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Encyclopedia > Sunni Islam

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Sunni Islam
Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ...


Schools of Law

HanafiShafi`iMalikiHanbali This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Hanafi (Arabic حنفي) school is the oldest of the four schools of thought (Madhhabs) or jurisprudence (Fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ... The Shāfi‘ī madhab () is one of the four schools of fiqh, or religious law, within Sunni Islam. ... This page deals with Islamic thought. ... Hanbali (Arabic: حنبلى ) is one of the four schools (Madhhabs) of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam. ...

Schools of Theology

MaturidiAsh'ariAthariMu'tazili Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... In Islam, one who follows Abu Mansur Al Maturidis theology, which is a close variant of Ashari school of thought. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Athari ((al-Athariyya), the textualists, from the word Athar, report) is the smallest of the four schools of Sunni Islamic theology. ... Mutazilah (Arabic المعتزلة al-mu`tazilah) is a theological school of thought within Islam. ...

Movements

DeobandiBarelwiSalafi The religion of Islam has many divisions, sects, schools, traditions, and related faiths. ... The Deobandi (Urdu: دیو بندی devbandī) is a Sunni Islamic revivalist movement which started in South Asia and has more recently spread to other countries, such as Afghanistan, South Africa and the United Kingdom. ... Barelvi (Hindi: बरेलवी, Urdu: بریلوی) is a movement of Sufism in South Asia that was founded by Ahmed Raza Khan of Bareilly, India (hence the term Barelvi). ... This article is on the beliefs of the followers of the Salaf. ...

Five Pillars

ShahadaSalah
ZakahSawmHajj Five Pillars of Islam (Arabic: أركان الإسلام) is the term given to the five duties incumbent on every Muslim. ... , // Shāhāda is a town in the northwest corner of Maharashtra state in India, now in Nandurbār District (formerly in Dhule District). ... Salat redirects here. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... Sawm (Arabic: صوم) is an Arabic word for fasting regulated by Islamic jurisprudence. ... A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ...

Rightly Guided Caliphs

Abu Bakr • Umar ibn al-Khattab
Uthman ibn AffanAli ibn Abi Talib The Four Rightly Guided Caliphs (Arabic: ‎ transliterated: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam and in general around the world to refer to the first four caliphs who are seen as being model leaders. ... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... For other uses of the name, see Umar (disambiguation). ... For other uses of the name, see Uthman. ... Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب translit: ‘AlÄ« ibn Abu Ṭālib Persian: علی پسر ابو طالب) ‎ (599 – 661) is an early Islamic leader. ...

Hadith Collections
The Six major Hadith collections are the works of some individuals Islamic scholars who by their own initiative started collecting sayings that people attributed to Muhammad approximately 200 years after his death. ...

Sahih BukhariSahih Muslim
Al-Sunan al-Sughra
Sunan Abi Dawood
Sunan al-Tirmidhi
Sunan ibn Maja • Al-Muwatta
Sunan al-Darami
The authentic collection (Arabic: الجامع الصحيح, al-Jaami al-Sahih [1]) or popularly al-Bukharis authentic (Arabic: صحيح البخاري, Sahih al-Bukhari) is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ). Sunni view this as their most trusted collection. ... Sahih Muslim (Arabic: صحيح مسلم, ṣaḥīḥ muslim) is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections, collected by Imam Muslim. ... as-Sunan as-Sughra (Arabic: السنن الصغرى), also known as Sunan an-Nasai (Arabic: سنن النسائي) is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections, and was collected by Al-Nasai. ... Sunan Abu Daud (Arabic: ‎) is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections , collected by Abu Daud. ... Jami al-Tirmidhi (Arabic: ‎), popularly Sunan al-Tirmidhi (Arabic: ‎) is one of the Sunni Six major Hadith collections collected by al-Tirmidhi. ... Sunan Ibn Maja is the last compiled of Sunni Islams six canonical hadith collections, compiled by Ibn Maja. ... The Muwatta is a collection of hadith of the Muhammad that form the basis for the jurisprudence of the Maliki school. ... Sunan al-Darami is a Hadith collection consider by some Sunnis to be the sixth of the Six major Hadith collections. ...

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Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. Sunni Islam is also referred to as Sunnism or as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h (Arabic: أهل السنة والجماعة) (people of the example (of Muhammad) and the community), or Ahl as-Sunnah (Arabic: أهل السنة ) for short. The word Sunni comes from the word Sunnah (Arabic : سنة ), which means the words and actions [1] or example of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. The following table analyzes the Demographics of Islam as of mid-year 2005. ... The religion of Islam has many divisions, sects, schools, traditions, and related faiths. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Arabic redirects here. ... Sunnah(t) () literally means “trodden path”, and therefore, the sunnah of the prophet means “the way of the prophet”. Terminologically, the word ‘Sunnah’ in Sunni Islam means those religious actions that were instituted by Muhammad(PBUH) during the 23 years of his ministry and which Muslims initially received through consensus... Prophets of Islam are male human beings who are regarded by Muslims to be prophets chosen by God. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ...


