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Encyclopedia > Sunglasses
Ray-Ban Wayfarer sunglasses(RB2132 901L)
Ray-Ban Wayfarer sunglasses
(RB2132 901L)

Sunglasses or sun glasses are a visual aid, variously termed spectacles or glasses, which feature lenses that are coloured or darkened to prevent strong light from reaching the eyes. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 469 pixelsFull resolution (3500 × 2050 pixel, file size: 724 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 469 pixelsFull resolution (3500 × 2050 pixel, file size: 724 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Ray-Ban Wayfarer sunglasses (RB2132 901L) The Ray-Ban Wayfarer is an iconic design of sunglasses manufactured by Ray-Ban since 1952. ... Glasses, spectacles, or eyeglasses are frames bearing lenses worn in front of the eyes, sometimes for purely aesthetic reasons but normally for vision correction or eye protection. ... A pair of modern glasses Glasses, also called eyeglasses or spectacles are frames, bearing lenses worn in front of the eyes normally for vision correction, eye protection, or for protection from UV rays. ... This article refers to the sight organ. ...


Many people find direct sunlight too bright to be comfortable, especially when reading from paper in direct sunlight. In outdoor activities like riding, skiing and flying, the eye can receive more light than usual. It has been recommended to wear these kind of glasses whenever outside to protect the eyes from ultraviolet radiation, which can lead to the development of a cataract. Sunglasses have also been associated with celebrities and film actors primarily due to the desire to mask identity, but in part due to the lighting involved in production typically being stronger than natural light and uncomfortable to the naked eye. Prism splitting light High Resolution Solar Spectrum Sunlight in the broad sense is the total spectrum of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun. ... Cross-country skiing (skating style) in Einsiedeln, Switzerland. ... This article concerns the process of flying. ... Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ... Human eye cross-sectional view, showing position of human lens. ... For the 1998 movie, see Celebrity (1998 movie). ... This article is about motion pictures. ... For other uses, see Actor (disambiguation). ... Cinematographer Bruno Delbonnel, AFC, meters Audrey Tautou on the set of A Very Long Engagement. ...


Since the 1950s sunglasses have been popular as a fashion statement, especially on the beach. the first thing that was invented was the automatic DILDO. Education grew explosively because of a very strong demand for high school and college education. ... For other uses, see Beach (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Uses

Hiding one's eyes has implications in face-to-face communication: It can hide weeping, being one of the signs of mourning, makes eye contact impossible which can be intimidating, like in the stereotype of the guardian of a chain gang as depicted in Cool Hand Luke, or can show detachment, which is considered cool in some circles. Darkened sunglasses of particular shapes may be in vogue as a fashion accessory. Note that normal glasses are very rarely worn without a practical purpose — curiously, they can project an image of uncool nerdiness that sunglasses do not have. The impact on nonverbal communication and the cool image are among the reasons for wearing sunglasses by night or indoors. People may also wear sunglasses to hide dilated or contracted pupils or bloodshot eyes (which would reveal drug use), recent physical abuse, or to compensate for increased photosensitivity. Fashion trends are another reason for wearing sunglasses, particularly designer sunglasses. Tears trickling down the cheeks Lacrimation is the bodys process of producing tears, which are a liquid to clean and lubricate the eyes. ... Margaret of Spain, Empress of Austria, in Mourning, 1666; note the children and servants in mourning dress behind her. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Gaze aversion. ... A chain gang of convicts going to work near Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. ... Cool Hand Luke is a 1967 American film starring Paul Newman and directed by Stuart Rosenberg. ... Look up cool in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Fashion accessories are items apart from the garment itself, which complement the whole outfit. ... For other uses, see Nerd (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Photosensitivity is the amount to which an object reacts upon receiving photons of light. ... Designer Sunglasses is the name given to sunglasses made by designer label companies such as Christian Dior, Chanel and Ray Ban. ...


People with severe visual impairment, such as the blind, often wear sunglasses in order to avoid making others uncomfortable — not seeing eyes may be better than seeing eyes which seem to look in the wrong direction. Those whose eyes have an abnormal appearance (for example due to cataract) or which jerk uncontrollably (nystagmus) may also do so. This article is about the visual condition. ... Human eye cross-sectional view, showing position of human lens. ... Nystagmus is involuntary eye movement that can be part of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), with the eyes moving first in the direction of the lesioned side (slow phase) followed by a quick correction (fast phase) to the opposite side or away from the lesioned side. ...


