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Encyclopedia > Sunga Empire
Sunga Empire

Approximate greatest extent of the Sunga empire (circa 185 BCE).
Languages Pali
Religions Hinduism
Capital Pataliputra
Area Indian subcontinent
Existed 185 –73 BCE

The Sunga Empire (or Shunga Empire) is a Magadha dynasty that controlled North-central and Eastern India from around 185 to 73 BCE. It was established after the fall of the Indian Mauryan empire. The capital of the Sungas was Pataliputra. Later kings such as Bhagabhadra also held court at Vidisa, modern Besnagar in Eastern Malwa. [1] The Sunga Empire is noted for its numerous wars with both foreign and indigenous powers. Although very much isn't known, the Mathura school of art and the works of Patanjali colored North India during this empire. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 500 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1202 × 1440 pixel, file size: 322 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Map of the Sunga Empire. ... For other uses, see number 185. ... Pali may refer to: Pāli, a Middle Indo-Aryan language Pali, Rajasthan, a town and district in Rajasthan, western India Pali, a Hawaiian word, meaning cliffs Nuuanu Pali, a region on the Hawaiian island of Oahu Ballaleshwar Pali, the Ganapati temple of pali and place in Maharastra This is... Hinduism (known as in some modern Indian languages[1]) is a religion that originated on the Indian subcontinent. ... This article is about a city that serves as a center of government and politics. ... ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... (Redirected from 185 BCE) Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC - 180s BC - 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC Years: 190 BC 189 BC 188 BC 187 BC 186 BC - 185 BC... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC Years: 78 BC 77 BC 76 BC 75 BC 74 BC - 73 BC - 72 BC 71 BC 70... The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The Lion Capital of Asoka, erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India. ... ... Bhagabhadra was one of the kings of the Indian Sunga dynasty. ... Massive carving depicting Vishnu, in his Varaha (Boar) incarnation at cave No. ... Vidisha or Besnagar is a city in Madhya Pradesh state of central India. ... Malwa (Malvi:माळवा) is a region in western India occupying a plateau of volcanic origin in the western part of Madhya Pradesh state and the south-eastern part of Rajasthan. ... Mathura   (Hindi: मथुरा, Urdu: متھرا) is a holy city in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India, located approximately 50 km north of Agra, and 150 km south of Delhi. ... Patañjali, is the compiler of the Yoga Sutra, a major work containing aphorisms on the practical and philosophical wisdom regarding practice of Raja yoga. ...

Contents

Origins

Balustrade-holding Yaksa, Madhya Pradesh (?), Sunga period (2nd-1st century BCE). Musee Guimet.
Balustrade-holding Yaksa, Madhya Pradesh (?), Sunga period (2nd-1st century BCE). Musee Guimet.

The Sunga dynasty was established in 185 BCE, about 50 years after Ashoka's death, when the king Brhadrata, the last of the Mauryan rulers, was assassinated by the then commander-in-chief of the Mauryan armed forces, Pusyamitra Sunga [2], while he was taking the Guard of Honour of his forces. Pusyamitra Sunga then ascended the throne. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1015x1584, 445 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Greco-Buddhist art Sunga Empire Yaksha ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1015x1584, 445 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Greco-Buddhist art Sunga Empire Yaksha ... Categories: Mythology stubs | Buddhism-related stubs ... Madhya PradeÅ›   (HindÄ«: मध्य प्रदेश, English: , IPA: ), often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. ... Guimet in his museum. ... The Sunga dynasty ruled the Sunga empire of central and eastern India from 185 BCE to around 73 BCE. The last ruler of the Mauryan dynasty was Brithadratha. ... (Redirected from 185 BCE) Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC - 180s BC - 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC Years: 190 BC 189 BC 188 BC 187 BC 186 BC - 185 BC... Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Dasaratha Maurya Reign: 273 BC-232 BC Place of birth: Pataliputra, India Battles/Wars Kalinga War Emperor Ashoka the Great (Devanagari: अशोक(:); IAST transliteration: , pronunciation: ) (304 BC–232 BC) (Imperial Title:Devanampiya Piyadassi ie He who is the beloved of the Gods who, in... Brhadrata was the last ruler of the Indian Mauryan dynasty. ... The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The Mauryan empire was Indias first great unified empire. ... Pusyamitra Sunga (also Pushyamitra Shunga) was the founder of the Indian Sunga dynasty (185-78 BCE). ...


