FACTOID # 19: Cheap sloppy joes: Looking for reduced-price lunches for schoolchildren? Head for Oklahoma!

 Home Encyclopedia Statistics States A-Z Flags Maps FAQ About

 WHAT'S NEW RELATED ARTICLES People who viewed "Sunflower" also viewed:

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

(* = Graphable)

Encyclopedia > Sunflower
Sunflower

Scientific classification
 Kingdom: Plantae Class: Magnoliopsida Order: Asterales Family: Asteraceae Genus: Helianthus Species: H. annuus
Binomial name
Helianthus annuus
L.

The sunflower (Helianthus annuus) is an annual plant native to the Americas in the family Asteraceae, with a large flowering head (inflorescence). The stem of the flower can grow as high as 3 metres tall, with the flower head reaching up to 30 cm in diameter with the "large" seeds. The term "sunflower" is also used to refer to all plants of the genus Helianthus, many of which are perennial plants. Look up sunflower in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 144 KB)Hi, I am Wajid from Pakistan. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... Divisions Green algae land plants (embryophytes) non-vascular embryophytes Hepatophyta - liverworts Anthocerophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses vascular plants (tracheophytes) seedless vascular plants Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongue ferns seed plants (spermatophytes) &#8224;Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta... Magnoliopsida is the botanical name for a class of flowering plants. ... Families Alseuosmiaceae Argophyllaceae Asteraceae - Daisies Calyceraceae Campanulaceae (incl. ... Diversity About 1500 genera and 23,000 species Type Genus Aster L. Subfamilies Barnadesioideae Cichorioideae Tribe Arctotidae Tribe Cardueae Tribe Eremothamneae Tribe Lactuceae Tribe Liabeae Tribe Mutisieae Tribe Tarchonantheae Tribe Vernonieae Asteroideae Tribe Anthemideae Tribe Astereae Tribe Calenduleae Tribe Eupatorieae Tribe Gnaphalieae Tribe Helenieae Tribe Heliantheae Tribe Inuleae Tribe Plucheae... Species See text The Helianthus L. genus comprises 67 species and several subspecies in the Asteraceae family, all of which are native to North America. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] â€“ January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Peas are an annual plant. ... Diversity About 1500 genera and 23,000 species Type Genus Aster L. Subfamilies Barnadesioideae Cichorioideae Tribe Arctotidae Tribe Cardueae Tribe Eremothamneae Tribe Lactuceae Tribe Liabeae Tribe Mutisieae Tribe Tarchonantheae Tribe Vernonieae Asteroideae Tribe Anthemideae Tribe Astereae Tribe Calenduleae Tribe Eupatorieae Tribe Gnaphalieae Tribe Helenieae Tribe Heliantheae Tribe Inuleae Tribe Plucheae... Red clover inflorescence (spike) An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers on a branch of a plant. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... Species See text The Helianthus L. genus comprises 67 species and several subspecies in the Asteraceae family, all of which are native to North America. ... Red Valerian, a perennial plant. ...

## Description

What is usually called the flower is actually a head (formally composite flower) of numerous flowers (florets) crowded together. The outer flowers are the ray florets and can be yellow, maroon, orange, or other colors, and are sterile. The florets inside the circular head are called disc florets. The disc florets mature into what are traditionally called "sunflower seeds", but are actually the fruit (an achene) of the plant. The true seeds are encased in an inedible husk. For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... Red clover inflorescence (spike) An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers on a branch of a plant. ... A yellow Tulip. ... Maroon is a color related to dark red. ... The orange, the fruit from which the modern name of the orange colour comes. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... The sunflower seed is the seed of the sunflower (Helianthus annuus). ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... An achene is a type of simple dry fruit produced by many species of flowering plants. ...

The florets within this cluster are arranged spirally. Typically each floret is oriented toward the next by approximately the golden angle, producing a pattern of interconnecting spirals where the number of left spirals and the number of right spirals are successive Fibonacci numbers. Typically, there are 34 spirals in 1 direction and 55 in the other; on a very large sunflower you may see 89 in one direction and 144 in the other. The golden angle is the angle subtended by the smaller (red) arc when two arcs that make up a circle are in the golden ratio In geometry, the golden angle is the smaller of the two angles created by sectioning the circumference of a circle according to the golden section... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A tiling with squares whose sides are successive Fibonacci numbers in length A Fibonacci spiral, created by drawing arcs connecting the opposite corners of squares in the Fibonacci tiling shown above â€“ see golden spiral. ...

Sunflower head displaying florets in spirals of 34 and 55 around the outside

Image File history File links Helianthus_whorl. ... Image File history File links Helianthus_whorl. ...

## Heliotropism

Sunflowers in the bud stage exhibit heliotropism. At sunrise, the faces of most sunflowers are turned towards the east. Over the course of the day, they move to track the sun from east to west, while at night they return to an eastward orientation. This motion is performed by motor cells in the pulvinus, a flexible segment of the stem just below the bud. As the bud stage ends, the stem stiffens and the blooming stage is reached. Flower buds have not yet bloomed into a full-size flower. ... Heliotropism is the diurnal motion of plant parts (flowers or leaves) in response to the direction of the sun. ...