Visual clarity and comfort

Sunglasses can improve visual comfort and visual clarity by protecting the eye from glare.[1] Various types of disposable sunglasses are dispensed to patients after receiving mydriatic eye drops during eye examinations. Glare is difficulty seeing in the presence of bright light such as direct or reflected sunlight or artificial light such as car headlamps at night. ... Categories: Medicine stubs | Sign (medicine) ... Traditional Snellen chart used for visual acuity testing. ...


Protection

Oakley sunglasses pass the ANSI Z87.1 requirements and offer UV protection

Excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UV) can cause short-term and long-term ocular problems such as photokeratitis, snow blindness, cataracts, pterygium, and various eye cancers.[2] Medical experts often advise the public on the importance of wearing sunglasses to protect the eyes from UV[2]. In the European Union, a CE mark identifies glasses fulfilling quality regulations. In the preparation for solar eclipses, health authorities often warn against looking at the sun through sunglasses alone. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 451 KB) Authors own creation. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 451 KB) Authors own creation. ... Oakley is an eyewear company known mostly for their high end sunglasses and ski goggles. ... The American National Standards Institute or ANSI (pronounced an-see) is a nonprofit organization that oversees the development of standards for products, services, processes and systems in the United States. ... For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ... Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ... Arc eye is a painful condition sometimes experienced by welders who have failed to use adequate eye protection. ... For other meanings see Snowblind. ... Human eye cross-sectional view, showing position of human lens. ... A pterygium, meaning wing, is a benign growth of the conjunctiva. ... Cancers can affect the eye. ... The constructional details of CE mark The CE mark (officially CE marking) is a mandatory conformity mark on many products placed on the single market in the European Economic Area (EEA). ... Photo taken during the 1999 eclipse. ...


There is no demonstrated correlation between high prices and increased UV protection. A 1995 study reported that "Expensive brands and polarizing sunglasses do not guarantee optimal UVA protection." [3] The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission has also reported that "[c]onsumers cannot rely on price as an indicator of quality".[4] One unscientific survey even found a $6.95 pair of generic glasses with slightly better protection than Salvatore Ferragamo shades.[5] The ACCC Logo The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC) is an independent Australian commonwealth government authority established in 1995 from the amalgamation of the Australian Trade Practices Commission (TPC) and the Prices Surveillance Authority, to protect consumer rights, business rights and obligations, perform industry regulation and price monitoring and... Salvatore Ferragamo (June 5, 1898 - August 7, 1960) was an Italian footwear designer of the 20th century, providing Hollywoods glitterati and many others with unique hand-made designs and spawning an emporium of luxury consumer goods for men and women, with stores in some of the most important cities...


More recently, High energy visible light (HEV) has been implicated as a cause of age-related macular degeneration[6][7], and some manufacturers design to block it. Sunglasses may be especially important for children, as their ocular lenses are thought to transmit far more HEV light than adults (lenses "yellow" with age). In ophthalmology, high energy visible light (HEV light) is high frequency light from 380 nm to 530 nm in the visible spectrum[1]. HEV light has been implicated as a cause of age-related macular degeneration[2][3]. Some sunglasses are now designed specifically to block HEV. References ↑ Dykas, Carol. ...


Some sunglasses also pass ANSI Z87.1 requirements for basic impact and high impact protection. These are voluntary standards, so not all sunglasses comply, nor are manufacturers required to comply. In the basic impact test, a 1 in (2.54 cm) steel ball is dropped on the lens from 50 in (127 cm). In the high velocity test, a 1/4 in (6.35mm) steel ball is shot at the lens at 150 ft/s (45.72 m/s). In both tests, no part of the lens can touch the eye.


Standards

There are three sunglass standards.[8]


The Australian Standard is AS 1067. The five sunglass ratings under this standard are based on the amount of light they absorb, 0 to 4, with “0” providing some protection from UV radiation and sunglare, and “4” a high level of protection.