Pushyamitra Sunga became the ruler of the Magadha and neighbouring territories. The kingdom of Pushyamitra was extended up to Narmada in the south, and controlled Jalandhar and Sialkot in the Punjab in the north-western regions. The Kabul Valley and much of the Punjab passed into the hands of the Indo-Greeks and the Deccan to the Satavahanas. Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... The Narmada or Nerbudda is a river in central India. ... For the Jalandhar meteorite of 1621, see meteorite falls. ... Sialkot (Urdu/Punjabi: سیالکوٹ ) is a city in the northern province of Punjab in Pakistan, located 130 kilometer north-west of Lahore; at the feet of the snow-covered peaks of Kashmir and near the Chenab river. ... Maximum extent of Indo-Greek territory circa 175 BCE. The Indo-Greeks (or sometimes Greco-Indians) designate a series of Greek kings, who invaded and controlled parts of northwest and northern India from 180 BCE to around 10 BCE. They are the continuation of the Greco-Bactrian dynasty of Greek... The Deccan Plateau is a vast plateau in India, encompassing most of Central and Southern India. ... Approximate extent of the Satavahana Empire, circa 150 CE. The Sātavāhanas, also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled in Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates...


Pushyamitra died after ruling for 36 years (187-151 BCE). He was succeeded by son Agnimitra. This prince is the hero of a famous drama by one of India's greatest playwrights, Kalidasa. Agnimitra was viceroy of Vidisha when the story takes place. The power of the Sungas gradually weakened. It is said that there were ten Sunga kings. Agnimitra was the second king of the Sunga dynasty, and the son of Pusyamitra Sunga, whom he succeeded in 151 BCE. Category: ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The Sungas were succeeded by the Kanva dynasty around 73 BCE. The Kanva dynasty replaced the Sunga dynasty, and ruled in the eastern part of India from 71 BCE to 26 BCE. The last ruler of the Sunga dynasty was overthrown by Vasudeva of the Kanva dynasty in 75 BC. The Kanva ruler allowed the kings of the Sunga dynasty to... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC Years: 78 BC 77 BC 76 BC 75 BC 74 BC - 73 BC - 72 BC 71 BC 70...


Buddhism

Main article: Pusyamitra Sunga
See also: Decline of Buddhism in India

Following the Mauryans, the first Hindu king was Pusyamitra Sunga, who is frequently linked by neo-Buddhist propagandaists in tradition with the persecution of Buddhists and a resurgence of Hinduism that forced Buddhism outwards to Kashmir, Gandhara and Bactria.[3] However, there is doubt as to whether he did persecute Buddhists actively.[3] According to the 2nd century Ashokavadana: Pusyamitra Sunga (also Pushyamitra Shunga) was the founder of the Indian Sunga dynasty (185-78 BCE). ... Buddhism was initially established in India and it flourished there during the early phases of its history. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Pusyamitra Sunga (also Pushyamitra Shunga) was the founder of the Indian Sunga dynasty (185-78 BCE). ... Hinduism (known as in some modern Indian languages[1]) is a religion that originated on the Indian subcontinent. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... The Ashokavadana (Sanskrit: अशॊकवदन, Narrative of Ashoka) is a 2nd century CE document related to the legend of the Maurya emperor Ashoka. ...

