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Encyclopedia > Sunderland
Sunderland


The Wearmouth Bridge Several communities in the United Kingdom are called Sunderland. ... The City of Sunderland is a metropolitan borough in the metropolitan county of Tyne and Wear in North East England. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x578, 518 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Sunderland ... The Wearmouth Bridge is a compression arch suspended-deck bridge across the River Wear in Sunderland. ...


Sunderland shown within Tyne and Wear
Population 177,739 (2001 Census)
OS grid reference NZ395575
 - London 240 mi (387 km) SSE
Metropolitan borough City of Sunderland
Metropolitan county Tyne and Wear
Region North East
Constituent country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town SUNDERLAND
Postcode district SR1, SR2, SR3, SR4, SR5, SR6
Dialling code 0191-5
Police Northumbria
Fire Tyne and Wear
Ambulance North East
UK Parliament Sunderland South
Sunderland North
European Parliament North East England
List of places: UKEnglandTyne and Wear

Coordinates: 54°54′22″N 1°22′53″W / 54.9061, -1.3813 Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Red_pog2. ... Tyne and Wear is a metropolitan county in the North East of England around the mouths of the Rivers Tyne and Wear. ... UK Census 2001 logo A nationwide census, commonly known as Census 2001, was conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday 29 April 2001. ... The British national grid reference system is a system of geographic grid references commonly used in Great Britain, different from using latitude or longitude. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... A modern compass card. ... The districts of England are a level of subnational division of England used for the purposes of local government. ... The City of Sunderland is a metropolitan borough in the metropolitan county of Tyne and Wear in North East England. ... Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties are one of the four levels of English administrative division used for the purposes of local government. ... Tyne and Wear is a metropolitan county in the North East of England around the mouths of the Rivers Tyne and Wear. ... The region, also known as Government Office Region, is currently the highest tier of local government subnational entity of England in the United Kingdom. ... North-East England is one of the nine official regions of England and comprises the combined area of Northumberland, County Durham, Tyne and Wear and a small part of North Yorkshire. ... Constituent countries is a phrase used, often by official institutions, in contexts in which a number of countries make up a larger entity or grouping, concerning these countries; thus the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has used the phrase in reference to the parts of former Yugoslavia... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This is an alphabetical list of the sovereign states of the world, including both de jure and de facto independent states. ... A post town is a required part of all UK postal addresses. ... UK postal codes are known as postcodes. ... The SR postcode area, also known as the Sunderland postcode area[2], is a group of postal districts around Peterlee, Seaham and Sunderland in England. ... +44 redirects here. ... Northumbria Police is the police force for the north English counties of Northumberland and Tyne and Wear. ... A Fire Appliance belonging to the Greater Manchester Fire and Rescue Service The fire service in the United Kingdom has undergone dramatic changes since the beginning of the 21st century, a process that has been propelled by a devolution of central government powers, new legislation and a change to operational... View of a Tyne and Wear Volvo Fire Appliance. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The North East Ambulance Service NHS Trust is the authority responsible for providing NHS ambulance services in Darlington, Durham, Hartlepool, Middlesbrough, Northumberland, Stockton-on-Tees, and Tyne and Wear in the North East England region. ... The United Kingdom House of Commons is made up of Members of Parliament (MPs). ... Sunderland South is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Sunderland North is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... This is a list of Members of the European Parliament for the United Kingdom in the 2004 to 2009 session, ordered by name. ... North East England is a constituency of the European Parliament. ... List of cities in the United Kingdom List of towns in England Lists of places within counties List of places in Bedfordshire List of places in Berkshire List of places in Buckinghamshire List of places in Cambridgeshire List of places in Cheshire List of places in Cleveland List of places... This is a list of cities, towns and villages in the ceremonial county of Tyne and Wear, England. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


Sunderland (pronounced: /'sundələnd/, /'sʌndələnd/ or /'sun(d)lən/) is a city in Tyne and Wear, England. It was formerly a county borough but now forms part of the City of Sunderland. It sits at the mouth of the Wearside conurbation. Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ... Tyne and Wear is a metropolitan county in the North East of England around the mouths of the Rivers Tyne and Wear. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... County borough was a term introduced in 1889 in the United Kingdom to refer to a borough or a city independent of county administration. ... The City of Sunderland is a metropolitan borough in the metropolitan county of Tyne and Wear in North East England. ... This is about the city of Sunderland in England. ...


The name "Sunderland" is reputed to come from Soender-land (soender/sunder being the Anglo-Saxon infinitive, meaning "to part"), likely to be reference to the valley carved by the River Wear that runs through the heart of the city. Another meaning is that of the name referring to 'land set aside', derived from the rich Christian heritage of the city. Old English redirects here. ... In grammar, infinitive is the name for certain verb forms that exist in many languages. ... The River Wear (pronounced Wee-er) is a river in the North East of England. ...


Historically a part of County Durham, there were three original settlements on the site of modern-day Sunderland. On the north side of the river, Monkwearmouth was settled in 674 when Benedict Biscop founded the Wearmouth-Jarrow monastery. Opposite the monastery on the south bank, Bishopwearmouth was founded in 930. A small fishing village called Sunderland, located toward the mouth of the river (modern day East End) was granted a charter in 1179. Over the centuries, Sunderland grew as a port, trading coal and salt. Ships began to be built on the river in the 14th century. By the 19th century, the port of Sunderland had grown to absorb Bishopwearmouth and Monkwearmouth. The historic counties of England are ancient subdivisions of England. ... County Durham is a county in north-east England. ... Monkwearmouth is an area of Sunderland located at the mouth of the River Wear as the name suggests. ... Benedict Biscop (628?-690), also known as Biscop Baducing, English churchman, was born of a good Northumbrian family and was for a time a thegn of King Oswiu. ... Wearmouth-Jarrow Abbey is a twin-founation abbey located on the River Wear at Wearmouth and the River Don at Jarrow respectively, in the Kingdom of Northumbria (now in County Durham). ... Bishopwearmouth is an area in Sunderland, North East England. ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal (pronounced ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ...


A person born in Sunderland is sometimes called a Mackem. [1] Look up Mackem in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Contents

History

Early history

Main article: Monkwearmouth-Jarrow Priory

Although it is believed the Brigantes tribes inhabited the area around the Wear in the pre and post Roman era, recorded settlements on the mouth of the Wear date back to 674, when Benedict Biscop, granted land by King Ecgfrith of Northumbria, founded the Wearmouth-Jarrow (St. Peter's) monastery on the north bank of the river Wear - an area that became known as Monkwearmouth. Biscop's monastery was the first built of stone in Northumbria. He employed glaziers from France re-establishing glass making in Britain.
In 686 the community was taken over by Ceolfrid, and Wearmouth-Jarrow became a major centre of learning and knowledge in Anglo-Saxon England with a library of around 300 volumes. Wearmouth-Jarrow Abbey is a twin-founation abbey located on the River Wear at Wearmouth and the River Don at Jarrow respectively, in the Kingdom of Northumbria (now in County Durham). ... The Brigantes were a British Celtic tribe which lived between Tyne and Humber. ... Ecgfrith (645–May 20, 685) was the King of Northumbria from 670 until his death. ... Monastery of St. ... Section from Shepherds map of the British Isles about 802 AD showing the kingdom of Northumbria Northumbria is primarily the name of a petty kingdom of Angles which was formed in Great Britain at the beginning of the 7th century, from two smaller kingdoms of Bernicia and Diera, and... The materials definition of a glass is a uniform amorphous solid material, usually produced when a suitably viscous molten material cools very rapidly, thereby not giving enough time for a regular crystal lattice to form. ... Ceolfrid or Ceolfrith (c. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

St. Peter's Church in Monkwearmouth. Only the porch and part of the west wall are what remain of the original monastery built in 674.
St. Peter's Church in Monkwearmouth. Only the porch and part of the west wall are what remain of the original monastery built in 674.

The Codex Amiatinus, described by some as the 'finest book in the world',[2] was created at the monastery and was likely worked on by Bede who was born at Wearmouth in 673. While at the monastery, Bede completed the Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum (The Ecclesiastical History of the English People) in 731, a feat which earned him the title: The father of English history. In the late eighth century the Vikings began to raid the coast, and by the middle of the ninth century the monastery had been abandoned. Image File history File linksMetadata St_peters_sunderland. ... Image File history File linksMetadata St_peters_sunderland. ... The Codex Amiatinus is the most celebrated manuscript of the Latin Vulgate Bible, remarkable as the best witness to the true text of St. ... For other uses, see Bede (disambiguation). ... Folio 3v from Codex Beda Petersburgiensis (746) The Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum (in English: Ecclesiastical History of the English People) is a work in Latin by the Venerable Bede on the history of the Church in England, and of England generally; its main focus is on the conflict between Roman... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... The name Viking is a loan from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse seafaring warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, Europe and the British Isles from the late 8th century to the 11th century, the period of European history referred to as the Viking Age. ... (8th century - 9th century - 10th century - other centuries) Events Beowulf might have been written down in this century, though it could also have been in the 8th century Viking attacks on Europe begin Oseberg ship burial The Magyars arrive in what is now Hungary, forcing the Serbs and Bulgars south...


Lands on the south side of the river were granted to the Bishop of Durham by Athelstan of England in 930. These became known as Bishopwearmouth.[3] This parish included settlements such as Ryhope, which fall within the modern day boundary of Sunderland. The Bishop of Durham is the officer of the Church of England responsible for the diocese of Durham, one of the oldest in the country. ... Athelstan (c. ... A parish is a type of administrative subdivision. ... Ryhope is a coastal village within the southern boundary of the City of Sunderland. ...