The US standard is ANSI Z80.3-1972. According to the ANSI Z80.3-2001 standard, the compliable lens should have a UVB (280 to 315nm) transmittance of no more than one per cent and a UVA (315 to 380nm) transmittance of no more than 0.5 times of the visual light transmittance


The European standard is EN 1836:2005. The four ratings are 0 for insufficient UV protection, 1 for sufficient UV protection, 2 for good UV protection and 3 for full UV protection.


Water sunglasses

Water sunglasses, also known as surfing sunglasses, surf goggles and water eyewear consist of eyewear specially adapted to be used in turbulent water, such as the surf. Features normally available include
a) shatter proof & impact resistant lenses
b) strap or other fixing to keep glasses in place during sporting activities
c) buoyancy to stop them from sinking should they be displaced from the wearer
d) nose cushion
e) vent or other method to eliminate fogging


Many sports utilize these sunglasses including surfing, windsurfing, kiteboarding, wakeboarding, kayaking, jet skiing, Bodyboarding, and water skiing. For other uses, see Surfing (disambiguation). ... A windsurfer with modern gear tilts the rig and carves the board to perform a planing jibe (downwind turn) close to shore in Maui, Hawaii, one of the popular destinations for windsurfing. ... Kiteboarding, or kite landboarding, is based on the ever-growing sport of kitesurfing. ... Wakeboarding is a surface water sport which involves riding a wakeboard over the surface of a body of water behind a boat. ... Sea Kayaking at Wilsons Promontory in Victoria, Australia Kayaking is the use of a kayak for moving across water. ... Jet ski is the brand name of Kawasaki Heavy Industries personal water craft. ... Bodyboarder in a barrel at Oahu North Shore Bodyboarding is a form of wave riding. ... // Water skiing began in 1922 when Ralph Samuelson strapped two boards to his feet and rigged a clothesline up to his boat on Lake Pepin in Lake City, Minnesota. ...


Construction

Lens

The color of the lens can vary by style, fashion, and purpose, but for general use, green, grey, yellow, or brown is recommended to avoid or minimize color distortion which would be dangerous when, for instance, driving a car. Gray lenses are considered neutral because they do not enhance contrast or distort colors. Brown and green lenses cause some minimal color distortion, but have contrast-enhancing properties. Red lenses are good for medium and lower light conditions because they are good at enhancing contrast but causes color distortion. Orange and yellow lenses have the best contrast enhancement at depth perception but cause color distortion. Yellow lenses are commonly used by golfers and shooters for its contrast enhancement and depth perception properties. Blue and purple lenses offer no real benefits and are mainly cosmetic. Clear lenses are used typically to protect the eyes from impact, debris, dust, or chemicals. Some sunglasses with interchangeable lens have optional clear lenses to protect the eyes during low light or night time activities. Debates exist as to whether "blue blocking" or amber tinted lenses may have a protective effect.[9] Blue blocking sunglasses typically also block some light of other colors to function well in full sunlight. Some low blue glasses are for use inside at night to avoid suppression of the sleep promoting hormone melatonin. They provide enough light so normal evening activities can continue. For other uses, see Green (disambiguation). ... Achromatic redirects here. ... A yellow Tulip. ... For other uses, see Brown (disambiguation). ... Color vision is a psychophysical phenomenon that exists only in our minds. ... This article is about the sport of golf. ... Shooters is a 2002 British crime drama film from directors Colin Teague and Glenn Durfort, and writers Andrew Howard, Louis Dempsey and Gary Young. ... For other uses, see Hormone (disambiguation). ... Melatonin, 5-methoxy-N-acetyltryptamine, is a hormone found in all living creatures from algae[1] to humans, at levels that vary in a diurnal cycle. ...


Some models, such as those by Costa Del Mar, have polarized lenses (made from Polaroid or a similar material) to reduce glare caused by light reflected from polarizing surfaces such as water (see Brewster's angle for how this works) as well as by polarized diffuse sky radiation (skylight). This can be especially useful when fishing, as the ability to see beneath the surface of the water is crucial. Costa Del Mar is a company that designs and manufactures high quality polarized sunglasses for use in sports such as fishing, sailing and surfing. ... In electrodynamics, polarization (also spelled polarisation) is the property of electromagnetic waves, such as light, that describes the direction of their transverse electric field. ... Polaroid is the name of a type of synthetic plastic sheet which is used to polarise light. ... An illustration of the polarization of light which is incident on an interface at Brewsters angle. ... Spectrum of blue sky clearly showing solar Fraunhofer lines and atmospheric water absorption band. ...