"Then King Pusyamitra equipped a fourfold army, and intending to destroy the Buddhist religion, he went to the Kukkutarama. (...) Pusyamitra therefore destroyed the sangharama, killed the monks there, and departed.
After some time, he arrived in Sakala, and proclaimed that he would give a hundred dinara reward to whomever brought him the head of a Buddhist monk" (Shramanas) Ashokavadana, 133, trans. John Strong.

Later Sunga kings were seen as amenable to Buddhism and as having contributed to the building of the stupa at Bharhut.[4] another name for Guan Gong when he died. ... Sagala, today Sialkot, was a city of northern Pakistan in the Punjab region. ... A (Sanskrit) or (Pāli) is a wandering monk in certain ascetic traditions of ancient India, including: Jainism Buddhism Ājīvika religion (now extinct) Mahavira, the 24th Jina, and Gautama Buddha were leaders of their shramana orders. ... The Ashokavadana (Sanskrit: अशॊकवदन, Narrative of Ashoka) is a 2nd century CE document related to the legend of the Maurya emperor Ashoka. ... Indian relief of probable Indo-Greek king, with Buddhist triratana symbol on his sword. ...


Wars of the Sungas

Indian relief of probable Indo-Greek king, with Buddhist triratana symbol on his sword. Barhut, Sunga period, 2nd century BCE. Indian Museum, Calcutta (drawing).
Indian relief of probable Indo-Greek king, with Buddhist triratana symbol on his sword. Barhut, Sunga period, 2nd century BCE. Indian Museum, Calcutta (drawing).

War and conflict characterized the Sunga period. They are known to have warred with the Kalingas, Satavahanas, the Indo-Greeks, and possibly the Panchalas and Mathuras. Probable Indo-Greek king, Bharhut, 2nd century BCE. Personal drawing, released under GDFL. Photo of the same relief: [1] Boardman comments on this relief: (Boardman, The Diffusion of Classical Art in Antiquity) File links The following pages link to this file: Indo-Greek Kingdom Categories: GFDL images ... Probable Indo-Greek king, Bharhut, 2nd century BCE. Personal drawing, released under GDFL. Photo of the same relief: [1] Boardman comments on this relief: (Boardman, The Diffusion of Classical Art in Antiquity) File links The following pages link to this file: Indo-Greek Kingdom Categories: GFDL images ... The Triratna or Three Jewels symbol, on a Buddha footprint. ... Indian relief of probable Indo-Greek king, with Buddhist triratana symbol on his sword. ... The Indian Museum was founded by Dr. Nathaniel Wallich a Danish botanist at Serampore (original called Frederischnagore) near Calcutta in 1814. ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ...


The Sunga Empire's wars with the Indo-Greek Kingdom figure greatly in the history of this period. From around 180 BCE the Greco-Bactrian ruler Demetrius, conquered the Kabul Valley and is theorized to have advanced into the trans-Indus. The Indo Greek Menander is credited with either joining or leading a campaign to Pataliputra with other Indian Kings; however, very little is know about the exact nature and success of the campaign. The net result of these wars remains uncertain. (Redirected from 180 BCE) Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC - 180s BC - 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 185 BC 184 BC 183 BC 182 BC 181 BC - 180 BC... Approximate extent of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom circa 220 BCE. The Greco-Bactrians were a dynasty of Greek kings who controlled Bactria and Sogdiana, an area comprising todays northern Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia, the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world, from 250 to 125 BCE. Their expansion... Silver tetradrachm depicting the Greco-Bactrian king Demetrius (r. ...


Some interpretations of the Mahabharata and Yuga Purana have attempted to account for this:


The Anushasanaparava of the Mahabharata affirms that the city of Mathura was under the joint control of the Yavanas and the Kambojas.[5] Manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra The (Devanagari: ) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the . ... Kambojas are a very ancient people of north-western parts of ancient Indian subcontinent and what is now Afghanistan, frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ...