Historically, Sunni Islam has often been defined only in contrast with other denominations or schools of thought, such as Shia Islam, Mu'tazila and others, considering itself to be the orthodox form of Islam[citation needed]. As such, a case is sometimes made that Sunnism is as old as Islam itself[citation needed], or at least dates back to the first civil war in Islam from 656 to 661 CE. However, in terms of doctrine and theology, and in the sense of considering itself a separate denomination, Sunni Islam is younger than that, making it somewhat misleading to talk about Sunnites in a 7th century CE context. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Mutazilah (Arabic المعتزلة al-mu`tazilah) is an extinct theological school of thought within Islam. ... “Orthodox” redirects here. ... The First Fitna, 656–661 CE, followed the assassination of the caliph Uthman ibn Affan, continued during the brief caliphate of Ali ibn Abu Talib, and was ended, on the whole, by Muawiyas assumption of the caliphate. ...


Sunni Islam was under the authority of the Caliph from Muhammad's death in 632 CE until the abolition of the caliphate by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in 1924. Since then, no central international authority exists; many countries have a Grand Mufti or other official who holds the highest religious authority in the country. However, during all of Islam's history, independent religious scholars - the ulama - have held great influence in religious matters. During the first centuries of Islam, when the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphs were the worldly rulers of the Muslim world as well as the highest religious authorities of Sunni Islam, this led to some power struggles between the caliphate and the ulama. As the worldly power of the caliphate declined from the 9th and 10th century onwards, and as the religious law became more codified and exhaustive due to the efforts of the ulama, the caliphate's religious influence decreased as well. For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... “Mustafa Kemal” redirects here. ... The title of Grand Mufti (Arabic: ‎) refers to the highest official of religious law in a Sunni Muslim country. ... Ulema (, transliteration: , singular: , transliteration: , scholar) (The people of Islamic Knowledge) refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... The Mihna—Arabic for ordeal—was the last real attempt by Muslim rulers to impose their will on the development of the Islam; during this period, which lasted from 832 until 848 CE, the Abbasid Caliphs had made the Greek philosophy-influenced Mutazilite interpretation of Islam the official version... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

Contents

Demographics

Distribution of Sunni and Shia populations
Distribution of Sunni and Shia populations
Main article: Demographics of Islam

There are many challenges to demographers attempting to calculate the proportion of the world's Muslim population who adhere to each of the main traditions. For instance, there is no Sunni–Shi'a breakdown available for many countries, and the CIA World Factbook gives a Sunni–Shi'a breakdown only for countries where Shi'a are a significant minority. When no breakdown is given, all the country's Muslims have been enrolled, provisionally, in the Sunni column. Thus, the exact percentage of the world's Muslim population that adheres to the various Shi'a sects, as opposed to the majority Sunni groups, is indeterminate. Therefore, using various sources, one can arrive at an estimate of anywhere from a low of 7.5% [2] to a high of 10% Shi'ite depending on the sources one looks at. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 420 pixelsFull resolution (2480 × 1302 pixel, file size: 417 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The corrected map of muslim distribution (Karachi and surrounding area was incorrectly shown as a shia area). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 420 pixelsFull resolution (2480 × 1302 pixel, file size: 417 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The corrected map of muslim distribution (Karachi and surrounding area was incorrectly shown as a shia area). ... The following table analyzes the Demographics of Islam as of mid-year 2005. ... World Factbook 2004 cover The World Factbook is an annual publication by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with basic almanac-style information about the various countries of the world. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ...


Sunni schools of law (Madhhab)

Islamic law is known as the Shari'ah. The Shari'ah is based on the Qur'an and the Sunnah, and those who ascribe to different interpretations of the law pray in the same mosques with no enmity between them.[citation needed][original research?] Shariah (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Sunnah(t) () literally means “trodden path”, and therefore, the sunnah of the prophet means “the way of the prophet”. Terminologically, the word ‘Sunnah’ in Sunni Islam means those religious actions that were instituted by Muhammad(PBUH) during the 23 years of his ministry and which Muslims initially received through consensus... A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ...


The four major Sunni schools of law are as follows, and their respective founders:

Hanafites Abu Hanifa (d. 767), was the founder of the Hanafi school. He was born in Iraq. Muslims of Bangladesh, Pakistan, India, Afghanistan, Central Asia, Iraq, Turkey, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria and Palestine follow this school. The Hanafi (Arabic حنفي) school is the oldest of the four schools of thought (Madhhabs) or jurisprudence (Fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ... Imam Abu Hanifa (699 - 765) was an important Islamic scholar and jurist and is considered the founder of the Hanifi school of fiqh. ...