Some models use a gradation where the top of the lens (where the sky is viewed) is darker and the bottom is transparent.


A mirrored coating can also be applied to the lens. This mirrored coating reflects some of the light when it hits the lens before it is transmitted through the lens making it useful in bright conditions. These mirrored coatings can be made any color by the manufacturer for styling and fashion purposes. The color of the mirrored surface is irrelevant to the color of the lens. For example, a gray lens can have a blue mirror coating, and a brown lens can have a silver coating. Sunglasses of this type are sometimes called mirrorshades. A mirror does not get hot in the sunlight and prevents scattering in the lens bulk. A mirror, reflecting a vase. ... Mirrorshades are sunglasses with a special coating on the outside of the lenses to make them appear like small mirrors, although the wearer just sees things in a brown or grey tinted point of view, usually. ...


Any of the above features: color, polarization, gradation, and mirroring, can be combined into a set of lenses for a pair of sunglasses. With the introduction of office computing, ergonomists can recommend mildly tinted glasses for display operators to increase contrast. Corrective lenses can be darkened to serve the same purpose, or secondary clip-on dark lenses can be placed in front of the regular lenses. Some lenses gradually darken with bright light and lighten in darkness. These are known as photochromic lenses. Office Computing Office computing has evolved from the simple electronic typewriter to a sophisticated set of computer programs covering everything from word processing to graphic design. ... Ergonomics (from Greek ergon work and nomoi natural laws) is the study of designing objects to be better adapted to the shape of the human body and/or to correct the users posture. ... Photochromic lenses are lenses that darken on exposure to UV radiation. ...


Sunglass lenses are made from either glass or plastic. Plastic lenses are typically made from acrylic, polycarbonate, or CR-39. Glass lenses have the best optical clarity and scratch resistance, but are heavier than plastic lenses. They can also shatter or break on impact. Plastic lenses are lighter than glass lenses, but are more prone to scratching. They do however, offer more resistance to shattering than glass. Polycarbonate lenses are the lightest, and are also almost shatterproof, making them good for impact protection. CR-39 lenses are the most common plastic lenses, due to their low weight, high scratch resistance, low transparency for ultraviolet and infrared radiation, and other advantageous properties. This article is about the material. ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... Structure of methyl methacrylate, the monomer that makes up PMMA Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) or poly(methyl 2-methylpropenoate) is the synthetic polymer of methyl methacrylate. ... Polycarbonates are a particular group of thermoplastic polyesters. ... CR-39, or allyl diglycol polycarbonate, is a plastic polymer commonly used in the manufacture of eyeglass lenses. ...


For sunglasses that also include vision correction, see also corrective lens. A bifocal corrective eyeglasses lens A corrective lens is a lens worn on or before the eye, used to treat myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism, and presbyopia. ...


Frames

This sunglass-eyeshield uses a nylon half-frame and interchangeable lenses
This sunglass-eyeshield uses a nylon half-frame and interchangeable lenses

Frames are generally made from plastic, nylon, a metal or metal alloy. Nylon frames are usually used in sports because they are light weight and flexible. They are able to bend slightly and return to their original shape instead of breaking when pressure is applied to them. This flex can also help the glasses grip better on the wearer's face. Metal frames are usually more rigid than nylon frames thus they can be more easily damaged when participating in sporty activities, but this is not to say that they cannot be used for such activities. Because metal frames are more rigid, some models have spring loaded hinges to help them grip the wearer's face better. The end of the ear pieces and the bridge over the nose can be textured or have a rubber or plastic material to hold better. The end of the ear pieces are usually curved so that they wrap around the ear; however, some models have straight ear pieces. Oakley, for example, has straight ear pieces on all their glasses. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... For other uses of this word, see nylon (disambiguation). ... This article is about metallic materials. ... An alloy is a homogeneous hybrid of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ... For other uses, see Spring. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Oakley is a eyewear company, known mostly for their high end sunglasses and ski goggles. ...


Frames can be made to hold the lenses in several different ways. There are three common styles: full frame, half frame, and frameless. Full frame glasses have the frame go all around the lenses. Half frames go around only half the lens, typically the frames attach to the top of the lenses and on the side near the top. Frameless glasses have no frame around the lenses and the ear stems are attached directly to the lenses. There are two styles of frameless glasses: those that have a piece of frame material connecting the two lenses together, and those that are a single lens with ear stems on each side.