Also the Hindu text of the Yuga Purana, which describes Indian historical events in the form of a prophecy,[6] relates the attack of the Indo-Greeks on the capital Pataliputra, a magnificent fortified city with 570 towers and 64 gates according to Megasthenes,[7] and describes the ultimate destruction of the city's walls: Mitcheners translation of the Yuga Purana. ... Megasthenes (c. ...

"Then, after having approached Saketa together with the Panchalas and the Mathuras, the Yavanas, valiant in battle, will reach Kusumadhvaja ("The town of the flower-standard", Pataliputra). Then, once Puspapura (another name of Pataliputra) has been reached and its celebrated mud[-walls] cast down, all the realm will be in disorder." (Yuga Purana, Paragraph 47-48, 2002 edition.)
Bronze coin of the Sunga period, Eastern India. 2nd-1st century BCE.
Bronze coin of the Sunga period, Eastern India. 2nd-1st century BCE.

Pushyamitra is recorded to have performed two Ashvamedha Yagnas and Sunga imperial inscriptions have extended as far as Jalandhar. Scriptures such as the Divyavadhana note that his rule extended even farther to Sialkot, in the Punjab. Moreover, if it was lost, Mathura was regained by the Sungas around 100 BCE (or by other indigenous rulers: the Arjunayanas (area of Mathura) and Yaudheyas mention military victories on their coins ("Victory of the Arjunayanas", "Victory of the Yaudheyas"), and during the 1st century BCE, the Trigartas, Audumbaras and finally the Kunindas also started to mint their own coins). Accounts of battles between the Greeks and the Sunga in Northwestern India are also found in the Mālavikāgnimitram, a play by Kālidāsa which describes a battle between Greek cavalrymen and Vasumitra, the grandson of Pushyamitra, on the Indus river, in which the Indians defeated the Greeks and Pushyamitra successfully completed the Ashvamedha Yagna.[8] Ayodhya (अयोध्या) is an ancient city of India, the old capital of Awadh, in the Faizabad district of Uttar Pradesh. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Panchala Kingdom. ... Mathura   (Hindi: मथुरा, Urdu: متھرا) is a holy city in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India, located approximately 50 km north of Agra, and 150 km south of Delhi. ... ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 368 pixelsFull resolution (2080 × 958 pixel, file size: 350 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Bronze coin of the Sunga period, Eastern India. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 368 pixelsFull resolution (2080 × 958 pixel, file size: 350 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Bronze coin of the Sunga period, Eastern India. ... The Arjunayanas, also Arjunakas and Prarjunas were a tribe of northern India around the area of Mathura. ... Coin of the Yaudheyas. ... The Audumbras, or Audumbaras were a north Indian tribal nation east of the Punjab, in the Western Himalaya region. ... Silver coin of the Kuninda Kingdom, c. ... Mālavikāgnimitram is a Sanskrit play by Kālidāsa. ... Kālidāsa (DevanāgarÄ«: कालिदास) was a Sanskrit poet and dramatist, his title Kavikulaguru (Preceptor of All Poets) bearing testimony to his stature. ... Pusyamitra Sunga (also Pushyamitra Shunga) was the founder of the Indian Sunga dynasty (185-78 BCE). ...


Nevertheless, very little can be said with great certainty. However, what does appear clear is that the two realms appeared to have established normalized diplomatic relations in the succeeding reigns of their respective rulers.