As early as 1100, the Bishopwearmouth parish included a small fishing village at the mouth of the river (modern day Hendon) known as 'Soender-land' (which evolved into 'Sunderland').[4] This settlement was granted a charter in 1179 by Hugh Pudsey, then the Bishop of Durham. Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish by hooking, trapping, or gathering. ... Hendon is an area towards the east end of Sunderland in North East England. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Hugh de Puiset (c. ...


From as early as 1346 ships were being built at Wearmouth, by a merchant named Thomas Menville - although Sunderland remained a small and unimportant town. Men from Francisco de Orellanas expedition building a small brigantine, the San Pedro, to be used in the search for food Shipbuilding is the construction of ships. ...


In 1589, salt began to be made in Sunderland. Large vats of seawater, were heated using coal. As the water evaporated the salt sediment remained. This process is known as salt panning. The modern-day name of the area the pans occupied is Pann's Bank, located on the river bank between the city centre and Hendon. As coal was required to heat the salt pans, a coal mining community began to emerge in the area. Only poor quality coal was used in salt panning; quality coal was traded via the port, which subsequently began to grow. This put Sunderland in competition for the first time with its coal-trading neighbour Newcastle. Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ... Contemporary salt pans on the island of Lanzarote. ... Salt pans can refer to: Salt pan (geology), a flat expanse of ground covered with salt and other minerals, usually found in deserts. ... Surface coal mining in Wyoming. ... This article is about a city in the United Kingdom. ...


17th and 18th centuries

Holy Trinity church, built in 1719.
Holy Trinity church, built in 1719.

Prior to the English Civil War in 1642, King Charles I bestowed the rights to the East of England coal trade upon Newcastle. This had a big impact on Sunderland which had begun to rapidly grow as a coal-trading town. This created resentment toward Newcastle and toward the monarchy. When the civil war began, the mainly Protestant Sunderland sided with Parliament against the primarily Catholic Newcastle. This worked to Sunderland's advantage because Parliament blockaded the Tyne, crippling the Newcastle coal trade and allowing the Sunderland coal trade to flourish. Because of the difficulty for colliers in trying to navigate the shallow waters of the River Wear, the coal had to be loaded onto keels (large boats) and taken downriver to the waiting colliers. The keels were manned by a close-knit group of workers known as 'keelmen'. There were also keelmen operating on the Tyne. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1632 × 1224 pixel, file size: 319 KiB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Uploaded by User:Superbfc Taken 2007-04-17 with SonyEricsson w810i 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1632 × 1224 pixel, file size: 319 KiB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Uploaded by User:Superbfc Taken 2007-04-17 with SonyEricsson w810i 2. ... For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... The East of England is one of the nine official regions of England. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Keelmen of Tyne and Wear were a group of men who worked on the keels, large boats that carried the coal from the banks of both rivers to the waiting collier ships. ...


In 1719 the separate parish of Sunderland was carved from the densely populated east end of Bishopwearmouth by the establishment of Holy Trinity, Sunderland parish church. The three original settlments of Wearmouth (Bishopwearmouth, Monkwearmouth and Sunderland) had begun to combine, driven by the success of the port of Sunderland as well as the salt panning and the shipbuilding along the banks of the Wear. Around this time, Sunderland was also known as 'Sunderland-near-the-Sea'.[5] Western (front) elevation Holy Trinity is a former church in Sunderland. ...


19th century

Penshaw Monument, built in 1884.
Penshaw Monument, built in 1884.

Local government was divided between the three churches (Holy Trinity, Sunderland, St. Michael's, Bishopwearmouth, and St. Peter's, Monkwearmouth) and when cholera broke out in 1831 the "select vestrymen", as the church councilmen were called, showed themselves completely unable to understand and cope with the epidemic. Image File history File linksMetadata CNV00036. ... Image File history File linksMetadata CNV00036. ... Penshaw Monument Penshaw Monument was built in 1844 on Penshaw (pronounced Pensher) Hill, Durham, North-East England, between the towns of Washington, Tyne and Wear and Houghton-le-Spring. ... Local governments are administrative offices that are smaller than a state or province. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... St. ... Cholera (or Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera) is an extreme diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... In epidemiology, an epidemic (from [[Latin language] epi- upon + demos people) is a disease that appears as new cases in a given human population, during a given period, at a rate that substantially exceeds what is expected, based on recent experience (the number of new cases in the population during...


Sunderland, a main trading port at the time, was the first British town to be struck with the 'Indian cholera' epidemic.[6] The first victim, William Sproat, died on October 23, 1831. Sunderland was put under quarantine, and the port was blockaded, but in December of that year the disease spread to Gateshead and from there, it rapidly spread across the country killing an estimated 32,000 people. The novel The Dress Lodger, about local hero Jack Crawford, by American author Sheri Holman is set in Sunderland during the epidemic. is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about Gateshead, England. ... Jack Crawford (22 March 1775 in the east end of Sunderland, England - 10 November 1831) was a sailor of the Royal Navy known as the Hero of Camperdown. ...


Demands for democracy and organised town government saw the Borough of Sunderland created in 1836, although impatient citizens elected Andrew White to be Mayor in December 1835.


Sunderland developed on plateaus high above the river, and so never suffered from the problem of allowing people to cross the river without interrupting the passage of high masted vessels. The Wearmouth Bridge was built in 1796, at the instigation of Rowland Burdon, the MP, and is described by Nikolaus Pevsner, the recognised authority, as being of superb elegance. It was the second iron bridge built after the famous span at Ironbridge itself, but over twice as long and only three-quarters the weight. Indeed, at the time of building, it was the biggest single span bridge in the world.[7] Further up the river, another bridge, the Queen Alexandra Bridge, was built in 1910, linking the areas of Pallion and Southwick.[8] The Wearmouth Bridge is a compression arch suspended-deck bridge across the River Wear in Sunderland. ... Sir Nikolaus Pevsner CBE (January 30, 1902 – August 18, 1983) was a German-born British historian of art and, especially, architecture. ... This article is about the bridge crossing the River Wear; for the bridge crossing the Ottawa River, see Alexandra Bridge. ... , Pallion is a suburb, parish and electoral ward in Sunderland. ... Southwick, Sunderland, Tyne and Wear is a suburb on the north banks of the river Wear in Sunderland. ...


In 1897 Monkwearmouth officially became a part of Sunderland. Bishopwearmouth had long since been absorbed.[9]


Victoria Hall Disaster

Main article: Victoria Hall Disaster

The Victoria Hall was a large concert hall on Toward Road facing onto Mowbray Park. The Hall was the scene of a tragedy on June 16, 1883 when 183 children died.[10] During a variety show, children rushed towards a staircase for treats.[11] At the bottom of the staircase, the door had been opened inward and bolted in such a way as to only leave a gap wide enough for one child to pass at a time.[12] The children surged down the stairs toward the door. Those at the front became trapped, and were crushed by the weight of the crowd behind them. Poster advertising the variety show in which 183 children were trampled to death. ... A Concert hall is a cultural building, which serves as performance venue, chiefly for classical instrumental music. ... Mowbray Park is a municipal park in the centre of Sunderland, North East England. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... A variety show is a show with a variety of acts, often including music and comedy skits, especially on television. ...


With the asphyxiation of 183 children between 3 and 13 years old the disaster is the worst of its kind in British history.[12] The memorial, of a grieving mother holding a dead child, is currently located in Mowbray Park with a protective canopy.[13] Newspaper reports at the time triggered a mood of national outrage and the resulting inquiry recommended that public venues be fitted with a minimum number of outward opening emergency exits, which led to the invention of 'push bar' emergency doors. This law still remains in full force to this day. The Victoria Hall remained in use until 1941 when it was destroyed by a German bomb.[14] Asphyxia is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body. ... This is a list of wars and man-made disasters by death toll by strange diseases. ... Emergency Exit, by Manlio Santanelli, is a play written originally in Italian. ...


20th century to present

As the former heavy industries have declined, electronics, chemicals, and paper manufacture have replaced them. Some of these new industries, as well as the Nissan car plant, and the nearby North East Aircraft Museum are in Washington, which has more space to allow purpose built factories. Nissan Motor Manufacturing (UK) Ltd, or NMUK is a car manufacturing plant in Sunderland, Tyne and Wear, United Kingdom. ... Washington Old Hall Washington is a town in North East England, within the City of Sunderland metropolitan borough. ...

Sunderland - taken from Tunstall Hill, August 1989
Sunderland - taken from Tunstall Hill, August 1989

Commencing in 1990 the banks of the Wear experienced a massive physical regeneration with the creation of housing, retail parks and business centres on former shipbuilding sites. Alongside the creation of the National Glass Centre the University of Sunderland has also created a new campus on the St. Peter's site. The clearance of the Vaux Brewery site on the North East fringe of the City Centre has created a further opportunity for new development in the city centre. Image File history File links Sunderland. ... Image File history File links Sunderland. ... The National Glass Centre is a visitor attraction in Sunderland, North East England. ... St Peters Campus The University of Sunderland is located in the City of Sunderland in North East England. ... St. ...