Some sports-oriented sunglasses have interchangeable lens options. Lenses can be easily removed and swapped with a different lens, usually a different colored lens. The purpose of this is to allow the wearer to easily change lenses when light conditions or activities change. The reason for this is because the cost of a set of lenses is less than the cost of a separate pair of glasses and carrying extra lenses is less bulky than carrying multiple pairs of glasses. It also allows easy replacement of a set of lenses if they are damaged. The most common type of sunglasses with interchangeable lenses have a single lens or shield that covers both eyes. Styles that use two lenses also exist, but are less common.


Nose Bridge

Nose bridges allow support between the lens and the face. Nose bridges also prevent pressure marks caused by the weight of the lens or frame on the cheeks. People with large noses may need a low nose bridge on their sunglasses. People with medium noses may need a low or medium nose bridge. People with small noses may need sunglasses with high nose bridges to allow clearance.


Fashion

Oversized sunglasses

A girl wearing oversized sunglasses
A girl wearing oversized sunglasses

Oversize sunglasses are often used for humorous purposes, and look like a pair of sunglasses that is extremely large for the face. They usually come in bright colors with colored lenses and can be purchased cheaply. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


Over recent years however, moderately oversized sunglasses have become a fashion trend. There are many variations, such as the 'Onassis', discussed below, and Dior white sunglasses.


Onassis glasses

Onassis glasses or "Jackie O's" are very large sunglasses worn by women. This style of sunglasses is said to kind mimic the kind most famously worn by Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis. While originally worn by Onassis in the 1960's, the glasses eventually became popular with younger American girls around the year 2003. Big sunglasses have maintained their popularity through 2007. They have also expanded their demographic reach to adult women throughout the world. Modern day celebrities use these to hide from paparazzi. “Jacqueline Bouvier” redirects here. ...


Mirrorshades

Main article: Mirrorshades

Mirrorshades are sunglasses with a mirrored coating on the surface. Their popularity with police officers in the United States has earned them the nickname "cop shades". The two most popular styles for these are dual lenses set in metal frames (which are often confused with Aviators), and "Wraparound" (a single, smooth, semi-circular lense that covers both eyes and much of the same area of the face covered by protective goggles, combined with a minimal plastic frame and single piece of plastic serving as a nosepick). Wraparound sunglasses are also quite popular in the world of extreme sports. Mirrorshades are sunglasses with a special coating on the outside of the lenses to make them appear like small mirrors, although the wearer just sees things in a brown or grey tinted point of view, usually. ... Extreme sports (now also known as action sports) is a general, somewhat hazily-defined term for a collection of newer sports involving adrenaline-inducing action. ...


Aviators

Ray-Ban Aviator sunglasses(RB3025 004/58)
Ray-Ban Aviator sunglasses
(RB3025 004/58)
Main article: Ray-Ban Aviator

Aviators are sunglasses with an oversized teardrop-shaped lens and thin metal frames. This design first appeared in 1936 by Ray Ban for issue to U.S. military aviators. Their popularity with pilots, military and law enforcement personnel in the United States has never wavered. As a fashion statement, models of aviator sunglasses are often made in mirrored, colored, degregated, and wrap-around styles. In addition to pilots, Aviator-style sunglasses gained popularity with young people in the late 1960's and continued to be very popular through the 70's and early 80's. Aviators again became popular in the first decade of the 2000's, along with renewed interest in retro-fashion. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 469 pixelsFull resolution (3500 × 2050 pixel, file size: 685 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 469 pixelsFull resolution (3500 × 2050 pixel, file size: 685 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Ray-Ban Aviator sunglasses (RB3025 004/58) Aviator sunglasses are a style of sunglasses that were developed by Ray-Ban in 1937. ... Ray-Ban Aviator sunglasses (RB3025 004/58) Aviator sunglasses are a style of sunglasses that were developed by Ray-Ban in 1937. ... Ray-Ban is a high-end manufacturer of sunglasses, founded in 1937[1] by Bausch & Lomb, on commission of the United States Air Force. ... For other uses, see Aviator (disambiguation). ... Aviators are people who fly aircraft either for pleasure or for a job. ...