The Indo-Greeks and the Sungas seem to have reconciled and exchanged diplomatic missions around 110 BCE, as indicated by the Heliodorus pillar, which records the dispatch of a Greek ambassador named Heliodorus, from the court of the Indo-Greek king Antialcidas, to the court of the Sunga king Bhagabhadra at the site of Vidisha in central India. (Redirected from 110 BCE) Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC - 110s BC - 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC Years: 115 BC 114 BC 113 BC 112 BC 111 BC - 110 BC... The Heliodorus pillar was erected around 110 BCE in central India at the site of Vidisha, by Heliodorus, a Greek ambassador of the Indo-Greek king Antialcidas to the court of the Sunga king Bhagabhadra. ... Several persons named Heliodorus are known to us from ancient times, the best known of which is Heliodorus of Emesa, author of the novel Aethiopica. ... Maximum extent of Indo-Greek territory circa 175 BCE. The Indo-Greeks (or sometimes Greco-Indians) designate a series of Greek kings, who invaded and controlled parts of northwest and northern India from 180 BCE to around 10 BCE. They are the continuation of the Greco-Bactrian dynasty of Greek... Silver tetradrachm of King Antialcidas (r. ... Approximate greatest extent of the Sunga empire (185 BCE-73 BCE) For other uses of the term Sunga see Sunga (disambiguation) The Sunga empire (or Shunga empire) controlled the eastern part of India from around 185 to 73 BCE. It was established after the fall of the Indian Mauryan empire. ... Bhagabhadra was one of the kings of the Indian Sunga dynasty. ... Vidisha or Besnagar or old name Bhelsa is a city in Madhya Pradesh,near its capital Bhopal, state of central India. ...


Cultural Contributions

A relief from Barhut.
A relief from Barhut.

While there is much debate on the religious politics of the Sunga dynasty, it is recognized for a number of contributions. Art, education, philosophy, and other learning flowered during this period. Most notably, Patanjali's Yoga Sutras and Mahabhasya were composed in this period. It is also noted for its subsequent mention in the Malavikaagnimitra. This work was composed by Kalidasa in the later Gupta period, and romanticized the love of Malavika and King Agnimitra, with a background of court intrigue. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 421 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (748 × 1065 pixel, file size: 881 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Relief from Barhut. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 421 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (748 × 1065 pixel, file size: 881 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Relief from Barhut. ... Indian relief of probable Indo-Greek king, with Buddhist triratana symbol on his sword. ...


Artistry on the subcontinent also progressed with the rise of the Mathura school, which is considered the indigenous counterpart to the more hellenistic Gandhara school of Afghanistan and Pakistan.


During the historical Sunga period (185 to 73 BCE), Buddhist activity also managed to survive somewhat in central India (Madhya Pradesh) as suggested by some architectural expansions that were done at the stupas of Sanchi and Barhut, originally started under King Ashoka. It remains uncertain whether these works were due to the weakness of the control of the Sungas in these areas, or a sign of tolerance on their part. (Redirected from 185 BCE) Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC - 180s BC - 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC Years: 190 BC 189 BC 188 BC 187 BC 186 BC - 185 BC... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC Years: 78 BC 77 BC 76 BC 75 BC 74 BC - 73 BC - 72 BC 71 BC 70... Madhya PradeÅ›   (HindÄ«: मध्य प्रदेश, English: , IPA: ), often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. ... Stupa at Samye Ling Monastery, Scotland A stupa (from the Sanskrit) is a type of Buddhist structure found across the Indian subcontinent, Asia and increasingly in the Western World. ... Sanchi is a small village of India, located 46 km north east of Bhopal, in the central part of the state of Madhya Pradesh. ... Indian relief of probable Indo-Greek king, with Buddhist triratana symbol on his sword. ...


The last of the Sunga kings was Devabhuti (83-73 BCE). He was assassinated by his minister (Vasudeva Kanva) and is said to have been overfond of the company of women. The Sunga dynasty was then replaced by the subsequent Kanvas. Sunga masculine figure. ... The Kanva dynasty replaced the Sunga dynasty, and ruled in the eastern part of India from 71 BCE to 26 BCE. The last ruler of the Sunga dynasty was overthrown by Vasudeva of the Kanva dynasty in 75 BC. The Kanva ruler allowed the kings of the Sunga dynasty to...