Malikites Malik ibn Anas(d. 795) developed his ideas in Medina, where he allegedly knew one of the last surviving companions of the Prophet. His doctrine is recorded in the Muwatta which has been adopted by most Muslims of Africa except in Lower Egypt, Zanzibar and South Africa. The Maliki legal school is the branch of Sunni that dominates in nearly all of Africa, except Egypt, the 'Horn' area and the East Coast countries. This page deals with Islamic thought. ... Malik ibn Anas ibn Malik ibn Amr al-Asbahi (Arabic مالك بن أنس) (c. ... The Muwatta is a collection of hadith of the Muhammad that form the basis for the jurisprudence of the Maliki school. ... This page deals with Islamic thought. ...

  • Shafi'i School (founded by Muhammad ibn Idris ash-Shafi`i)

Shafi'ites Al-Shafi'i (d. 820) was considered a moderate in most areas. He taught in Iraq and then in Egypt. Present Muslims in Indonesia, Lower Egypt, Malaysia, and Yemen follow this school. He placed great emphasis on the sunna of the Prophet, as embodied in the Hadith, as a source of the Shari'ah. The Šāfiˤī madhab (Arabic: شافعي) is one of the four schools of fiqh, or religious law, within Sunni Islam. ... Al-Shafii, Arabic jurist (150 AH/767 AD - 204 AH/820 AD). ...

Hanbalites Ahmad ibn Hanbal (d. 855) was born in Baghdad. He learned extensively from al-Shafi'i. Despite persecution, he held to the doctrine that the Qur'an was uncreated. This school of law is followed primarily in the Arabian Peninsula. Hanbali (Arabic: حنبلى ) is one of the four schools (Madhhabs) of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam. ... Imam Ahmed ibn Hanbal (780 - 855) was an important Muslim scholar and theologian. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... The Mihna—Arabic for ordeal—was the last real attempt by Muslim rulers to impose their will on the development of the Islam; during this period, which lasted from 832 until 848 CE, the Abbasid Caliphs had made the Greek philosophy-influenced Mutazilite interpretation of Islam the official version... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Arabia redirects here. ...


These four schools are somewhat different from each other, but Sunni Muslims generally consider them all equally valid. There are other Sunni schools of law, although many are followed by only small numbers of people and are relatively unknown due to the popularity of the four major schools; also many have died out or were not sufficiently recorded by their followers to survive.


Interpreting the Shari'ah to derive specific rulings (such as how to pray) is known as fiqh, which literally means understanding. A madhhab is a particular tradition of interpreting fiqh. These schools focus on specific evidence (Shafi'i and Hanbali) or general principles (Hanafi and Maliki) derived from specific evidences. The schools were started by eminent Muslim scholars in the first four centuries of Islam. As these schools represent clearly spelled out methodologies for interpreting the Shari'aa, there has been little change in the methodology per se. However, as the social and economic environment changes, new fiqh rulings are being made. For example, when tobacco appeared it was declared as 'disliked' because of its smell. When medical information showed that smoking was dangerous, that ruling was changed to 'forbidden'. Current fiqh issues include things like downloading pirated software and cloning. The consensus is that the Shari'ah does not change but fiqh rulings change all the time. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Madhhab (Arabic مذهب pl. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ... The cigarette is the most common method of smoking tobacco. ... This article is about the computer terms. ... Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ... For the cloning of human beings, see human cloning. ...


A madhhab is not to be confused with a religious sect. There may be scholars representing all four madhhabs living in larger Muslim communities, and it is up to those who consult them to decide which school they prefer. This article is about religious groups. ...


Many Sunnis advocate that a Muslim should choose a single madhhab and follow it in all matters. However, rulings from another madhhab are considered acceptable as dispensations (rukhsa) in exceptional circumstances. Some Sunnis however do not follow any madhhab, indeed some Salafis reject strict adherence to any particular school of thought, preferring to use the Qur'an and the sunnah alone as the primary sources of Islamic law. Dispensation is the act of distributing goods or services, especially those that are regulated, as in the practice of pharmacists. ... This article is on the beliefs of the followers of the Salaf. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Sunnah(t) () literally means “trodden path”, and therefore, the sunnah of the prophet means “the way of the prophet”. Terminologically, the word ‘Sunnah’ in Sunni Islam means those religious actions that were instituted by Muhammad(PBUH) during the 23 years of his ministry and which Muslims initially received through consensus...


Sunni theological traditions

Some Islamic scholars faced questions that they felt were not specifically answered in the Qur'an, especially questions with regard to philosophical conundra like the nature of God, the existence of human free will, or the eternal existence of the Qur'an. Various schools of theology and philosophy developed to answer these questions, each claiming to be true to the Qur'an and the Muslim tradition (sunnah). Among Sunnites, the following were the dominant traditions:-1... Free-Will is a Japanese independent record label founded in 1986. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ...