Sunflowers in the blooming stage are not heliotropic anymore. The stem has frozen, typically in an eastward orientation. The stem and leaves lose their green color.

The wild sunflower typically does not turn toward the sun; its flowering heads may face many directions when mature. However, the leaves typically exhibit some heliotropism.

## Cultivation and uses

A sunflower farm near Mysore, India.
Sunflower heads sold as snacks in China.

Sunflowers are native to the Americas. There is some debate about where the sunflower was first domesticated. The earliest known examples of a fully domesticated sunflower were found at the Hayes site in Tennessee and date back to around 2300 B.C. There were also other remains found at the Olmec site of San Andrés dating some time before 2100 B.C. The Incas used the sunflower as an image of their sun god. Gold images of the flower, as well as seeds, were taken back to Europe early in the 16th century. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 628 KB) Summary photographed by Pratheepps Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 628 KB) Summary photographed by Pratheepps Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... , For other uses, see Mysore (disambiguation). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3008x2000, 3237 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sunflower Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3008x2000, 3237 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sunflower Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... A snack food (commonly shortened to snack) is seen in Western culture as a type of food not meant to be eaten as a main meal of the day (breakfast, lunch, dinner) but one that is intended rather to assuage a persons hunger between these meals, providing a brief... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Hayes may have several meanings: Hayes Microcomputer Products (named after Dennis Hayes, founder), creator of the original self-dialing smart modem. ... Monument 1, one of the four Olmec colossal heads at La Venta. ... A rollout of the San AndrÃ©s cylinder seal, showing the bird speaking the name 3 Ajaw San AndrÃ©s is an Olmec archaeological site in the present-day Mexican state of Tabasco. ... For other meanings of Inca, see Inca (disambiguation). ... The Trundholm sun chariot pulled by a horse is believed to be a sculpture illustrating an important part of Nordic Bronze Age mythology. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... A ripe red jalapeÃ±o cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ...

To grow well, sunflowers need full sun. They grow best in fertile, moist, well-drained soil with a lot of mulch. In commercial planting, seeds are planted 45 cm (1.5') apart and 2.5 cm (1") deep. Drainage is the natural or artificial removal of surface and sub-surface water from a given area. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland Technically, soil forms the pedosphere: the interface between the lithosphere (rocky part of the planet) and the biosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere. ... In agriculture and gardening, mulch is a protective cover placed over the soil, primarily to modify the effects of the local climate. ...

Sunflower "whole seed" (fruit) are sold as a snack food after roasting within heated ovens with or without salt added. Sunflowers can be processed into a peanut butter alternative, Sunbutter, especially in China, Russia, the United States, the Middle East and Europe. It is also sold as food for birds and can be used directly in cooking and salads. Peanut butter in a jar. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... &#8212;Cleopatra, in Shakespeares Antony and Cleopatra, 1606 A salad is a food item generally served either prior to or after the main dish as a separate course, as a main course in itself, or as a side dish accompanying the main dish. ...

Sunflower oil, extracted from the seeds, is used for cooking, as a carrier oil and to produce biodiesel, for which it is less expensive than the olive product. A range of sunflower varieties exist with differing fatty acid compositions; some 'high oleic' types contain a higher level of healthy monounsaturated fats in their oil than even olive oil. Sunflower Oil is the non-volatile oil expressed from sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seeds. ... The sunflower seed is the seed of the sunflower (Helianthus annuus). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with vegetable oil. ... Carrier oil, also known as base oil or vegetable oil, is used to dilute essential oils and absolutes before they are applied to the skin. ... This article is about transesterified plant and animal oils. ... Binomial name L. 19th century illustration The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, native to coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean region, from Lebanon and the maritime parts of Asia Minor and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea. ... For the Popeye character, see Olive Oyl. ...

During the 18th Century, the use of sunflower oil became very popular in Europe, particularly with members of the Russian Orthodox Church because sunflower oil was one of the few oils that was not prohibited during Lent.

The cake remaining after the seeds have been processed for oil is used as a livestock feed. Some recently developed cultivars have drooping heads. These cultivars are less attractive to gardeners growing the flowers as ornamental plants, but appeal to farmers, because they reduce bird damage and losses from some plant diseases. Sunflowers also produce latex and are the subject of experiments to improve their suitability as an alternative crop for producing hypoallergenic rubber. Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ... A gardener Gardening is the practice of growing flowering plants, vegetables, and fruits. ... Petunia This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Farmer (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... Phytopathology (plant pathology) is the scientific study of plant diseases caused by pathogens (infectious diseases) and environmental conditons (non-infectiousness). ... This article is about the typesetting system. ... Look up hypoallergenic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...

For farmers growing other crops, the sunflower is considered a weed. The wild variety will grow unwanted in corn and soybean fields and can have a negative impact on yields. Yellow starthistle, a thistle native to southern Europe and the Middle East that is an invasive weed in parts of North America. ...

## Mathematical model

Illustration of Vogel's model for n=1..500 .