Like many cities, Sunderland comprises a number of areas with their own distinct histories, e.g: Fulwell, Monkwearmouth, Roker, and Southwick on the northern side of the Wear, and Bishopwearmouth and Hendon to the south. Statistics Population: 5,500 Ordnance Survey OS grid reference: NZ3959 Administration District: City of Sunderland Metropolitan county: Tyne and Wear Region: North East England Constituent country: England Sovereign state: United Kingdom Other Ceremonial county: Tyne and Wear Historic county: County Durham Services Police force: Northumbria Fire and rescue: {{{Fire}}} Ambulance... For other uses, see Roker (disambiguation). ... Southwick is the name of several places: Southwick in West Sussex, England Southwick in Northamptonshire, England Southwick in Wiltshire, England Southwick in Massachusetts This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


The town was the one of the most heavily bombed areas in England during World War II.[15] As a result, much of the town centre was rebuilt in an undistinguished concrete utility style. However, many fine old buildings remain. Religious buildings include Holy Trinity built in 1719 for an independent Sunderland, St. Michaels's Church, built as Bishopwearmouth Parish Church and now known as Sunderland Minster and St. Peter's Church, Monkwearmouth, part of which dates from AD 674, and was the original monastery. St. Andrew's Roker, so-called "Cathedral of the Arts and Crafts Movement", contains work by William Morris, Ernest Gimson and Eric Gill. Western (front) elevation Holy Trinity is a former church in Sunderland. ... Artichoke wallpaper, by John Henry Dearle for William Morris & Co. ... This page is about William Morris, the writer, designer and socialist. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Arthur Eric Rowton Gill (February 22, 1882–November 17, 1940) was a British sculptor, typographer and engraver. ...


On March 24, 2004, the City adopted St Benedict Biscop as its patron saint. A patron had never been adopted before. is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Saint Quentin is the patron saint of locksmiths and is also invoked against coughs and sneezes. ...


Governance

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 542 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1449 × 1602 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 542 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1449 × 1602 pixel, file size: 1. ... Sunderland assumed a heraldic device in the nineteenth century. ...

Civic history

Sunderland Civic Centre (right background) with Mowbray Park to the left
Sunderland Civic Centre (right background) with Mowbray Park to the left

Sunderland was created a municipal borough of County Durham in 1835. Under the Local Government Act 1888, it was given further status as a county borough with independence from county council control. In 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, the county borough was abolished and its area combined with that of other districts to form the Metropolitan Borough of Sunderland in Tyne and Wear. The metropolitan borough was granted City status in the United Kingdom after winning a competition in 1992 to celebrate the Queen's 40th year on the throne. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (800 × 1200 pixel, file size: 699 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Sunderland Civic Centre to the right of the photograph, and Mowbray park to the left I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (800 × 1200 pixel, file size: 699 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Sunderland Civic Centre to the right of the photograph, and Mowbray park to the left I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the... A borough is a political division originally used in England. ... County Durham is a county in north-east England. ... The Local Government Act 1888 (51 & 52 Vict. ... In the British Isles, a county council is a council that governs a county. ... The Local Government Act 1972 (1972 c. ... Historically, city status in England and Wales was associated with the presence of a cathedral, such as York Minster. ... Elizabeth II in an official portrait as Queen of Canada (on the occasion of her Golden Jubilee in 2002, wearing the Sovereigns badges of the Order of Canada and the Order of Military Merit) Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary) (born 21 April 1926), styled HM The...


Motto

Sunderland has the motto of Nil Desperandum Auspice Deo loosely translated it means Never Despair, Trust In God


Geography

Sunderland riverside at sunset
See also: List of places in Sunderland
The Wearmouth Bridge, St. Peter's Metro station on the far left
The Wearmouth Bridge, St. Peter's Metro station on the far left

Much of the city is located on a low range of hills running parallel to the coast. On average, it is around 80 metres above sea level. Sunderland is divided by the River Wear which passes through the middle of the city in a deeply incised valley, part of which is known as the Hylton gorge. The only two road bridges connecting the north and south halves of the City are the Queen Alexandra Bridge at Pallion and the Wearmouth Bridge just to the north of the City centre. A third bridge carries the A19 trunk road over the Wear to the West of the City (see map below). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x180, 36 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sunderland User:John the mackem Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... This is a list of suburbs and places of interest in Sunderland, Tyne and Wear, United Kingdom. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 476 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (800 × 1008 pixel, file size: 567 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A view over the Wearside Bridge, Sunderland, UK I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 476 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (800 × 1008 pixel, file size: 567 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A view over the Wearside Bridge, Sunderland, UK I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... The term above mean sea level (AMSL) refers to the elevation (on the ground) or altitude (in the air) of any object, relative to the average sea level. ...


Most of the suburbs of Sunderland are situated towards the west of the city centre with 70% of its population living on the south side of the river and 30% on the north side. The city extends to the seafront at Hendon and Ryhope (on the south) and Seaburn (on the north). Seaburn is a moderately affluent coastal suburb to the north of the North East England city of Sunderland, with the South Tyneside village of Whitburn to the north and the district of Roker to the south. ...


The area is part of the Anglican Diocese of Durham. It has been in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Hexham and Newcastle since the Catholic hierarchy was restored in 1850. The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... The Diocese of Durham is a Church of England diocese, based in Durham, and covering the historic County Durham (and therefore including the southern part of Tyne and Wear and the northern part of Cleveland). ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The Diocese of Hexham and Newcastle is a Roman Catholic Diocese in the UK. The diocese is one of the six suffragan sees in the ecclesiastical Province of Liverpool and covers North-East England. ... In the Roman Catholic Church, the threefold order, or hierarchy, of bishop, priest, and deacon, conferred through the sacrament of Holy Orders, is a structural feature considered to be of divine institution. ...


Alphabetical street naming of suburbs

Some Sunderland suburbs have most streets beginning with the same letter:

Farringdon is a suburb of Sunderland, Tyne and Wear. ... Map sources for Hylton Castle at grid reference NZ357588 Hylton Castle is a ruined castle in the north west of Sunderland. ... Seaburn is a moderately affluent coastal suburb to the north of the North East England city of Sunderland, with the South Tyneside village of Whitburn to the north and the district of Roker to the south. ... Ford Estate is a suburb in Sunderland. ... Grindon is a suburb of Sunderland, Tyne and Wear. ... Pennywell is a suburb in the north-west of the City of Sunderland. ... Redhouse is a suburb in the north west of Sunderland, Tyne and Wear, situated between Downhill to the west, and Marley Pots and Witherwack to the east. ... Thorney close is a suburb of Sunderland, Tyne and Wear in England. ...

Climate

As with most East-coast towns, Sunderland is prone to sea fog known locally as Fret. This is most common in the summer months (April - September). These frets can be very dense, are often very localised, and can appear and disappear in a matter of minutes. For other uses, see Fog (disambiguation). ...


Demography

Population of Sunderland urban area
by ward - (2001 Census)
[16]
Ward Population
Ryhope 13,852
Central 12,398
Silksworth 12,295
Pallion 10,693
Hendon 10,377
South Hylton 10,317
St. Michael's 10,267
Thornholme 10,214
St. Chad's 10,006
Thorney Close 9,938
Grindon 9,548
South total: 119,905
 
Castletown 10,322
St. Peter's 10,264
Fulwell 10,171
Town End Farm 9,381
Colliery 9,006
Southwick 8,690
North total: 57,834
 
City total: 177,739

Sunderland is the 26th largest city in England. At 3,874 hectares, Sunderland is the 45th largest urban area in England by measure of area, with a population density of 45.88 people per hectare. This is a list of the largest cities and towns of England ordered by population. ... A hectare (symbol ha) is a metric unit of surface area, equal to 100 ares (the name is a contraction of the SI prefix hecto + are). ...


According to statistics[17] based on the 2001 census, 60% of homes in the Sunderland metropolitan area are owner occupied, with an average household size of 2.4 people. 3% of the homes have no permanent residents. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Owner occupied is a classification of UK housing tenure as described by the Department for Communities and Local Government, a UK government department that has amongst its remit the monitoring of the UK housing stock. ...


66% (men) and 54.7% (women) of the population within working age are economically active. 6.7% of men and 3% of women are unemployed. 12.2% of men and 8.6% women are permanently sick or disabled. The legal working age is the minimum age required by law for a person to work, in each country or jurisdiction. ...


Immigration into Sunderland is 2.4%, emigration is 2.2%. A memorial statue in Hanko, Finland, commemorating the thousands of emigrants who left the country to start a new life in the United States Emigration is the act and the phenomenon of leaving ones native country or region to settle in another. ...


Ethnicity

98.1% of the population are white, with 1% Asian and 0.4% mixed-race. For the ethnic group, see White people. ... Asian people[1] is a demonym for people from Asia. ... Actress Halle Berry was born to a white mother of British extraction and a black father of American extraction. ...


In 2001, the most ethnically diverse ward of the city was the (now defunct) Thornholme area - just to the south of the city centre, an area that included the suburbs of Ashbrooke and Eden Vale. Here, 89.4% are white, 7.8% are Asian and 1.3% are mixed-race.


The least ethnically diverse wards are in the north of the city. The area of Castletown is made up of 99.3% white, 0.4% Asian and 0.2% mixed-race.