Script

The script used by the Sunga was a variant of Brahmi, and was used to write the Sanskrit language. The script is thought to be an intermediary between the Maurya and the Kalinga brahmi scripts.[9] BrāhmÄ« refers to the pre-modern members of the Brahmic family of scripts, attested from the 3rd century BC. The best known and earliest dated inscriptions in Brahmi are the rock-cut edicts of Ashoka. ... Chandragupta Maurya (ruled 322–298 BC), known to the Greeks as Sandracottus, was the first emperor of the Mauryan empire. ... Kalinga is a landlocked province of the Philippines in the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon. ...


List of Sunga kings

Preceded by
Maurya dynasty
Magadha dynasties Succeeded by
Kanva dynasty

Pusyamitra Sunga (also Pushyamitra Shunga) was the founder of the Indian Sunga dynasty (185-78 BCE). ... Agnimitra was the second king of the Sunga dynasty, and the son of Pusyamitra Sunga, whom he succeeded in 151 BCE. Category: ... Vasujyetha (or Vasumitra) was the third in the line of Sunga Kings who ruled much of Northern India. ... Vasumitra or Sumitra (as per d manuscript of Matsya Purana) (131 - 124 BCE) was the fourth Sunga ruler. ... Ghosha (Sanskrit: गॊश) was an ancient Indian female philosopher. ... Bhagabhadra was one of the kings of the Indian Sunga dynasty. ... Sunga masculine figure. ... A representation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka, which was erected around 250 BC. It is the emblem of India. ... Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... The Kanva dynasty replaced the Sunga dynasty, and ruled in the eastern part of India from 71 BCE to 26 BCE. The last ruler of the Sunga dynasty was overthrown by Vasudeva of the Kanva dynasty in 75 BC. The Kanva ruler allowed the kings of the Sunga dynasty to...

Notes

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ "Pusyamitra is said in the Puranas to have been the senānī or army-commander of the last Maurya king Brhadratha" The Yuga Purana, Mitchener, 2002.
  3. ^ a b Sarvastivada pg 38-39
  4. ^ Akira Hirakawa, Paul Groner, "A History of Indian Buddhism: From Sakyamuni to Early Mahayana", Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 1996, ISBN 8120809556 pg 223
  5. ^ "tatha Yavana Kamboja Mathuram.abhitash cha ye./ ete ashava.yuddha.kushaladasinatyasi charminah."//5 — (MBH 12/105/5, Kumbhakonam Ed)
  6. ^ "For any scholar engaged in the study of the presence of the Indo-Greeks or Indo-Scythians before the Christian Era, the Yuga Purana is an important source material" Dilip Coomer Ghose, General Secretary, The Asiatic Society, Kolkata, 2002
  7. ^ "The greatest city in India is that which is called Palimbothra, in the dominions of the Prasians [...] Megasthenes informs us that this city stretched in the inhabited quarters to an extreme length on each side of eighty stadia, and that its breadth was fifteen stadia, and that a ditch encompassed it all round, which was six hundred feet in breadth and thirty cubits in depth, and that the wall was crowned with 570 towers and had four-and-sixty gates." Arr. Ind. 10. "Of Pataliputra and the Manners of the Indians.", quoting Megasthenes Text
  8. ^ "Indo-Greek, Indo-Scythian and Indo-Parthian coins in the Smithsonian institution", Bopearachchi, p16. Also: "Kalidasa recounts in his Mālavikāgnimitra (5.15.14-24) that Puspamitra appointed his grandson Vasumitra to guard his sacrificial horse, which wandered on the right bank of the Sindhu river and was seized by Yavana cavalrymen- the latter being thereafter defeated by Vasumitra. The "Sindhu" referred to in this context may refer the river Indus: but such an extension of Sunga power seems unlikely, and it is more probable that it denotes one of two rivers in central India -either the Sindhu river which is a tributary of the Yamuna, or the Kali-Sindhu river which is a tributary of the Chambal." The Yuga Purana, Mitchener, 2002.
  9. ^ Source

