaari, Iso Mustasaari, Länsi-Mustasaari and Susisaari are connected by either bridges or sandbars. The other three are Särkkä, Lonna and Pormestarinluodot. Suomenlinna or Viapori (Finnish), or Sveaborg (Swedish), is an inhabited sea fortress built on six islands, today within Helsinki, the capital of Finland. ...


The total land area is 80 hectares (0.8 km2).


Instead of the normal Finnish postal addressing consisting street name and house number, the addresses consist of letter code for island and house number. For example, C 83 is house #83 in Iso-Mustasaari (code C). The postal code for Suomenlinna is 00190. Postal codes are generally clearly visible outside local Australian post offices. ...


Notes

The Suomenlinna Kuninkaanportti ("King's gate") entrance gateway, bearing a plaque with Augustin Ehrensvärd's famous quote "Eftervärld, stå här på egen botn och lita icke på främmande hielp" ("Progeny, stand here on your own foundation and do not rely on foreign help"), was Erik Bruun's illustration motive for the 1000 Finn mark banknote. However, it is not actually possible to see the gate exactly as it appears on the banknote. Bruun stylised the illustration a little to better show off the famous gate. View over Sveaborg by Augustin Ehrensvärd Augustin Ehrensvärd (1710-1772) was a Swedish military architect, a lieutenant colonel in the artillery. ... Erik Bruun (born 1926 in Viipuri) is a Finnish graphic designer. ... The markka (or Finnish mark) was the currency used in Finland from 1860 until January 1, 1999 (in practice on January 1, 2002), when it was replaced by the euro (€). The currency code used for the markka was FIM, and the usual familiar notation was a postfix mk. ... A £20 Bank of England banknote. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Suomenlinna

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... This is a list of fortifications past and present, a fortification being a major physical defensive structure often composed of a more or less wall-connected series of forts. ... This is a list of castles in Finland. ... Another view of the vessel Vesikko was a submarine of the Finnish Navy in World War II. It was designed by Dutch Ingenieurskantoor voor Scheepsbouw den Haag (I.v. ...

External links

Coordinates: 60°08′37″N, 24°59′04″E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...




  Results from FactBites:
 
Suomenlinna - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1009 words)
Suomenlinna (Finnish), or Sveaborg (Swedish), is an inhabited sea fortress built on six islands, today within Helsinki, the capital of Finland.
Suomenlinna has always been much more than just a part of Helsinki — it is a town within the town.
The Suomenlinna Kuninkaanportti ("King's gate") entrance gateway, bearing a plaque with Augustin Ehrensvärd's famous quote "Eftervärld, stå här på egen botn och lita icke på främmande hielp" ("Progeny, stand here on your own foundation and do not rely on foreign help"), was Erik Bruun's illustration motive for the 1000 Markkaa banknote.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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