Religion

According to census statistics, 81.5% of Sunderland residents class themselves as Christian, 9.6% are irreligious, 0.7% are Muslim and 7.6% did not wish to give their religion. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... This section does not cite its references or sources. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


114 people of Jewish faith were recorded as living in Sunderland, a vanishingly small percentage. There was no Jewish community before 1750, though subsequently a number of Jewish merchants from across the UK and Europe settled in Sunderland, A Rabbi from Holland was established in the city in 1790. The once thriving Jewish community has been in slow decline since the mid 20th century. Many Sunderland Jews left for stronger Jewish communities in Britain or to Israel.[18] The Jewish primary school, the Menorah School, closed in July 1983. The synagogue on Ryhope Road (opened in 1928) closed at the end of March 2006. (See also Jews and Judaism in North East England) This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A kehilla or kehillah (קהלה, Hebrew: community) is a Jewish community. ... For the town in Italy, see Rabbi, Italy. ... This article is about a region in the Netherlands. ... A synagogue (from , transliterated synagogē, assembly; beit knesset, house of assembly; or beit tefila, house of prayer, shul; , esnoga) is a Jewish house of worship. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Economy

Further information: List of companies in Sunderland
Employment in Sunderland
by sector - 2004
[19]
Sector % Employed
Public Administration,
Education and Health
29.7
Distribution, Hotels
and Restaurants
22.7
Manufacturing 16.8
Finance, IT
and other business activities
16.3
Construction 4.4
Other services 4.3
Transport and Communications 4.2
Agriculture, Energy & Water 1.6

Sunderland has some of the most deprived areas in England with 11 of the 24 wards featuring in the list of the 2000 most deprived wards in England and in the 1980s it was one of the most deprived cities in England[20] The most deprived areas are Southwick to the north of the river and Thorney Close to the south - both with chronic levels of unemployment, although the city is performing better than the North East as a whole.[20] The following major companies are either headquartered or have significant interests in Sunderland, North East England. ... A ward is an electoral district used in local politics, most notably in England, Scotland, and Wales, as well as Australia, Canada, the Republic of Ireland, New Zealand, South Africa and many cities in the United States and the federal district of Washington, DC. Wards are usually named after neighbourhoods...


Ship building and coal mining

Once famously hailed as the "Greatest Shipbuilding Town in the World"[21] , ships were built on the Wear from at least 1346 onwards and by the mid-eighteenth century Sunderland was one of the chief shipbuilding towns in the country. The Port of Sunderland was significantly expanded in the 1850s with the construction of Hudson Dock to designs by River Wear Commissioner's Engineer John Murray, with consultancy by Robert Stephenson.[22] One famous vessel was the ‘wonderful’ Torrens, the clipper in which Joseph Conrad sailed, and on which he began his first novel. As Basil Lubbock states, Torrens was one of the most successful ships ever built, besides being one of the fastest, and for many years was the favourite passenger ship to Adelaide. She was one of the most famous ships of her time and can claim to be the finest ship ever launched from a Sunderland yard. She was built in ten months by James Laing at their Deptford yard on the Wear in 1875. Between 1939 and 1945 the Wear yards launched 245 merchant ships totalling 1.5 million tons, a quarter of the merchant tonnage produced in the UK at this period. Competition from overseas caused a downturn in demand for Sunderland built ships toward the end of the twentieth century. The last shipyard in Sunderland closed in 1988. Statue of Robert Stephenson at Euston Station, London Robert Stephenson FRS (October 16, 1803–October 12, 1859) was an English civil engineer. ... Torrens is a suburb in the Canberra, Australia district of Woden. ... // Joseph Conrad (born Teodor Józef Konrad NaÅ‚Ä™cz-Korzeniowski, 3 December 1857 – 3 August 1924) was a Polish-born novelist who spent most of his adult life in Britain. ... A passenger ship is a ship whose primary function is to carry passengers. ... James Laing (born 21 April 1833 at London, England; died 11 September 1913 at New South Wales) was a cricket Test match umpire. ... This article is about the district in London. ...


Sunderland, part of the Durham coalfield, has a coal-mining heritage that dates back centuries. At the peak in 1923, 170,000 miners were employed in County Durham alone,[23] as labourers from all over Britain, including many from Scotland and Ireland, entered the region. As demand for coal slipped following World War II, mines began to close across the region, causing mass unemployment. The last coal mine closed in 1994. The site of the last coal mine, Wearmouth Colliery, is now occupied by the Stadium of Light, and a miner's Davey lamp monument stands outside of the ground to honour the heritage of the site. This article is about the country. ...

The Liebherr crane factory is the last remaining heavy industry on the river Wear in Sunderland.
The Liebherr crane factory is the last remaining heavy industry on the river Wear in Sunderland.

Glass has been made in Sunderland for around 1,500 years. As with the coal-mining and shipbuilding, overseas competition has forced the closure of all of Sunderland's glass-making factories. Corning Glass Works, in Sunderland for 120 years, will close on March 31, 2007[24] and in January 2007, Pyrex announced it would close by the end of the year,[25] bringing to an end glass-making in the city. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 399 pixelsFull resolution (1542 × 769 pixel, file size: 168 KiB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Liebherr crane factory on the River Wear in Sunderland. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 399 pixelsFull resolution (1542 × 769 pixel, file size: 168 KiB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Liebherr crane factory on the River Wear in Sunderland. ... The Liebherr Group is a German manufacturer established in 1949 by Hans Liebherr. ... Corning Glass Works (NYSE: GLW) is a U.S. manufacturer of glass, ceramics and related materials, primarily for technical and scientific applications. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... // For the programming language, see Pyrex (programming language). ...


Vaux Breweries was established in the town centre in the 1880s and for 110 years was a major employer. Following a series of consolidations in the British Brewing Industry, however, the brewery was finally closed in July 1999. Vaux in Sunderland and Wards in Sheffield had been part of the Vaux Group, but with the closure of both breweries it was re-branded The Swallow Group, concentrating on the hotel side of the business. This was subject to a successful take-over by Whitbread PLC in the autumn of 2000. We dont have an article called Vaux Breweries Start this article Search for Vaux Breweries in. ... The beer brewing industry is dominated by a few international players. ... Wards Brewing Company was a brewing company based at Sheaf Brewery on Ecclesall Road, Sheffield, England. ... For other uses, see Sheffield (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Whitbread company. ...


Rejuvenation

The Echo 24 apartment building nearing completion. Located on the south banks of the river close to the Wearmouth Bridge, the building is another new landmark on a transformed river-front.
The Echo 24 apartment building nearing completion. Located on the south banks of the river close to the Wearmouth Bridge, the building is another new landmark on a transformed river-front.

Sunderland's economic situation began to improve following the low point of the 1980s. In addition to the giant Nissan factory, new service industries have moved in, creating thousands of jobs. Doxford International Business Park, in the south west of the city, has attracted a host of national and international companies. Sunderland was named in the shortlist of the top seven "intelligent cities" in the world for the use of Information Technology, in both 2004 and 2005. The city was also included in the top eighteen list in 2002 and 2003.[26] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3096x1938, 315 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sunderland User:John the mackem Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3096x1938, 315 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sunderland User:John the mackem Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Nissan Motor Manufacturing (UK) Ltd, or NMUK is a car manufacturing plant in Sunderland, North East England. ... The tertiary sector of industry, also called the service sector or the service industry, is one of the three main industrial categories of a developed economy, the others being the secondary industry (manufacturing and primary goods production such as agriculture), and primary industry (extraction such as mining and fishing). ... Doxford International Business Park is a large business park in the Doxford Park suburb of Sunderland, Tyne and Wear, in the north-east of England. ... Information and communication technology spending in 2005 Information technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. ...


The former shipyard areas along the River Wear have also been transformed, with several high-profile developments close to the river: St. Peter's Campus of the University of Sunderland; North Haven, an executive housing and marina development on the former North Dock at Roker; the National Glass Centre, by St. Peter's Church; the Stadium of Light the 49,000-capacity home of Sunderland A.F.C.; Hylton Riverside Retail Park, a large shopping outlet centre at Castletown. Also in 2007 the Echo 24 luxuary apartments will open in the city centre. Castletown is an area of Sunderland in Tyne and Wear. ...


Sunderland Corporation's massive post-war housing estate developments, such as Farringdon, Pennywell, Grindon, Hylton Red House, Hylton Castle, Thorney Close and Town End Farm, together with earlier developments, have all passed into the ownership of Sunderland Housing Group, a private company and a Registered Social Landlord. Since the housing stock transfer in 2000 there have been considerable improvements to the quality of social housing in the city, amid frequent criticism of "cowboy" service personnel and skyrocketing rent. The tower blocks at Monkwearmouth, Gilley Law, Hendon and the East End have been transformed and the vast estates are also improving although the plans have not met with universal praise. Map sources for Hylton Castle at grid reference NZ357588 Hylton Castle is a ruined castle in the north west of Sunderland. ... A tower block, block of flats, or apartment block, is a multi-unit high-rise apartment building. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


The central business district of Sunderland has also been subject to a recent flurry of redevelopment and improvement. In 2000, The Bridges shopping centre was extended towards Crowtree Road and the former Central Bus Station, attracting national chain stores. In November 2004, after several years with no cinema, a Cineworld multiplex opened in the new River Quarter (Rebranded as Limelight in 2006) an entertainment complex towards the east of the City Centre. The Cinema was taken over by Empire Cinemas in May 2006. The previous ABC Cinema, situated on the corner of Park Lane and Holmeside, had been derelict for a number of years until it reopened late in 2005 as The Point, an upmarket venue comprising three bars and the Union nightclub. The Central Business District of Sydney, Australia. ... The Bridges is a shopping centre based in the city centre of Sunderland, England. ... For the traditional meaning of the word mall, see pedestrian street or promenade. ... For other meanings, see Bus stop (disambiguation). ... Chain stores are a range of retail outlets which share a brand and central management, usually with standardised business methods and practices. ... Cineworld Cinemas is a multiplex cinema chain in the United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland and Jersey. ... Empire Leicester Square Empire Cinemas is a multiplex cinema chain in the United Kingdom. ...