Wayfarers

Main article: Ray-Ban Wayfarer

First introduced by Ray-Ban, the Wayfarer design popularized since the 1950s by Hollywood celebrities such as James Dean is thought to be the bestselling sunglasses design to date[citation needed]. Ray-Ban Wayfarer sunglasses (RB2132 901L) The Ray-Ban Wayfarer is an iconic design of sunglasses manufactured by Ray-Ban since 1952. ... Ray-Ban Wayfarer sunglasses (RB2132 901L) The Ray-Ban Wayfarer is an iconic design of sunglasses manufactured by Ray-Ban since 1952. ...


Teashades

Teashade sunglasses

'Teashades' (sometimes also called '"John Lennon glasses" or "Ozzy Glasses", after Ozzy Osbourne') were a type of Psychedelic art wire-rim sunglasses that were often worn, usually for purely aesthetic reasons, by members of the 60's drug counterculture, as well as by opponents of segregation. Rockstars such as Mick Jagger, John Lennon, Ozzy Osbourne, and Janis Joplin all wore teashades. The original teashade design was made up of medium-sized, perfectly round lenses, supported by pads on the bridge of the nose and a thin wire frame. When teashades became popular in the late 1960's, they were often elaborated; lenses were elaborately colored, mirrored, and degregated, and often of excessively large size, and the wire earpieces were sometimes exaggerated. A uniquely-colored or darkened glass lens was usually preferred. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... John Winston Ono Lennon, MBE (October 9, 1940 – December 8, 1980), (born John Winston Lennon, known as John Ono Lennon) was an iconic English 20th century rock and roll songwriter and singer, best known as the founding member of The Beatles. ...


The term has now fallen into disuse, although references can still be found in literature of the time. Teashades are briefly referenced during a police training seminar in Hunter S. Thompson's Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas. Hunter Stockton Thompson (July 18, 1937 – February 20, 2005) was an American journalist and author. ... The hard cover version of the book. ...


Glacier Glasses

Sunglasses with round lenses and leather blinders that protect the eyes by blocking the sun's rays around the edges of the lenses. Because they provide extra protection from bright sun and light reflected by snow and ice, they are often used when traveling across glaciers or snowfields.


History

Precursors

It is said that the Roman emperor Nero Rushawa liked to watch gladiator fights with emeralds. These, however, appear to have worked rather like mirrors.[10] Flat panes of Smoky quartz which offered no corrective powers but did protect the eyes from glare were used in China in the 12th century or possibly earlier. Contemporary documents describe the use of such crystals by judges in Chinese courts to conceal their facial expressions while questioning witnesses.[11] For other uses, see Gladiator (disambiguation). ... For other things of this name, see Emerald (disambiguation). ... Categories: Mineral stubs | Minerals | Quartz varieties ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... A trial at the Old Bailey in London as drawn by Thomas Rowlandson and Augustus Pugin for Ackermanns Microcosm of London (1808-11). ...


James Ayscough began experimenting with tinted lenses in spectacles in the mid-18th century. These were not "sunglasses" as such; Ayscough believed blue- or green-tinted glass could correct for specific vision impairments. Protection from the sun's rays was not a concern of his. James Ayscough (?-1759) was an English designer and maker of scientific instruments. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...


Modern developments

In the early 1900s, the use of sunglasses started to become more widespread, especially among the pioneering stars of silent movies. But early movie stars did not wear sunglasses as much to avoid being recognized than to protect their eyes from the harshly bright lighting of some early film studios, often taking their sunglasses off only when stepping in front of the camera to shoot a scene.


Inexpensive mass-produced sunglasses were introduced to America by Sam Foster in 1929. Foster found a ready market on the beaches of Atlantic City, New Jersey, where he began selling sunglasses under the name Foster Grant from a Woolworth on the Boardwalk. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Beach (disambiguation). ... Atlantic City redirects here. ... Foster Grant, or FosterGrant, is a brand of eyewear founded by Sam Foster in 1919. ... Foot Locker Inc NYSE: FL (formerly Z) is a United States company specialising in athletic footwear and clothing. ...


Sunglasses first became polarized in 1936, when Edwin H. Land began experimenting with making lenses with his patented Polaroid filter. This article treats polarization in electrodynamics. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Polaroid is the name of a type of synthetic plastic sheet which is used to polarise light. ...