The Asiatic Society was founded by Sir William Jones (1746-1794) on 15 January 1784 in Calcutta, the capital of British India, to enhance and further the cause of Oriental research. ...   (IPA: [] Bengali: কলকাতা) (formerly  ) is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. ... Monnaies Gréco-Bactriennes et Indo-Grecques, by Osmund Bopearachchi, 1991. ... Pusyamitra Sunga (also Pushyamitra Shunga) was the founder of the Indian Sunga dynasty (185-78 BCE). ... Satellite image of the Indus River basin. ... Not to be confused with Jamuna River. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

References

  • "The Legend of King Asoka, A study and translation of the Asokavadana", John Strong, Princeton Library of Asian translations, 1983, ISBN 0-691-01459-0

See also

History of Buddhism
History of India
Greco-Buddhism
The History of Buddhism spans from the 6th century BCE to the present, starting with the birth of the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama. ... The archaeological record in India (encompassing the territory of the modern nations of the Republic of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh) shows first traces of Homo sapiens from ca. ... The Buddha, in Greco-Buddhist style, 1st-2nd century CE, Gandhara. ...


References

  • "Dictionary of Buddhism" by Damien KEOWN (Oxford University Press, 2003) ISBN 0-19-860560-9
  • "Ashoka and the decline of the Mauryas" Romila Thaper (London 1961).
  • "The Yuga Purana", John E. Mitchiner, Kolkata, The Asiatic Society, 2002, ISBN 81-7236-124-6

  (IPA: [] Bengali: কলকাতা) (formerly  ) is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. ...

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10th century
11th century Middle kingdoms of India refers to the political entities in India from the 6th century BCE through to the Islamic invasions and the related Decline of Buddhism from the 7th century CE. // Kingdoms and Empires The Aryans had invaded India from the Northwest, according to the Aryan Invasion Theory, and...





Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... Shishunaga dynasty of north India ruled the Magadhan Empire from 684 BCE to 424 BCE. Its dynastic succession was: Shishunaga (ruled from around 684 BCE) Kakavarna Kshemadharman Kshatraujas Bimbisara 544 BCE - 491 BCE Ajatashatru 491 BCE - 461 BCE Darshaka Udayin Nandivardhana Mahanandin Mahavira and Gautama Buddha lived during the period... Nanda dynasty is said to be established by an illegitimate son of the king Mahanandin of the previous Shishunaga dynasty. ... Kalinga in 265 B.C. Kalinga was an ancient Indo-Aryan kingdom of central-eastern India, in the province of Orissa. ... A representation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka, which was erected around 250 BC. It is the emblem of India. ... Silver coin of the Kuninda Kingdom, c. ...




The Gupta Empire under Chandragupta II (ruled 375-415) The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in ancient India. ...







Buddha and Bodhisattvas, 11th century, Pala Empire. ... For the English cricketer, See Vikram Solanki The Solanki or Chalukya is a Hindu Gurjar,Rajput dynasty of India, who ruled the kingdom of Gujarat from the 10th to the 13th centuries. ... The Sena dynasty ruled Bengal through the 11th and 12th centuries. ... The Pandyan kingdom பாண்டியர் was an ancient Tamil state in South India of unknown antiquity. ... The Chola Dynasty (Tamil: , IPA: ) was a Tamil dynasty that ruled primarily in southern India until the 13th century. ... The Chera dynasty (Tamil: சேரர் Malayalam: േചര ) were one of the ancient Tamil dynasties who ruled the southern India from ancient times until around the fifteenth century CE. The Early Cheras ruled over the Malabar Coast, Coimbatore, Karur and Salem Districts in South India, which now forms part of the modern day... The Sātavāhanas (Marathi:सातवाहन Telugu:సాతవాహనులు), also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled from Junnar, Pune over Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates suggest that it lasted...