The arrival of Roy Keane as Sunderland AFC's new manager in August 2006 has had a massive impact in Sunderland's hitherto limited tourism industry. Keane has proved a big pull for the city in terms of attracting tourists to Sunderland, with the Tourism Office reporting a dramatic rise in the number of football fans coming to the city "mentioning his name"[27] as early as October 2006, just six weeks after Keane's appointment as manager. Airline Ryanair, moreover, recorded a 10% increase in passenger numbers travelling to Newcastle Airport on Fridays preceding a Sunderland home game, some 600 more than on other Fridays. The Tourism Office believes Keane's attachment to the city is furthermore causing a knock-on effect on local restaurants, bars and attractions in that more tourists are "making a weekend of it"[27] after watching the football. Roy Maurice Keane (born 10 August 1971 in Mayfield, Cork City, Ireland) is an Irish former professional footballer and the current manager of English Premier League club Sunderland. ... Ryanair (ISEQ: RYA, LSE: RYA, NASDAQ: RYAAY) is an Irish airline headquartered in Dublin, with its biggest operational base at London Stansted Airport in the UK. It is Europes largest low-cost carrier and is one of the worlds largest and most successful airlines (whether in terms of... This article is about the airport in England, for other airports with this name, see Newcastle Airport (disambiguation). ...


Transport

Rail

Sunderland station was opened in November 1965 to facilitate football teams and officials from countries who were drawn to play at Roker Park during England's hosting of the 1966 World Cup. It is served by Northern Rail services between Newcastle and Middlesbrough. Looking north along the platforms at Sunderland station Sunderland station is a mainline and Tyne and Wear Metro station in Sunderland, north-east England. ... Roker Park was the stadium of Sunderland A.F.C. between 1898 and 1997, when it was replaced by the Stadium of Light. ... 1966 was the year that the Football World Cup went back to the country that first conceived football: England. ... Northern Rail is a train operating company that has operated local services in the north of England since 2004. ... Middlesborough redirects here. ...


Until c. 2004, Transpennine Express ran trains from Sunderland to Liverpool Lime Street via York, Leeds and Manchester. Due to poor demand, these services were withdrawn, with the train company choosing to run services on the already heavily overused East Coast Mainline through Durham to Newcastle. TransPennine Express (TPE) is a train operating company in the United Kingdom. ... The main entrance to Liverpool Lime Street Station Liverpool Lime Street railway station on Lime Street is the mainline railway station serving Liverpool, England. ... York shown within England Coordinates: , Sovereign state Constituent country Region Yorkshire and the Humber Ceremonial county North Yorkshire Admin HQ York City Centre Founded 71 City Status 71 Government  - Type Unitary Authority, City  - Governing body City of York Council  - Leadership: Leader & Executive  - Executive: Liberal Democrat  - MPs: Hugh Bayley (L) John... For other uses, see Leeds (disambiguation) and Leeds City (disambiguation). ... This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ... Durham (IPA: locally, in RP) is a small city and main settlement of the City of Durham district of County Durham in North East England. ... Newcastle Central Station Newcastle Central Station is the principal railway station in the city of Newcastle upon Tyne, England. ...


Grand Central Railway has announced plans to operate a direct service between Sunderland and King's Cross railway station in London. The service will begin in May 2007, which was held back from December, the service is due to begin with three departures daily each way, which will connect a line which can run from Edinburgh to London. It has also been announced that renovation to Sunderland's main train station will be started soon.[28] Not to be confused with Grand Union Railway or Great Central Railway. ... Kings Cross station (often spelt Kings Cross on platform signs) is a railway station in the district of the same name in northeast central London. ...


Metro

Since 2002, the Tyne and Wear Metro system was extended to Sunderland. The local Metro terminates at South Hylton after calling at Sunderland Rail Station and Park Lane Bus Station. Metro trains are quite frequent and travel North to Newcastle International Airport via Newcastle-upon-Tyne on the return journey from South Hylton. However, the Metro extension has not been viewed as a huge success with frequency of services cut due to a lack of demand.[29] The Tyne and Wear Metro is a light rail metro system based around Newcastle upon Tyne and Sunderland, in the county of Tyne and Wear in North East England. ... South Hylton is a village in Sunderland on the banks of the River Wear. ... Newcastle International Airport is the 9th largest airport in the United Kingdom. ... , Newcastle upon Tyne (usually shortened to Newcastle) is a large city in Tyne and Wear, England. ...


Road

Illustration of the main roads through Sunderland.
Illustration of the main roads through Sunderland.

There are no motorways that run through the Sunderland urban area. The largest and busiest road is the A19, which runs north-to-south along the western edge of the urban area, crossing the river Wear at Hylton. There are four main roads which support the city centre. The A690 Durham Road terminates in the city centre, and runs all the way to Crook, County Durham via the city of Durham. This is the main road supporting the south-west of the city. The A1231 starts in the city centre, crosses the Queen Alexandra Bridge and runs through Washington to the A1. Most of this road is national speed limit dual carriageway. The A1018 and A183 roads both start in the centre of South Shields and enter Sunderland from the north, before merging to cross the Wearmouth Bridge. The A1018 follows a direct route from Shields to Sunderland, the A183 follows the coast. After crossing the bridge, the A1018 follows a relatively straight path to the south of Sunderland where it merges with the A19. The A183 becomes Chester Road and heads west out of the city to the A1 at Chester-le-Street. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (585x656, 47 KB) Simple chart showing the relative routes of the main roads through the Sunderland urban area. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (585x656, 47 KB) Simple chart showing the relative routes of the main roads through the Sunderland urban area. ... Motorway symbol in UK, France and Ireland. ... The A19 is a major road in England, running parallel to and east of the A1 road. ... The A690 is a road in County Durham running from Sunderland in the east through Durham into the Pennines. ... Crook is a small market town in County Durham, England. ... The A1231 road runs between Sunderland and Washington in Tyne and Wear, North East England. ... This page is about the A1 road in Great Britain. ... An Example of a United Kingdom National speed limit roadsign. ... This early German Autobahn uses a dual carriageway design. ... The A1018 is a road in North East England. ... The numbering zones for A-roads in Great Britain List of A roads beginning with 1 in Great Britain beginning north of the Thames, east of the A1. ... Chester-le-Street is a market town in County Durham, England with a history going back to Roman times. ...


In Autumn 2007 the Southern Radial Route will open. This is a bypass of the A1018 through Grangetown and Ryhope - a stretch that commonly suffers from congestion, especially during rush hour. The bypass will start just south of Ryhope, and run parallel to the cliff tops into Hendon, largely avoiding residential areas. This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... For other uses, see Rush hour (disambiguation). ...


Bus

A multi-million pound transport interchange at Park Lane was opened on 2 May 1999 by the then Brookside actor Michael Starke. With 750,000 passengers per year it is the busiest bus and coach station in Britain after Victoria Coach Station in Central London,[30] and has won several awards for innovative design. A new Metro station was built underneath the bus concourse to provide a direct interchange as part of the extension to South Hylton in 2002. A transport interchange is an interchange facility with different modes of transport. ... it is in sunderland (north east england) and is currently the UKs second most used interchange after Victoria in London!! Categories: United Kingdom-related stubs ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... This article is about the year. ... For other uses, see Brookside (disambiguation). ... Michael Starke (actor) Michael Starke (composer) ... Victoria Coach Station is the largest and most significant coach station in London, and is operated by Victoria Coach Station Ltd. ... Central London is a much-used but unofficial and vaguely defined term for the most inner part of London, the capital of England. ...


Cycle

There are a number of cycle routes that run through and around Sunderland. The National Cycle Network National Route 1 runs from Ryhope in the south, through the centre of the city, and then along the coast towards South Shields. Britain's most popular long-distance cycle route - The 'C2C' Sea to Sea Cycle Route - traditionally starts (or ends) when the cyclist dips their wheel in the sea on Roker beach. The 'W2W' 'Wear-to-Walney' route, and the 'Two-Rivers' (Tyne and Wear) route also terminate in Sunderland. The first section of the NCN to be built was the Bristol and Bath Railway Path, opened in 1984. ... Long distance in telecommunications, refers to telephone calls made outside a certain area, usually characterized by an area code outside of a local call area. ... Cycleway, Bicycle street and Pedestrian/Cyclist bridge in Nuremberg, Germany Segregated cycle facilities may consist of separate roads, tracks, paths or lanes designated for use by cyclists and from which motorised traffic is generally excluded. ... This article or section should be merged with NCN C2C The Sea to Sea Cycle Route (C2C) is Britains most popular long-distance cycle route and is based on minor roads, disused railway lines, off-road tracks and specially constructed cycle paths. ... The W2W is the name of a cross-country cycle route in Northern England. ... Walney Island, also known as the Isle of Walney, is the eighth largest marine island in England. ...


Culture and attractions

Literature and art

The Walrus in Mowbray Park, Sunderland
The Walrus in Mowbray Park, Sunderland

Lewis Carroll was a frequent visitor to the area. He wrote most of "Jabberwocky" at Whitburn as well as "The Walrus and the Carpenter".[31] Some parts of the area are also widely believed to be the inspiration for his Alice in Wonderland stories, such as Hylton Castle and Backhouse Park.[32] There is a statue to Carroll in Whitburn library. Lewis Carroll was also a visitor to the Rectory of Holy Trinity Church, Southwick; then a township independent of Sunderland. Carroll's connection with Sunderland, and the area's history, is documented in Bryan Talbot's 2007 graphic novel Alice in Sunderland.[33] Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (IPA: ) (27 January 1832 – 14 January 1898), better known by the pen name Lewis Carroll (), was an English author, mathematician, logician, Anglican clergyman and photographer. ... For other uses, see Jabberwocky (disambiguation). ... The Walrus and the Carpenter speaking to the Oysters, as portrayed by illustrator John Tenniel The Walrus and the Carpenter is a poem by Lewis Carroll that appeared in his book Through the Looking-Glass, published in December 1871. ... Bryan Talbot (born February 24, 1952) is a British comic book artist and writer. ... Alice in Sunderland: an entertainment is a graphic novel by comics writer and artist Bryan Talbot. ...