  • Ash'ari, founded by Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari (873–935). This theology was embraced by Muslim scholars such as al-Ghazali.
    • Ash'ariyyah theology stresses divine revelation over human reason. Ethics, they say, cannot be derived from human reason: God's commands, as revealed in the Qur'an and the practice of Muhammad and his companions (the sunnah, as recorded in the traditions, or hadith), are the source of all morality.
    • Regarding the nature of God and the divine attributes, the Ash'ari rejected the Mu'tazilite position that all Qur'anic references to God as having physical attributes (that is, a body) were metaphorical.[3] Ash'aris insisted that these attributes were "true", since the Qur'an could not be in error, but that they were not to be understood as implying a crude anthropomorphism.
    • Ash'aris tend to stress divine omnipotence over human free will. They believe that the Qur'an is eternal and uncreated.
  • Maturidiyyah, founded by Abu Mansur al-Maturidi (d. 944). Maturidiyyah was a minority tradition until it was accepted by the Turkish tribes of Central Asia (previously they had been Ashari and followers of the Shafi school,[citation needed] it was only later on migration into Anatolia that they became Hanafi and followers of the Maturidi creed[citation needed]). One of the tribes, the Seljuk Turks, migrated to Turkey, where later the Ottoman Empire was established.[4] Their preferred school of law achieved a new prominence throughout their whole empire although it continued to be followed almost exclusively by followers of the Hanafi school while followers of the Shafi, Maliki, and Hanbali schools within the empire followed the Ashari school. Thus, wherever can be found Hanafi followers, there can be found the Maturidi creed.
    • Maturidiyyah argue that knowledge of God's existence can be derived through reason.
  • Athariyyah (meaning Textualist) or Hanbali. No specific founder, but Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal played a key historic role in keeping this school alive.
    • This school differs with the Ash'ariyyah in understanding the names and attributes of God, but rather affirms all of God's names and attributes as they are found in the Qur'an and Sunnah (prophetic traditions), with the disclaimer that the "how" of the attribute is not known. They say that God is as He described Himself "in a way befitting of His majesty." Thus, regarding verses where God is described as having a yad (hand) or wajh (face), the textualists say that God is exactly as He described himself in a way befitting of His majesty, without inquiring as to the "how" of these attributes.
    • The Athariyyah still believe that God does not resemble His creation in any way, as this is also found in the texts. Thus, in the Athari creed, it is still prohibited to imagine an image of God in any way. The Athariyyah say that the yad" (hand) of God is "unlike any other yad" (since God does not resemble His creation in any way) and prohibit imagining what God would be like, even though this attribute of a yad is still affirmed.
    • This is the view of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal who said: "The hadiths (regarding the attributes of Allah) should be left as they are... We affirm them, and we do not make any similitude for them. This is what has been agreed upon by the scholars."[5]

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Abu al-Hasan bin Ismael al-Ashari (Arabic ابو الحسن بن إسماعيل اﻷشعري) (c. ... Abu Hāmed Mohammad ibn Mohammad al-GhazzālÄ« (1058-1111) (Persian: ), known as Algazel to the western medieval world, born and died in Tus, in the Khorasan province of Persia (modern day Iran). ... For information on the last book of the New Testament see the entry on the Book of Revelation. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... Mutazilah (Arabic المعتزلة al-mu`tazilah) is a theological school of thought within Islam. ... 7th millennium BC anthropomorphized rocks, with slits for eyes, found in modern-day Israel. ... Omnipotence (literally, all power) is power with no limits or inexhaustible, in other words, unlimited power. ... In Islam, a Maturidi is one who follows Abu Mansur Al Maturidis theology, which is a close variant of Ashari school of thought and the codifying of the beliefs of traditional Sunni Islam as practiced since the time of the Prophet Muhammad. ... Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Mahmud Abu Mansur al-Samarqandi al-Maturidi al-Hanafi (d. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Shafii is one of the four schools of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... The Hanafi (Arabic حنفي) school is the oldest of the four schools of thought (Madhhabs) or jurisprudence (Fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ... The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... The Hanafi (Arabic حنفي) school is the oldest of the four schools of thought (Madhhabs) or jurisprudence (Fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ... Shafii is one of the four schools of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam. ... This page deals with Islamic thought. ... Hanbali (Arabic: حنبلى ) is one of the four schools (Madhhabs) of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam. ... The Hanafi (Arabic حنفي) school is the oldest of the four schools of thought (Madhhabs) or jurisprudence (Fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ... Athari ((al-Athariyya), the textualists, from the word Athar, report) is the smallest of the four schools of Sunni Islamic theology. ... Hanbali (Arabic: حنبلى ) is one of the four schools (Madhhabs) of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam. ... Ahmed ibn Hanbal (Arabic: ‏‎‎‎‎‎‎‎‎أحمد بن حنبل‏‎‎‎‏‎‎‎ ‎‎‎‎‎‎‎ Ahmad bin Hanbal ) (780 - 855 CE, 164 - 241 AH) was an important Muslim scholar and theologian of arabic background [9] and descendant from the Banu Shayban Arabian tribe and native of Merw [10]. He is considered the founder of the Hanbali school of fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence). ... Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ...