In 2004, Oakley developed Thump, sunglasses with built-in digital audio player. This design has been copied by a number of smaller companies. Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Oakley is a eyewear company, known mostly for their high end sunglasses and ski goggles. ... Apple iPod, the best-selling hard drive-based player An embedded hard drive-based player (Creative ZEN Vision:M) An MP3 CD player (Philips Expanium) More commonly referred to as an MP3 player, a digital audio player or DAP is a portable, handheld digital music player that stores, organizes and...


Other names for sunglasses

There are also various words referring to eyepieces with darkened lenses:

  • Glares is a term popular in India if the glass is dark. If it is light then Coolers
  • Sun spectacles is a term used by some opticians.
  • Spekkies is a term used predominantly in southern Australia.
  • Sun specs (also sunspecs) is the shortened form of the above term.
  • Sunglasses is a term in common usage in Britain and North America, and it is also used when preceded by "pair of".
  • Sun-shades can also refer to the sun-shading eyepiece-type, although the term is not exclusive to these. Also in use is the derivative abbreviation, shades.
  • Dark glasses (also preceded by pair of) - generic term in common usage.
  • Sunnies is Australian and New Zealand Slang
  • Specs is a common name for sunglasses in North America.
  • Smoked spectacles usually refers to the darkened eyepieces worn by blind people.
  • Solar Shields Usually refers to the models of sunglasses with large lenses.
  • Stunna shades
  • Shades
  • Hater blockers
  • Locs (also maddoggers) is a term for very dark lensed sunglasses.
  • Cheaters

This article is about the visual condition. ...

References

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Sunglasses
  1. ^ Sakamoto Y, Sasaki K, Kojima M, Sasaki H, Sakamoto A, Sakai M, Tatami A. "The effects of protective eyewear on glare and crystalline lens transparency. Dev Ophthalmol. 2002;35:93-103. PMID 12061282.
  2. ^ a b Cancer Council Australia; Centre for Eye Research Australia.http://www.cancer.org.au/documents/Pos_St_Eye_Protection_AUG05.pdf "Position Statement: Eye Protection"]
  3. ^ Leow YH, Tham SN. "UV-protective sunglasses for UVA irradiation protection." Int J Dermatol. 1995 Nov;34(11):808-10. PMID 8543419.
  4. ^ http://www.accc.gov.au/content/index.phtml/itemId/614116/fromItemId/692835
  5. ^ [http://wcbstv.com/seenon/local_story_100210432.html
  6. ^ Glazer-Hockstein C, Dunaief JL. "Could blue light-blocking lenses decrease the risk of age-related macular degeneration?" Retina. 2006 Jan;26(1):1-4. PMID 16395131
  7. ^ Margrain TH, Boulton M, Marshall J, Sliney DH. "Do blue light filters confer protection against age-related macular degeneration?" Prog Retin Eye Res. 2004 Sep;23(5):523-31. PMID 15302349
  8. ^ http://www.optometrists.asn.au/ceo/backissues/vol86/no2/2040
  9. ^ American Academy of Ophthalmology. "Information from Your Eye M.D.: Sunglasses." November 2003.
  10. ^ Pliny the Elder, The Natural History, Book XXXVII, Ch. 16
  11. ^ Ament, Phil (2006-12-04). Sunglasses History - The Invention of Sunglasses. The Great Idea Finder. Vaunt Design Group. Retrieved on 2007-06-28.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Sunglasses - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2567 words)
Sunglasses have also been associated with celebrities and film actors primarily due to the desire to mask identity, but in part due to the lighting involved in production being typically stronger than natural light and uncomfortable to the naked eye.
Sunglasses may be especially important for children, as their ocular lenses are thought to transmit far more HEV light than adults (lenses "yellow" with age).
Mirrorshades are sunglasses with a mirrored coating on the surface.
VisionWeb (1103 words)
Sunglasses (eyeglasses with tinted lenses) have three purposes: increasing comfort, improving visibility and protecting the eyes.
Sunglasses reduce glare and brightness, whether from the sun directly or from water, snow, sand or reflective surfaces.
Sunglasses that are not treated for UV light may actually be detrimental to the eyes.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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