More recently, Sunderland-born Terry Deary, writer of the series of Horrible Histories books, has achieved fame and success, and many others such as thriller writer Sheila Quigley, are following his lead. Terry Deary (born 3 January 1946, Sunderland) is a childrens author now living in Burnhope, County Durham, England. ... Horrible Histories is a series of illustrated books published in the United Kingdom and now from 2007 officially in India by Scholastic. ... Sheila Quigley (born 1947?) is a British author of thrillers. ...


The Manchester painter, L S Lowry, was a frequent visitor, staying in the Seaburn Hotel in Sunderland.[34] Many of his paintings of seacapes and shipbuilding are based on Wearside scenes. This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ... Lawrence Stephen Lowry (1887 - 1976) was a English artist born in Stretford, Manchester. ...


The Northern Gallery for Contemporary Art on Fawcett Street and Sunderland Museum and Winter Gardens showcase exhibitions and installations from up-and-coming and established artists alike, with the latter holding an extensive collection of LS Lowry. The National Glass Centre on Liberty Way also exhibits a number of glass sculptures. Northern Gallery for Contemporary Art is a contemporary art gallery which focuses on producing exhibitions of new work by emerging and established international artists. ... The Winter Gardens, Sunderland, from Mowbray Park Sunderland Museum and Winter Gardens is in Sunderland, England. ... Coming out of School, 1927, oil on wood, 34. ...


Music

Main article: Bands and musicians from Yorkshire and North East England

Sunderland has produced a modest number of musicians that have gone on to reach international fame, most notably Dave Stewart of the Eurythmics. Kenickie, which featured Lauren Laverne on vocals, also achieved a top ten album and wide critical acclaim in the mid-to-late-1990s. In recent years, a thriving underground music scene in Sunderland has helped the likes of The Futureheads and Field Music gain national recognition. The following is a list of towns and cities in Yorkshire and the North East of England, each with the bands and musicians to have charted in them included. ... David Allan Stewart, often known as Dave Stewart (born September 9, 1952 in Sunderland, Tyne and Wear), is an English musician and record producer best known for his work with Eurythmics. ... For the approach to music education, see Eurhythmics. ... Kenickie were a four-piece punk-indie band from Sunderland, England. ... Lauren Laverne in 2007 Lauren Laverne (born Lauren Gofton on 28 April 1978 in Sunderland, England) is a disc jockey, television presenter and former singer. ... Underground music is music which has developed a cult following, independent of commercial success. ... The Futureheads are a four-pice English indie rock band from Sunderland. ... Field Music is a band from Sunderland, England. ...


Other famous Mackem musicians include punk rockers The Toy Dolls, who broke the top five of the charts with "Nellie the Elephant" in December 1984; the lead singer of dance outfit Olive, Ruth Ann Boyle, who achieved a UK chart-topper with "You're Not Alone" in May 1997, and has gone on to work with fellow chart-toppers Enigma; A Tribe of Toffs made number 21 with their cult hit "John Kettley is a weatherman" in December 1988; Alex Kapranos of the band Franz Ferdinand also grew up in Sunderland and South Shields. Olga live on stage in 2005 The Toy Dolls are a British punk rock band. ... Ruth-Ann Boyle Vocalist of Olive Olive were a trip hop group from the United Kingdom. ... Ruth-Ann Boyle Ruth-Ann Boyle (born April 26, 1970 in Sunderland) is an English pop singer who became famous during the 1990s. ... Look up enigma in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A Tribe of Toffs were a Novelty pop band from Sunderland in the UK. They are most remembered for their top 30 single John Kettley is a Weatherman in 1988. ... John Kettley is a freelance weatherman. ... Alex Kapranos (born Alexander Paul Kapranos Huntley, March 20, 1972) is an English musician of part Greek descent. ... Franz Ferdinand are an award winning rock band, from Glasgow, Scotland. ... , South Shields is a coastal town in Tyne and Wear, England, on the south bank of the mouth of the River Tyne, with a population of about 90,000. ...


On May 7 and 8th 2005, Sunderland played host to BBC Radio 1's Big Weekend concert - the UK's largest free music festival. The event was held at Herrington Country Park, in the shadow of Penshaw Monument and was attended by 30,000 visitors.[35][36] BBC Radio 1 (commonly referred to as just Radio 1) is a British national radio station operated by the BBC, specialising in popular music and speech and is aimed primarily at the 14-29[1] age group. ... Radio 1s Big Weekend (sometimes referred to as One Big Weekend) is a music festival run by BBC Radio 1. ... Herrington is an area to the South of Sunderland, formerly in County Durham. ... Penshaw Monument Penshaw Monument was built in 1844 on Penshaw (pronounced Pensher) Hill, Durham, North-East England, between the towns of Washington, Tyne and Wear and Houghton-le-Spring. ...


Sunderland lacks a large dedicated music venue such as the MetroRadio Arena or the Carling Academy in Newcastle. The Empire Theatre sometimes plays host to music acts, and has attracted Deacon Blue and Journey South to the city in recent years. McFly played there in April 2007. In the past it has also welcomed major bands such as The Beatles and The Kinks.
Independent, a city centre nightclub/music venue, satisfies underground music lovers, having previously played host to Keane, Franz Ferdinand, Kasabian, Kaiser Chiefs, Maxïmo Park and Snow Patrol when they were largely unknown and had not yet achieved commercial success. More recently, the club hosted gigs from established bands such as The Zutons, The Maccabees and Klaxons. The Manor Quay, the students' union on the campus of the University of Sunderland has also hosted the Arctic Monkeys, Maxïmo Park, 911, the Levellers and Girls Aloud in recent years. The Metro Radio Arena Newcastle is an 11,000 seat sports and entertainment venue based in Newcastle upon Tyne in North East England. ... Carling Academy Newcastle The Carling Academy Newcastle is the newest music venue in Newcastle upon Tyne, [[Tyne and Wear], England]. It was opened on October 14, 2005 to an evening headlined by regional band The Futureheads. ... Deacon Blue are a Scottish pop band. ... Journey South were a musical duo originating from Middlesbrough, England, consisting of brothers Carl and Andy Pemberton. ... For other uses, see McFly (disambiguation). ... The White Album, see The Beatles (album). ... The Kinks were an English rock group formed in 1963 by lead singer-songwriter Ray Davies, his brother, lead guitarist and vocalist Dave Davies, and bassist Pete Quaife. ... Laser lights illuminate the dance floor at a Gatecrasher dance music event in Sheffield, England A nightclub (or night club or club) is a drinking, dancing, and entertainment venue which does its primary business after dark. ... Keane (IPA: /kin/) are an English piano rock band, first established in Battle, East Sussex in 1995, taking their current name in 1997. ... For other uses, see Kasabian (disambiguation). ... This article is about the band. ... Maxïmo Park are an British indie rock band, signed to Warp Records, who formed in 2000. ... Snow Patrol are a Grammy Award-nominated alternative rock band which formed in Scotland, with the majority of their members being from Bangor and Belfast, Northern Ireland. ... The Zutons are an English indie rock band from Liverpool. ... The Maccabees are a Brighton-based British indie band. ... Arctic Monkeys are a Mercury Prize winning English indie rock band from High Green, a suburb of Sheffield. ... The Levellers are a popular English band that plays Folk-rock or Indie rock influenced by Punk and traditional English music. ... Girls Aloud are a British girl group created by ITV1 talent show Popstars: The Rivals in 2002. ...


The Sunderland Symphony Orchestra was founded in 2000 to mark the millennium. Sunderland Symphony Orchestra (or City of Sunderland Millennium Orchestral Society or CoSMOS), presently directed by Rupert Hanson, was founded to mark the turn of the current millennium. ...


Theatre

The Sunderland Empire theatre.
The Sunderland Empire theatre.

The Sunderland Empire Theatre, opened in 1907, is the largest theatre in the North East, reopened in December 2004 following a major redevelopment allowing it to stage West End shows such as Miss Saigon, Starlight Express and My Fair Lady, all of which have been performed at the Empire. The Empire is the only theatre between Leeds and Glasgow large enough to accommodate such shows.[37] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (800x1067, 665 KB) The Sunderland Empire Theatre in Sunderland, Tyne anad Wear, England. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (800x1067, 665 KB) The Sunderland Empire Theatre in Sunderland, Tyne anad Wear, England. ... The Sunderland Empire Theatre is located in High Street West in Sunderland. ... West End theatre is a popular term for mainstream professional theatre in London, England, or sometimes more specifically for shows staged in the large theatres of Londons Theatreland. Along with New Yorks Broadway theatre, West End theatre is usually considered to represent the highest level of commercial theatre... Miss Saigon is a musical by Claude-Michel Schönberg and Alain Boublil, with lyrics by Boublil and Richard Maltby, Jr. ... Starlight Express is a rock musical by Andrew Lloyd Webber (music) and Richard Stilgoe (lyrics), with later revisions by Don Black (lyrics) and David Yazbek (music and lyrics for the 2nd US tour, though much of his contribution was removed for the UK tour after Andrew Lloyd Webber saw it... My Fair Lady is a musical with a book and lyrics by Alan Jay Lerner and music by Frederick Loewe, based on George Bernard Shaws Pygmalion. ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ...