Sunni view of hadith

The Qur'an as we have it today was compiled by Muhammad's companions (Sahaba) in approximately 650 CE, and is accepted by all Muslim denominations. However, there were many matters of belief and daily life that were not directly prescribed in the Qur'an, but were simply the practice of the community. Later generations sought out oral traditions regarding the early history of Islam, and the practice of Muhammad and his first followers, and wrote them down so that they might be preserved. These recorded oral traditions are called hadith. Muslim scholars sifted through the hadith and evaluated the chain of narration of each tradition, scrutinizing the trustworthiness of the narrators and judging the strength of each hadith accordingly. Most Sunni accept the hadith collections of Bukhari and Muslim as the most authentic (sahih, or correct), and grant a lesser status to the collections of other recorders. There are, however, four other collections of hadith that are also held in particular reverence by Sunni Muslims (if not quite on a level with Bukhari's and Muslim's), making a total of six: In the Islamic religion, the Sahaba (Asahaaba,الصحابه) are the companions of the Prophet Muhammad. ... Oral tradition or oral culture is a way of transmitting history, literature or law from one generation to the next in a civilization without a writing system. ... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... Muhammad Ibn Ismail Ibn Ibrahim Ibn al-Mughirah Ibn Bardiziyeh al-Bukhari محمد بن اسماعيل بن ابراهيم بن المغيرة بن بردزبه البخاري), was the author of a collection of traditions, compiled in Sahih Bukhari. ... Abul Husayn Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj Qushayri al-Nisaburi (Arabic: أبو الحسين مسلم بن الحجاج القشيري النيسابوري) (lived 810-70), Muslim Author of the second most widely recognized collection of Hadith in Sunni Islam, Sahih Muslim, Muslims authentic (collection). He is largely known as simply Al-Muslim. ... Sahih is a Islamic term that means authentic. ...

There are also other collections of hadith which, although less well-known, are still thought to contain many authentic hadith and are frequently used by specialists. Examples of these collections include: The authentic collection (Arabic: الجامع الصحيح, al-Jaami al-Sahih [1]) or popularly al-Bukharis authentic (Arabic: صحيح البخاري, Sahih al-Bukhari) is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ). Sunni view this as their most trusted collection. ... Sahih Muslim (Arabic: صحيح مسلم, ṣaḥīḥ muslim) is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections, collected by Imam Muslim. ... Sunan al-Sughra, also known as Sunan al-Nasai is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections , collected by Al-Nasai. ... Abu Daud, full name Abu Daud Sulayman ibn Ash`ath al-Azadi al-Sijistani, was a noted collector of hadith (sayings of Muhammad), and wrote the third of the six canonical hadith collections recognized by Sunni Muslims, Sunan Abi Daud. ... Jami al-Tirmidhi (Arabic: ‎), popularly Sunan al-Tirmidhi (Arabic: ‎) is one of the Sunni Six major Hadith collections collected by al-Tirmidhi. ... Sunan Ibn Maja is the last compiled of Sunni Islams six canonical hadith collections, compiled by Ibn Maja. ...

The Muwatta is a collection of hadith of the Muhammad that form the basis for the jurisprudence of the Maliki school. ... Malik ibn Anas ibn Malik ibn Amr (714 - 796) was one of the most highly respected scholars of fiqh in the Sunni sect of Islam. ... The South Arabian alphabet branched from the Proto-Sinaitic alphabet in ca. ... Ahmed ibn Hanbal (Arabic: ‏‎‎‎‎‎‎‎‎أحمد بن حنبل‏‎‎‎‏‎‎‎ ‎‎‎‎‎‎‎ Ahmad bin Hanbal ) (780 - 855 CE, 164 - 241 AH) was an important Muslim scholar and theologian of arabic background [9] and descendant from the Banu Shayban Arabian tribe and native of Merw [10]. He is considered the founder of the Hanbali school of fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence). ... Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain or Mustadrak al-Hakim is a ten volum hadith collection writen by Hakim al-Nishaburi, the leading hadith scholar of his time. ... Abu Abd-Allah Muhammad ibn Abd-Allah al-Hakim al-Nishaburi (d. ... Musannaf of Abd al-Razzaq A very early book of Hadith that was collected by Imam Abdu-Razzaq al-Sanani. ...

References

  1. ^ Sunna - Definitions from Dictionary.com
  2. ^ "How Many Shia Are in the World?". IslamicWeb.com. Retrieved on 2006-10-18.
  3. ^ Bülent Þenay. Ash'ariyyah Theology, Ashariyyah. 'BELIEVE Religious Information Source'. Retrieved on 2006-04-01.
  4. ^ Maturidiyyah. 'Philtar'. Retrieved on 2006-04-01.
  5. ^ Reported by ibn al-Jawzi in Manaaqib Imam Ahmad, pg. 155-156.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Salafee Imâm became well-known with the title Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah because his father was the principal of the al-Jawziyyah school in Damascus. ...