(Persian rule)
(Greek conquests)


Kalabhras were the South Indian dynasty who between the 3rd and the 6th century C.E. ruled over entire Tamil country, displacing the ancient Chola, Pandya and Chera dynasties. ... The Pallava kingdom (Tamil: பல்லவர்) was an ancient South Indian kingdom. ... Virupaksha temple, Pattadakal, built 740 Badami Chalukya Territories in the reign of Pulakesi II, 640 The Chalukya dynasty (Sanskrit/Marathi[1]:चालुक्य राजवंश,Kannada:ಚಾಲುಕ್ಯರು) IPA: ) was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries. ... Jain cave in Ellora The Rastrakutas (Sanskrit/Maharashtri Prakrit [1]/Marathi[2][3]:राष्ट्रकूट, Kannada: ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಕೂಟ) were a dynasty which ruled the southern and the central parts or the Deccan, India during the 8th - 10th century. ... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... The Achaemenid Empire (Old Persian: Hakhāmanishiya, هخامنشیان also frequently, the Achaemenid Persian Empire.) (559 BC–330 BC) was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of Greater Iran. ... In ancient times, trade between India and Greece flourished with silk, spices and gold being traded. ...

  • Indo-Greeks



(Islamic invasions)
The Indo-Greek Kingdom (or sometimes Graeco-Indian Kingdom[1]) covered various parts of the northwest and northern Indian subcontinent from 180 BCE to around 10 CE, and was ruled by a succession of more than thirty Hellenistic kings,[2] often in conflict with each other. ... The Indo-Scythians are a branch of the Indo-Iranian Sakas (Scythians), who migrated from southern Siberia into Bactria, Sogdiana, Arachosia, Gandhara, Kashmir, Punjab, and into parts of Western and Central India, Gujarat and Rajasthan, from the middle of the 2nd century BCE to the 1st century BCE. The first... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 CE), first and greatest king of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... The Western Satraps, or Western Kshatrapas (35-405) were Saka rulers of the western and central part of India (Saurashtra and Malwa: modern Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh states). ... Coin of the Indo-Sassanid kushansha Varhran I (early 4th century). ... Coin of Kidara (reigned circa 360-380 CE), founder of the Kidarite Kingdom Obv: King Kidara standing. ... Billon drachm of the Hephthalite King Napki Malka (Afghanistan/ Gandhara, c. ... The Muslim conquest of the Indian subcontinent took place during the ascendancy of the Rajput Kingdoms in North India, during the 7th to the 12th centuries. ...

(Islamic empires) Coin of the Shahi king Spalapati Deva, circa 750-900. ... During the middle ages, several Islamic regimes established empires in South Asia. ...



  Results from FactBites:
 
US Bazaar.com : Encyclopedia Pages : Sunga dynasty (1331 words)
The capital of the Sungas was at Pataliputra.
Pushyamitra Sunga became the ruler of the Magadha and neighbouring territories.
Accounts of battles between the Greeks and the Sunga in Northwestern India are also found in the Mālavikāgnimitram, a play by Kālidāsa which describes a battle between a group of Greek cavalrymen and Vasumitra, the grandson of Pushyamitra, during the latter's reign, in which the Indians repelled the Greeks.
Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Sunga Empire (1105 words)
The Sunga dynasty was established in 185 BCE, about 50 years after Ashoka's death, when the king Brhadrata, the last of the Mauryan rulers, was assassinated by the then commander-in-chief of the Mauryan armed forces, Pusyamitra Sunga, while he was taking the Guard of Honour of his forces.
Pusyamitra Sunga, a Brahmin, is believed by Buddhist scholars to have been hostile towards Buddhists and allegedly persecuted the Buddhist faith.
Accounts of battles between the Greeks and the Sunga in Central India are also found in the Mālavikāgnimitram, a play by Kālidāsa which describes a battle between a group of Greek cavalrymen and Vasumitra, the grandson of Pushyamitra, during the latter's reign, in which the Indians repelled the Greeks.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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