The Empire has also recently played host to a diverse range of comedy performers such as Ricky Gervais, Roy Chubby Brown, Little Britain, Mark Lamarr and The League of Gentlemen. Ricky Dene Gervais (IPA: ; born June 25, 1961) is an Emmy-, Golden Globe- and BAFTA award-winning English comic writer and performer from Reading, Berkshire. ... Roy Chubby Brown (Née: Royston Vasey) English comedian, was born in Grangetown Middlesborough in the mid 1940s. ... This article is about the British TV show Little Britain. ... Mark Lamarr (born Mark Jones on January 7, 1967 in Swindon, Wiltshire) is an English comedian and a presenter on radio and television. ... The League of Gentlemen is a quartet of British comedy writer/performers, formed in 1995 by Jeremy Dyson, Mark Gatiss, Steve Pemberton and Reece Shearsmith. ...


The Birmingham Royal Ballet have a season at the Sunderland Empire every year, and it is considered the company's north-east home. Banner advertising the Birmingham Royal Ballet at the Hippodrome The Birmingham Royal Ballet (BRB) is one of the UKs foremost ballet companies, based at the Birmingham Hippodrome in Birmingham, where it enjoys custom-built facilities such as the Jerwood Centre for the Prevention and Treatment of Dance Injuries and...


The Royalty Theatre is the home to the (amateur) Royalty Theatre group who also put on a number of low-budget productions throughout the year. Renowned film producer David Parfitt belonged to this company before achieving worldwide fame. David Parfitt is a movie producer, originally from Sunderland. ...


Media, film and television

Sunderland has two local newspapers: the daily evening tabloid The Sunderland Echo, founded in 1873, and the Sunderland Star - a free newspaper.[38] It also has its own local radio station Sun FM and a hospital radio station - Radio Sunderland for Hospitals, and can receive other north-eastern independent radio stations Metro FM, Magic 1152, Galaxy North East and Century FM. The University of Sunderland student radio station Utopia FM has recently won awards for innovation and broadcasts for part of the year. In September 2007, Ofcom, the media regulator, awarded a 5 year full-time community radio licence to Utopia FM to start broadcasting in 2008. The city is covered by BBC North East and Cumbria and ITV's Tyne Tees franchise, which has a regional office in the University's Media Centre.[39] The Sunderland Echo is a provincial newspaper published in Sunderland, England by Northeast Press at the Sunderland Echo House. ... The September 12, 2001 edition of the Palo Alto Daily News, one of the most successful free daily newspapers. ... Logo used by the Independent Broadcasting Authority for promoting Independent Local Radio services. ... Sun FM is a radio station serving the City of Sunderland and also available in Tyne and Wear, northern parts of County Durham in England. ... Radio Sunderland is the hospital radio station for the Royal Hospital and the St Bendedicts Hospice in Sunderland, England. ... Metro Radio is an Independent Local Radio station broadcasting to North East England. ... Magic 1152 is the name of two independent local radio stations in the UK owned by Magic Radio as part of the EMAP group. ... Galaxy North East is an English regional radio station specialising in dance music and RnB. It is based in Wallsend, at the Silverlink Business Park, near the junction of the A1058 and the A19, near the Billy Mill roundabout. ... 100-102 Century FM is the name of a radio station now controlled by GMG Radio as part of its Century Network. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Ofcom is a regulator for communication industries in the United Kingdom. ... Community radio is a type of radio service that caters to the interests of a certain area, broadcasting material that is popular to a local audience but is overlooked by more powerful broadcast groups. ... BBC North East and Cumbria is the BBC English Region covering Northumberland, Tyne and Wear, County Durham, Teesside and all but the Southern part of Cumbria. ... Independent Television (generally known as ITV, but also as ITV Network) is a public service network of British commercial television broadcasters, set up under the Independent Television Authority (ITA) to provide competition to the BBC. ITV is the oldest commercial television network in the UK. Since 1990 and the Broadcasting... Tyne Tees Television is the ITV television contractor for North East England. ...


Production will start in Sunderland in early 2007 on the Simon Fellows film Malice in Sunderland, a modern twist on the story of Alice in Wonderland, starring Mischa Barton.[40] Alice in Wonderland is the widely known and used title for Alices Adventures in Wonderland, a book written by Lewis Carroll -- as well as several movie adaptations of the book -- and is also the setting for several short stories. ... Mischa Anne Barton (born January 24, 1986) is an English actress and fashion model, known for her role as Marissa Cooper on the former Fox television teen drama // Barton was born in Hammersmith, London, to an Irish mother, Nuala (née Quinn), a photographer, and English father, Paul Marsden Barton...


The Stadium of Light, home of Sunderland AFC was used as a filming location in the 2000 movie Purely Belter, following the season-ticket chasing dreams of two Newcastle United F.C. fans. Sunderland Association Football Club (Sunderland AFC or SAFC) is a professional football club, based at the Stadium of Light in Sunderland, Tyne and Wear, North-East England. ... Purely Belter is a 2000 film directed by Mark Herman about two teenagers (Chris Beattie and Greg McLane) trying to get money by any means necessary, in order to get season tickets for home games played by the FA Premier League football team Newcastle United. ... Newcastle United Football Club (also known as The Magpies or The Toon) is an English professional football club based in Newcastle upon Tyne, who currently play in the Premier League. ...


Events

Each year on the last weekend in July, the city hosts the Sunderland International Airshow. It takes place primarily along the sea front at Roker and Seaburn, and is attended by over 1.2 million people annually. It is the largest free airshow in Europe.


Sunderland also hosts the free International Festival of Kites, Music and Dance, which attracts kite-makers from around the world to Northumbria Playing Fields, Washington.


Every year the city hosts a large Remembrance Day memorial, believed to be the largest in the UK outside of London.[41] Wreaths of artificial poppies used as a symbol of remembrance Remembrance Day (Australia, Canada, United Kingdom), also known as Poppy Day (Malta and South Africa), Veterans Day (United States), and Armistice Day (France, New Zealand, and many other Commonwealth countries; and the original name of the day internationally) is a... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


HMS Ocean, an active Helicopter Landing Platform of the Royal Navy, is Sunderland's adopted ship. The crew of Ocean regularly visit the city. HMS Ocean (centre right) in a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. ... HMS Ocean A Landing Platform, Helicopter is a warship designed to deliver troops into a war zone by helicopter, but which usually has a limited capability of landing troops by sea using small landing craft. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ...


At Christmas, Sunderland hosts a large German market in the city centre selling quality German-made wooden goods, and German food. It also hosts a large ice rink in Mowbray Park, which forms part of the wider, regional North East Winter Festival. The German style buffet German Cuisine varies greatly from region to region. ... Rockefeller Centre ice rink An ice rink is a frozen body of water where people can ice skate or play winter sports. ...


Attractions

Notable attractions for visitors to Sunderland include Penshaw Monument, the Souter Lighthouse (the first electrically powered lighthouse in the world[42]), the 15th century Hylton Castle, the Wildfowl park in Washington, and the beaches of Roker and Seaburn. Souter Lighthouse is a lighthouse located in the village of Marsden in South Tyneside, Tyne and Wear, England. ... Map sources for Hylton Castle at grid reference NZ357588 Hylton Castle is a ruined castle in the north west of Sunderland. ... Falcated Duck at Slimbridge Wildfowl and Wetlands centre, Gloucestershire, England Wildfowl or waterfowl, also waterbirds, is the collective term for the approximately 147 species of swans, geese and ducks, classified in the order Anseriformes, family Anatidae. ...


The National Glass Centre opened in 1998, reflecting Sunderland's distinguished history of glass-making. Despite substained support from the Arts Council the centre has struggled to meet visitor targets since it opened.[43] The Arts Council of Great Britain was a Quango dedicated to the promotion of the fine arts in Britain. ...

The Winter Gardens, Sunderland, from Mowbray Park
The Winter Gardens, Sunderland, from Mowbray Park

Sunderland Museum and Winter Gardens, on Borough Road, was the first municipally funded museum in the country outside London. It houses a comprehensive collection of the locally produced Sunderland Lustreware pottery. The new City Library Arts Centre, on Fawcett Street, also houses the Northern Gallery for Contemporary Art. Download high resolution version (800x1066, 335 KB)Winter Gardens, Sunderland. ... Download high resolution version (800x1066, 335 KB)Winter Gardens, Sunderland. ... Sunderland Lustreware Several potteries were located along the banks of the River Wear in Sunderland in the Nineteenth Century. ...


The City of Sunderland has been commended several times on its commitment to preserving its natural faculties. As such, Sunderland has been awarded prestigious titles by the Britain in Bloom collective in 1993, 1997 and 2000. Britain in Bloom is a horticultural competition in the United Kingdom. ...


Sport

The only professional sporting team in Sunderland is the football team, Sunderland A.F.C., formed in 1879. Currently winners of the Football League Championship, and newly-promoted to the Premier League, they play their home games at the 49,000 seat capacity Stadium of Light and share a bitter and historic rivalry with fellow Tyne and Wear side Newcastle United F.C.. Sunderland also has the north-east's top women's football team, Sunderland A.F.C. Women, who have been financially separated from the men's team since summer 2005. They currently play in the top tier of English women's football - FA Women's Premier League National Division, despite their financial struggles. The City also has two non-league sides, Sunderland Nissan F.C. of the Northern League Division One and Sunderland Ryhope Community Association F.C. of the Northern League Division Two “Soccer” redirects here. ... Sunderland Association Football Club is a professional football club, based at the Stadium of Light in Sunderland, Tyne and Wear, in North-East England. ... The Football League Championship (often referred to as The Championship for short, or the Coca-Cola Football League Championship for sponsorship reasons) is the highest division of The Football League and second-highest division overall in the English football league system after the Premier League. ... For other sports leagues which may be referred to by this name, see List of professional sports leagues. ... Sunderland AFC Women (, Sunderland Ladies) is a womens football club based in Sunderland, North East England. ... The FA Womens Premier League National Division is at the top of the English womens football league pyramid. ... Sunderland Nissan F.C. is a football club based in Sunderland, England. ... The Arngrove Northern League Division One is the highest division in the Northern League, a Step 5 league in the English football National League System. ... Sunderland Ryhope Community Association F.C. is an English association football club, based in Sunderland, Tyne and Wear, currently playing in the Northern League Division Two. ... The Arngrove Northern League Division Two is a football competition based in England. ...