A model for the pattern of florets in the head of a sunflower was proposed by H Vogel. This is expressed in polar coordinates Image File history File links SunflowerModel. ... Image File history File links SunflowerModel. ... Wildflowers A flower is the reproductive organ of those plants classified as angiosperms (flowering plants; Division Magnoliophyta). ... This article describes some of the common coordinate systems that appear in elementary mathematics. ...

$r = c sqrt{n}$,
$theta = n times 137.5^{circ}$,

where θ is the angle, r is the radius or distance from the center, and n is the index number of the floret and c is a constant scaling factor. It is a form of Fermat's spiral. The angle 137.5° is related to the golden ratio and gives a close packing of florets. This model has been used to produce computer graphics representations of sunflowers. [1] Fermats spiral (also known as a parabolic spiral) follows the equation in polar coordinates. ... Not to be confused with Golden mean (philosophy), the felicitous middle between two extremes, Golden numbers, an indicator of years in astronomy and calendar studies, or the Golden Rule. ...

## Size

Sunflowers most commonly grow to heights between 2.5 and 3.5 m (8 - 12'). Scientific literature reports, from 1567, that a 12 m (40'), traditional, single-head, sunflower plant was grown in Padua. The same seed lot grew almost 8 m (24') at other times and places (e.g. Madrid). Much more recent feats (past score years) of over 8 m (25') have been achieved in both Netherlands and Ontario, Canada. The metre, or meter (symbol: m) is the SI base unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet) is a non-SI unit of distance or length, measuring around a third of a metre. ... Events The Duke of Alva arrives in the Netherlands with Spanish forces to suppress unrest there. ... Padua, Italy, (Italian: IPA: , Latin: Patavium, Venetian: ) is a city in the Veneto, northern Italy, the economic and communications hub of the region. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government - Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area...

## Cultural usage

Official language(s) English[2] Capital Topeka Largest city Wichita Area  Ranked 15th  - Total 82,277 sq mi (213,096 kmÂ²)  - Width 211 miles (340 km)  - Length 417 miles (645 km)  - % water 0. ... Kitakyushu , literally North KyÅ«shÅ«) is a city located in Fukuoka prefecture, KyÅ«shÅ«, Japan. ... Green politics is a body of political ideas informed by environmentalism aimed at developing a sustainable society. ... For other uses, see Rose (disambiguation). ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... The Vegan Society is a registered charity in the United Kingdom, promoting the vegan diet. ...

## Other species

• The Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosa) is related to the sunflower.
• The Mexican sunflower is Tithonia rotundifolia.
• False sunflower refers to plants of the genus Heliopsis.

Binomial name Helianthus tuberosus L. The Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.), also called the sunroot or sunchoke or topinambur, is a flowering plant native to North America grown throughout the temperate world for its tuber, which is used as a root vegetable. ...

## See also

The red sunflower is a rare breed of sunflower created by breeding sunflowers together. ...

## Notes

1. ^ Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw; Lindenmayer, Aristid (1990). The Algorithmic Beauty of Plants. Springer-Verlag, 101-107. ISBN 978-0387972978.

A Polish mathematician who has advanced the idea that fibonacci numbers in nature can be in part understood as the expression of certain algebraic constraints on free groups, specifically as certain Lindenmeyer grammars. ... Aristid Lindenmayer (November 17, 1925 _ 1989) was a Hungarian biologist. ...

## References

• Pope, Kevin; Pohl, Mary E. D.; Jones, John G.; Lentz, 3 David L.; von Nagy, Christopher; Vega, Francisco J.; Quitmyer Irvy R.; "Origin and Environmental Setting of Ancient Agriculture in the Lowlands of Mesoamerica", Science, 18 May 2001:Vol. 292. no. 5520, pp. 1370 - 1373.
• Shosteck, Robt. 1974. Flowers and Plants. An International Lexicon with Biographical Notes. Quadrangle/The New York Times Book Co. 329 pp.
• Wood, Marcia. June 2002. "Sunflower Rubber?" Agricultural Research. USDA. [1]

Science is the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ...

Results from FactBites:

 Sunflower (4101 words) Sunflower oil is generally considered a premium oil because of its light color, high level of unsaturated fatty acids and lack of linolenic acid, bland flavor and high smoke points. Sunflower is an annual, erect, broadleaf plant with a strong taproot and prolific lateral spread of surface roots. Sunflower can be planted at a wide range of dates, as most cultivars are earlier in maturity than the length of growing season in most areas.
 Sunflower - Free Encyclopedia (336 words) The sunflower (Helianthus annuus) is a large (to 3 m) annual plant in the Family Asteraceae with a flower head (inflorescence) as much as 30 cm (1 ft) across and notable for turning to face into the sun. Sunflowers are native to the Americas, and were domesticated around 1000 B.C. Francisco Pizarro found the Incas venerating the sunflower as an image of their sun god, and gold images of the "flower" as well as seeds were taken back to Europe early in the 16th century. Sunflower "whole seeds" (fruit) are sold as snacks, especially in the United States and Europe, and as food for birds.
More results at FactBites »

 COMMENTARY Post Reply

Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
 Your name Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m