See also

Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ...

External links

  • Islamic Law Infobase
  • University of Southern California, Compendium of Muslim Texts
  • Fiqh al-Akbar by Imam Abu Hanifah
  • Muwatta by Imam Malik
  • Searchable Ar-Risala by Imam Shafi'i
  • Foundations of the Sunnah, by Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal
  • Source Methodology in Islamic Jurisprudence (Usul al-Fiqh), by Taha Jabir Al 'Alwani
For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Aqidah (sometimes spelled as Aqeeda, Aqida or Aqeedah) (Arabic: عقيدة) is an Islamic term meaning creed. ... Islam reveres the one God, who is considered the only Creator and Lord of the Universe. The main fundamental creed (shahadah) of Islam is There is but (one) God, and Muhammad is the Messenger of God. The Arabic word for The God is Allah (الله); Muslims consider him the same deity... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Prophets of Islam are male human beings who are regarded by Muslims to be prophets chosen by God. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Five Pillars of Islam (Arabic: أركان الإسلام) is the term given to the five duties incumbent on every Muslim. ... White flag featuring the Shahada text as used by the Taliban. ... Salat redirects here. ... Sawm (Arabic: صوم) is an Arabic word for fasting regulated by Islamic jurisprudence. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ... Muslim history began in Arabia with Muhammads first recitations of the Quran in the 7th century. ... Islamic religious leaders have traditionally been persons who, as part of the clerisy, mosque, or government, performed a prominent role within their community or nation. ... There is much more to Muslim history than military and political history; this particular chronology is almost entirely of military and political history. ... Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ... In Islam, the SÌ£aḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... This article is about the Shia concept, for the more general Islamic term, see Imam. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four Caliphs. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-FātimiyyÅ«n (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... The Islamic Empire (بلاد الإسلامية ) or Rashidun Empire or Rashidun Caliphate ( خلافت راشدہ) is the term conventionally used to describe the Empire controlled by the first four successors of Muhammad (the Rightly Guided caliphs). ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... The interior of the Great Mosque in Cordoba, now a Christian cathedral. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-FātimiyyÅ«n (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... Age of the Caliphs  Expansion under the Prophet Muhammad, 622-632  Expansion during the Patriarchal Caliphate, 632-661  Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750 The initial Muslim conquests (632–732), also referred to as the Islamic conquests or Arab conquests,[1] began after the death of the Islamic prophet... During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... The Islamic Golden Age from the 8th century to the 13th century witnessed a fundamental transformation in agriculture known as the Muslim Agricultural Revolution,[1] Arab Agricultural Revolution,[2] or Green Revolution. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Sunnah(t) () literally means “trodden path”, and therefore, the sunnah of the prophet means “the way of the prophet”. Terminologically, the word ‘Sunnah’ in Sunni Islam means those religious actions that were instituted by Muhammad(PBUH) during the 23 years of his ministry and which Muslims initially received through consensus... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... The religion of Islam has many divisions, sects, schools, traditions, and related faiths. ... Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to Divine love and the cultivation of the elements of the Divine within the individual human being. ... Al-Ibāḍiyyah (Arabic الاباضية) is a form of Islam distinct from the Shiite and Sunni denominations. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... Muslim culture is a term primarily used in secular academia to describe all cultural practices common to historically Islamic peoples. ... This article is about the attitudes of Islam regarding animals. ... The Taj Mahal, Agra. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwÄ«m al-hijrÄ«; Persian: تقویم هجري قمری ‎ taqwÄ«m-e hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate... This article discusses childrens rights given by Islam, childrens duties towards their parents, parents treatment of their children, both males and females, biological and foster children, also discussed are some of the differences regarding rights with respect to different schools of thoughts. ... Muslim holidays generally celebrate the events of the life of Islams main prophet, Muhammad, especially the events surrounding the first hearing of the Kuran. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ... Islam as a political movement has a diverse character that has at different times incorporated elements of many other political movements, while simultaneously adapting the religious views of Islamic fundamentalism, particularly the view of Islam as a political religion. ... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... The complex relationship between women and Islam is defined by both Islamic texts and the history and culture of the Muslim world. ... Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ... Islam - percentage by country Distribution of Islam per country. ... Shariah (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In Islamic legal terminology, Baligh or Bulugh refers to a person who has reached maturity or puberty and has full responsibility under Islamic law. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic hygienical jurisprudence and cleanliness. ... Islamic criminal jurisprudence is the Islamic criminal law. ... DhabiÄ¥a (ذَبِيْحَة, dhabiha, zabiha) is the prescribed method of slaughtering all animals excluding fish and most sea-life as per Islam. ... This article is about dhimmi in the context of Islamic law. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This is a sub-article to Hygiene in Islam, Healthy diet and Food and cooking hygiene. ... This is a sub-article of fiqh and Law and economics. ... Islamic banking refers to a system of banking or banking activity that is consistent with Islamic law (Sharia) principles and guided by Islamic economics. ... Islamic economics in practice. ... Murabaha is defined as a particular kind of sale, compliant with shariah, where the seller expressly mentions the cost he has incurred on the commodities to be sold and sells it to another person by adding some profit or mark-up thereon which is known to the buyer. ... Riba is the (Arabic: ربا ) term for intrest, the charging of which is forbidden by the Quran here, among other places: And that which you give in gift (loan) (to others), in order that it may increase (your wealth by expecting to get a better one in return) from other... Islamic ethics (akhlāq), defined as good character, historically took shape only gradually and was finally established in the 11th century. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic jurisprudence and etiquette. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic jurisprudence and Sex segregation Islam discourages social interaction between men and women when they are alone but not all interaction between men and women. ... Ghusl (غسل) is an Arabic term referring to the full Ablution in Islam. ... Many muslims when praying their daily prayers have to say the The Salat Ibrahimiya goes like this This translates to Oh God exalt Mohammad and his progeny as you have exalted Ibrahim and his progeny in these worlds as You are All Praiseworthy All Glorious. ... Hudud ( Arabic , also transliterated hadud, hudood; plural for hadd, , limit, or restriction) is the word often used in Islamic social and legal literature for the bounds of acceptable behaviour and the punishments for serious crimes. ... This is a sub-article to fiqh and Hygiene Hygiene in Islam is a prominent topic but one which non-Muslims are not very familiar with. ... The miswak (miswaak, siwak) is a natural toothbrush made from the twigs of the Salvadora persica tree. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about Hygiene in Islam. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Haraam. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic economical jurisprudence and inheritance. ... In states ruled by Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (Arabic: جزْية; Ottoman Turkish: cizye) is a per capita tax imposed on able bodied non-Muslim men of military age. ... Islamic leadership is what a Muslim leader is supposed to show, in order to lead in accordance to Islamic principles. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic jurisprudence and Marriage. ... When a couple decides to marry, they draw up a Marriage contract. ... Nikah or nikkah (Arabic: النكاح ), is the contract between a bride and bridegroom and part of an Islamic marriage, a strong covenant (mithaqun Ghalithun) as expressed in Quran 4:21). ... NikāhÌ£u’l-Mut‘ah, Nikah el Muta (Arabic: , also Nikah Mut‘ah literally, marriage[1] for pleasure[2]), or sigheh, is a fixed-time marriage which, according to the Usuli Shia schools of Shari‘a (Islamic law), is a marriage with a preset duration, after which the... A dowry is a gift of money or valuables given by the brides family to that of the groom to permit their marriage. ... In Islamic sharia legal terminology, a mahram (Arabic محرم, also transcribed mahrim or maharem) is an unmarriageable kin with whom sexual intercourse would be considered incestuous, a punishable taboo. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... The rules and regulations concerning prisoners of war in Islam are covered in manuals of Islamic jurisprudence, based upon Islamic teachings, in both the Quran and hadith. ... 13th century slave market in Yemen The major juristic schools of Islam traditionally accepted the institution of slavery. ... Islamic politics is the profession of Muslim politicians. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic marital jurisprudence and human sexuality. ... Istimna (استمناء) is the Arabic term for masturbation. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Sukuk is the Arabic name for a financial certificate but can be seen as an Islamic equivalent of bond. ... // Takaful is an Islamic insurance concept which is grounded in Islamic muamalat (banking transactions), observing the rules and regulations of Islamic law. ... This article is about Hygiene in Islam. ... Islamic theological jurisprudence is the filed of Islamic jurisprudence specialized in theological issues. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... Zina (Arabic: الزناء) is extramarital sex in Islam. ... Sharia is the dynamic body of Islamic religious law. ... Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ... Islamic tilework of the Shrine of Hadhrat Masoumah, first built in the late 8th century. ... Arabesque pattern at the Alhambra An element of Islamic art usually found decorating the walls of mosques, the arabesque is an elaborate application of repeating geometric forms that often echo the forms of plants and animals. ... The interior of the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne. ... The stylized signature (tughra) of Sultan Mahmud II of the Ottoman Empire was written in an expressive calligraphy. ... Islamic music is Muslim religious music, as sung or played in public services or private devotions. ... Islamic pottery era started around 622. ... Islamic creationism is the belief that the universe (including humanity) was directly created by God as explained in the Quran or Genesis. ... A symbol of Islamic feminism, incorporating the Crescent Moon and Star of Islam into the female symbol Islamic feminism is a form of feminism that aims for the full equality of all Muslims, regardless of sex or gender, in public and private life. ... During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... Islamic literature is a field that includes the study of modern and classical Arabic and the litarature written in those languages. ... Islamic poetry is poetry written by Muslims on the topic of Islam. ... Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ... Early Muslim philosophy is considered influential in the rise of modern philosophy. ... There are many new trends in Islamic Philosophy and meanwhile some traditional schools are still very alive and active. ... Islamic eschatology is concerned with the Qiyamah (end of the world; Last Judgement) and the final judgement of humanity. ... Islamic ethics (akhlāq), defined as good character, historically took shape only gradually and was finally established in the 11th century. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... Alchemy in Islam differs from the general alchemy in certain ways, one of which is that Muslim alchemists didnt believe in the creation of life in the laboratory. ... Main articles: Islamic science and astrology Islamic astrology, in Arabic ilm al-nujum or ilm al-falak is the study of the heavens by early Muslims. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic science and astronomy. ... Islamic economics in practice. ... This article is about the relationship between Islam and science. ... In the history of mathematics, Islamic mathematics or Arabic mathematics refers to the mathematics developed by the Islamic civilization between 622 and 1600. ... In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine or Arabic medicine refers to medicine developed in the medieval Islamic civilisation and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of the Islamic civilization. ... Islamic sociology is a discipline of Islamic studies. ... Early Muslim sociology responded to the challenges of social organization of diverse peoples all under common religious organization in the Islamic caliphate, the Abbasid and later Mamluk period in Egypt. ... It has been suggested that Shuubiya be merged into this article or section. ... Hagia Sophia, an Eastern Orthodox church converted into a mosque on the day of the Fall of Constantinople Conversion of non-Muslim houses of worship into mosques began during the life of Muhammad and continued during subsequent Islamic conquests and under the Muslim rule. ... The historiography of early Islam is the study of how various historians have treated the events of the first two centuries of Islamic history. ... A significant number of inventions were produced in the Muslim world, many of them with direct implications for Fiqh related issues. ... Islamization of knowledge is a term which describes a variety of attempts and approaches to synthesize the ethics of Islam with various fields of modern thought. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Jainism and Islam came in close contact with each other following the Islamic Conquest from Central Asia and Persia in the seventh to the twelfth centuries when much of north and central India came under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate, and later the Mughal dynasty. ... This article is about the historical interaction between Islam and Judaism. ... In Islam, Prophet Muhammad is seen by Muslims as the last and final Prophet of Allah. ... This article lists various controversies related to Islam and Muslims. ... Apostasy in Islam (Arabic: ارتداد, irtidād or ridda) is commonly defined as the rejection of Islam in word or deed by a person who has been a Muslim. ... (Arguments critical to religion in general, or specific to Monotheism, such as the Existence of God, not dealt with here. ... This is a sub-article to Criticism of Islam. ... Muslims believe that the Quran is the literal word of God (Allah) as recited to Muhammad through the Angel Gabriel. ... This article is about political Islam For the religion of Islam, see Islam. ... Islamophobia is a controversial[1][2] though increasingly accepted[3][4] term that refers to prejudice or discrimination against Islam or Muslims. ... Islamist terrorism, sometimes called Islamic terrorism, is terrorism that is carried out to further the political and religious ambitions of a segment of the Muslim community. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the relationship between Islam and antisemitism. ... The extent to which domestic violence is sanctioned or opposed by Islam is a matter of debate. ... Persecution of Muslims refers to the religious persecution inflicted upon Muslims. ... This is a sub-article to Quran and Islamic view of miracles. ... Qutbism (also Kotebism, Qutbiyya, or Qutbiyyah) is the radical strain of Islamic ideology and activism, based on the thought and writings of Sayyid Qutb, a celebrated Islamist and former leading member of the Muslim Brotherhood who was executed in 1966. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Sunni (426 words)
Sunni Islam claims to be the continuation of the Islam as it was defined through the revelations given to Muhammad and his life, a claim which is substantiated through the fact that Shi'i Islam for a number of decades had very little following and had no real, formal organization.
Sunni Islam has its name from its identification with the importance of the Sunna (the examples from the hadiths), which earlier than in Shi'i Islam was established as a central element in Islam, and central to understanding the full truth in the religion.
Sunni Islam revere Ali, but does not hold him up as the only true continuation of the tradition from Muhammad, and has no emphasis on him bringing on a divine light from the Prophet.
Sunni Islam (934 words)
The Sunni tradition is known in Arabic as the Ahl-i Sunnah (the People of Sunnah), a term which according to the earliest classical sources emerged in the ninth century.
The first major challenge to Islam from within came from the Kharijiyyah, who claimed that good works as well as the profession of faith were necessary to be a true Muslim.
In the eighteenth century a group known as Wahhabiyyah emerged with the purpose of "purifying" Islam of non-Islamic accretions such as the worship of the saints.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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