Sunderland's amateur Rugby and Cricket clubs are both based in Ashbrooke. The Ashbrooke ground was opened on 30th May 1887. The history of the cricket club goes back to 1801, where a game was recorded on July 25th at Monkwearmouth shore. The rugby union football club was established in 1873, where it is recorded that practices took place in December, probably on the town moor and in January of 1874, games were played against both Houghton and Darlington respectively.(Both matches being won). In its early years, the rugby club were made up of former public school boys and well educated and successful business and industrial leaders of the locality. In 1881, Sunderland were recorded as the first winners of the Durham County Senior Challenge Cup, beating Houghton 9-0.This was the first of five successes, the last being in 1959, when they beat a Durham City team 6-0, of whom there were several county players and internationals. A great triumph. The last appearance in the final was 1997, when they were beaten by Stockton. For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... This article is about the sport. ... Ashbrooke is a residential area of Sunderland, England, to the immediate South and South-West of Sunderland City Centre. ...


Sunderland had an Ice Hockey team from 1977 until the late 1990s when the ice rink at the Crowtree leisure centre was closed. Ice hockey, known simply as hockey in areas where it is more common than field hockey, is a team sport played on ice. ...

View of the Stadium of Light from the opposite side of the River Wear.
View of the Stadium of Light from the opposite side of the River Wear.

From 1976 until 1995, Sunderland had a Basketball team, winners of the national championship in 1981. Named 'Sunblest Sunderland' the team played at the Crowtree Leisure Centre. In 1995 the team moved to Newcastle (under the name 'Newcastle Comets'), where it was then bought by John Hall and renamed the Newcastle Eagles. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 217 pixelsFull resolution (3146 × 852 pixel, file size: 371 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sunderland A.F.C. Sunderland Stadium... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 217 pixelsFull resolution (3146 × 852 pixel, file size: 371 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sunderland A.F.C. Sunderland Stadium... This article is about the sport. ... Sir John Hall (b. ... The Newcastle Eagles, or officially the Springfield Honda Newcastle Eagles by sponsorship, is a British Basketball League team from Newcastle-Upon-Tyne. ...


The Crowtree Leisure Centre has also played host to a number of important boxing matches and snooker championships including the 2003 Snooker World Trickshot and Premier League Final. In September 2005, BBC TV cameras caught international boxing bouts featuring local boxers David Dolan, Tony Jeffries and Stuart Kennedy. This article is an overview article about the Crown chartered British Broadcasting Corporation formed in 1927. ...


Athletics is also a popular sport in the city, with Sunderland Harriers Athletics Club based at Silksworth Sports Complex. 800 m runner Gavin Massingham represented the club at the AAA Championships in 2005. In 2006, the first Great Women's Run took place along Sunderland's coastline. Among the field which lined up to start the race were Olympic silver medallists Sonia O'Sullivan of Republic of Ireland and eventual winner Gete Wami of Ethiopia. The race returns to the city on 17 June 2007. Sonia OSullivan (born November 28, 1969) is an Irish runner from Cobh, County Cork. ... Gete Wami (born December 11, 1974 in Debre Berhan) is a female Ethiopian cross country and track runner. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


Speedway racing was staged at the greyhound stadium, East Bolden. The Sunderland Saints of 1964 closed after 8 meetings. The track re-opened in the early 1970s and known as the Stars and then the Gladiators, raced in the National league Division Two.


Education

See also: List of schools in the North East of England
The Sir Tom Cowie Campus at St. Peter's at Monkwearmouth.
The Sir Tom Cowie Campus at St. Peter's at Monkwearmouth.

The University of Sunderland was opened in 1992, and currently has over 16,000 students. The university is split into two campuses. the main 'Wearmouth Hall' building (site of the original Polytechnic) is just to the west of the city centre as is the main university library. The The Sir Tom Cowie Campus at St. Peter's is located on the north banks of the river Wear, next to the National Glass Centre. The following is a partial list of currently operating schools in the North East region of England. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x524, 436 KB) Summary St Peters Campus at the University of Sunderland, Sunderland, England. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x524, 436 KB) Summary St Peters Campus at the University of Sunderland, Sunderland, England. ...


The City of Sunderland College is a further education establishment with five campuses located at the Bede centre on Durham Road, Shiney Row, Hylton, Doxford International Business Park and 'Phoenix House' in the city centre. It has over 14,000 students, and based on exam results is one of the most successful colleges.[44] City of Sunderland College is one of the largest Further Education and Sixth Form Colleges in the UK based in Sunderland. ... Further education (often abbreviated FE) is post-secondary, post-compulsory education (in addition to that received at secondary school). ... The A690 is a road in County Durham running from Sunderland in the east through Durham into the Pennines. ... Shiney Row is a suburb in Houghton-le-Spring, Tyne and Wear. ...


There are twenty secondary schools in the Sunderland area, predominantly comprehensives. According to exam results, the most successful was the Sunderland High School, an independent selective school in Ashbrooke.[45] However, comprehensive schools also thrive, particularly the Roman Catholic single-sex schools St. Anthony's (for girls) and St. Aidan's (for boys). Both continue to attain high exam results. There are seventy-six primary schools in Sunderland. According to the 'Value Added' measure, the most successful is Mill Hill Primary School, in Doxford Park.[46] Secondary school is a term used to describe an institution where the final stage of compulsory schooling, known as secondary education, takes place. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... A selective school is a school which admits students on the basis of some sort of selection criteria, usually academic. ... A primary school in Český Těšín, Czech Republic. ... Doxford Park is a suburb of Sunderland, Tyne and Wear, located to the south-west of the city centre. ...


Notable people

Developer of the electric lightbulb Joseph Swan, agony aunt Denise Robertson, rockers 'The Futureheads' and Alex Kapranos of 'Franz Ferdinand', Civil liberty campaigner Chris Mullin MP, radio DJ and singer Lauren Laverne,[47], actor James Bolam, film producer David Parfitt, lead singer of 'Olive' Ruth-Ann Boyle, author Lewis Carroll, artist LS Lowry, journalist Kate Adie, and The Venerable Bede are a few of the many famous people born in or associated with Sunderland. For a more detail list, see List of famous residents of Sunderland.It should be noted that Sunderland is U.S President George Washington's ancestral home city. Joseph Swan Sir Joseph Wilson Swan (October 31, 1828 – May 27, 1914) was an English physicist and chemist, most famous for the development of the light bulb. ... Denise Robertson (born June 1934, in Sunderland, England) is a British Agony aunt, on british television. ... Civil liberties is the name given to freedoms that protect the individual from government. ... Chris Mullin MP Christopher John Mullin, known as Chris Mullin, (born 12 December 1947 in Chelmsford, Essex) is an UK Labour politician, currently the member of Parliament for the English constituency of Sunderland South. ... James Bolam (born June 16, 1938 in Sunderland, England) is a British actor, perhaps most associated with his portrayal of the lovable layabout Terry Collier in the hit BBC sitcoms The Likely Lads and Whatever Happened to the Likely Lads?. Much like his fellow Likely Lad Rodney Bewes, Bolam was... Binomial name L. 19th century illustration The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, native to coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean region, from Lebanon and the maritime parts of Asia Minor and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea. ... Ruth-Ann Boyle Ruth-Ann Boyle (born April 26, 1970 in Sunderland) is an English pop singer who became famous during the 1990s. ... Kate Adie (born September 19, 1945) is a British journalist. ... Bede, commonly known as the Venerable Bede, (c. ... For other uses, see Celebrity (disambiguation). ... This is a list of famous or notable people born in, or associated with, Sunderland in England. ...


See also

Facts and Figures, important dates in Sunderlands history Categories: City of Sunderland | History of Tyne and Wear ...

References

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Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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Places in Tyne and Wear
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Sunderland - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3190 words)
Sunderland is a city and port in the City of Sunderland metropolitan borough, in the county of Tyne and Wear in North East England.
Sunderland forms part of the larger City of Sunderland which also includes the neighbouring towns of Washington, Hetton-le-Hole and Houghton-le-Spring and is the largest city, by measures of population and area, between Leeds and Edinburgh.
The urban area of Sunderland was recorded in the 2001 census as 177,739, whilst the population of the larger City of Sunderland was 282,700.
Sunderland A.F.C. - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2211 words)
Sunderland Association Football Club (Sunderland AFC or SAFC) is a professional football club, based at the Stadium of Light in Sunderland, Tyne and Wear, North-East England.
Sunderland have been English Champions six times in total (last time was 1936), and won the FA Cup most famously as a Second Division club in 1973 (previously winning the FA Cup in 1937), when they beat the then mighty Leeds United 1 - 0.
Sunderland's record attendance of 75,118 at Roker Park is the 5th highest record attendance of all league clubs - behind Manchester City (84,569), Chelsea F.C. Everton F.C. (78,299) and Aston Villa (76,588).
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