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Encyclopedia > Sundarbans
Ganges River Delta, Bangladesh and India

The Sundarbans delta is the largest mangrove forest in the world. It lies at the mouth of the Ganges and is spread across areas of Bangladesh and West Bengal, India. Interestingly, the Bangladesh and Indian portion of the jungle are listed in the UNESCO world heritage list separately as the Sundarbans and Sundarbans National Park respectively, though they are simply parts of the same forest. The Sundarbans is intersected by a complex network of tidal waterways, mudflats and small islands of salt-tolerant mangrove forests, and presents an excellent example of ongoing ecological processes. The area is known for its wide range of fauna. The most famous among these are the maneating Bengal Tigers, but numerous species of birds, spotted deer, crocodiles and snakes also inhabit it. It is estimated that there are now 400 Bengal tigers and about 30,000 spotted deer in the area. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1400x1370, 804 KB) GANGES RIVER DELTA, BANGLADESH, INDIA (STS066-92-013). ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1400x1370, 804 KB) GANGES RIVER DELTA, BANGLADESH, INDIA (STS066-92-013). ... Nile River delta, as seen from Earth orbit. ... Above and below water view at the edge of the mangal. ... Early morning on the Ganges The River Ganges (Ganga in Indian languages) (Devanagiri गंगा) is a major river in northern India. ... West Bengal   (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ, Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... UNESCO logo UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ... The Sundarbans National Park is a national park located in the Sundarbans delta in India. ... The tide is the cyclic rising and falling of Earths ocean surface caused by the tidal forces of the Moon and the Sun acting on the Earth. ... Mudflats in Brewster, Massachusetts extending hundreds of yards offshore at the low tide. ... Ernst Haeckel coined the term oekologie in 1866. ... Trinomial name Panthera tigris tigris (Linnaeus, 1758) The Bengal tiger or Royal Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) is a subspecies of tiger found in parts of India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, and Myanmar. ... Orders Many - see section below. ... Subfamilies Odocoilinae Cervinae Hydropotinae Muntiacinae A deer is a ruminant mammal belonging to the family Cervidae. ... Genera Mecistops Crocodylus Osteolaemus See full taxonomy. ... For other uses, see Snake (disambiguation). ...

Most of the plot of prize-winning anthropologist Amitav Ghosh's 2004 novel, The Hungry Tide, is set in the Sundarbans. Amitav Ghosh (born 1956 in Calcutta), is an Indian author, known for his work in the English language. ... The Hungry Tide is a very contemporary story of adventure and unlikely love, identity and history, set in one of the most fascinating regions on the earth. ...



The mangrove-dominated Ganges delta – the Sundarbans - is a complex ecosystem comprising one of the three largest single tract of mangrove forests of the world. Shared between two neighboring countries, Bangladesh and India, the larger part (62%)is situated in the southwest corner of Bangladesh .To the south the forest meets the [Bay of Bengal]; to the east it is bordered by the Baleswar River and to the north there is a sharp interface with intensively cultivated land. The natural drainage in the upstream areas, other than the main river channels, is everywhere impeded by extensive embankments and polders. The total land area is 4,143 km² (including exposed sandbars: 42 km²) and the remaining water area of 1,874 km² encompasses rivers, small streams and canals. Rivers in the Sundarbans are meeting places of salt water and freshwater. Thus, it is a region of transition between the freshwater of the rivers originating from the Ganges and the saline water of the Bay of Bengal (Wahid et al.. 2002). Above and below water view at the edge of the mangal. ... The Baleshwar River is located in eastern India. ... Satellite image of Noordoostpolder, Netherlands (595. ... Early morning on the Ganges The River Ganges (Ganga in Indian languages) (Devanagiri गंगा) is a major river in northern India. ...

In terms of biodiversity, the Sundarbans contrasts the other large mangrove forests for its extraordinarily diverse wildlife and designated as a UNESCO’s World Network of International Biosphere Reserves since 2001. The forest also has immense protective and productive functions. Constituting 51% of the total reserved forest estate of Bangladesh it contributes about 41% of total forest revenue and accounts for about 45% of all timber and fuel wood output of the country (FAO 1995). A number of industries (e.g. newsprint mill, match factory, hardboard, boat building, furniture making) are based on the raw material obtained from the Sundarbans ecosystem. Various non-timber forest products and plantations help generate considerable employment and income generation opportunities for at least half a million poor coastal population. Besides production functions of the forest, it provides natural protection to life and properties of the coastal population in cyclone prone Bangladesh. A Biosphere Reserve is an international conservation designation for reserves designated by UNESCO under the MaB (Man and the Biosphere) Programme. ... Non-timber forest products or NTFPs comprise all goods derived from forests of both plant and animal origin other than timber. ... A plantation is an intentional planting of a crop, on a larger scale, usually for uses other than cereal production or pasture. ... Radar image of a tropical cyclone in the northern hemisphere. ...

However, despite the fact that the Sundarbans is mostly free of permanent human habitation and retained a forest closure of about 70% according to the Overseas Development Administration (ODA) of the United Kingdom in 1985, forest inventories reveal a decline in standing volume of the two main commercial mangrove species—sundri (Heritiera fomes} and gewa (Excoecaria agallocha}—by 40% and 45% respectively between 1959 and 1983 (Forestal 1960 and ODA 1985). Also, despite a total ban on all killing or capture of wildlife other than fish and some invertebrates, there appears to be a pattern of depleted biodiversity or loss of species (notably at least six mammals and one important reptile this century), and that the "ecological quality of the original mangrove forest is declining" (IUCN 1994). Genera See text Ref: Euphorbiaceae in The Families of Flowering Plants, as of 2002-07-13 The Spurge family (Euphorbiaceae) is a large family of flowering plants with 280 genera and around 6000 species. ... Various species of deer are commonly seen wildlife across the Americas and Eurasia. ... Invertebrate is a term coined by Chevalier de Lamarck to describe any animal without a backbone or vertebra, like insects, squids and worms. ...


The Sundarbans are home to approximately seven hundred Bengal Tigers (2004).[1][2] These tigers are well-known for the substantial number of people they kill; estimates range from twenty and eighty people per year. They are the only man-eating tigers left in the world, though they are not the only tigers who live in close proximity to humans. In Bandhavgarh, villages encircle the tiger reserves, and yet only one person is on record as having been attacked. Trinomial name Panthera tigris tigris (Linnaeus, 1758) The Bengal tiger or Royal Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) is a subspecies of tiger found in parts of India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, and Myanmar. ...

The locals and government officials take certain precautions to prevent attacks, although few of them work. Local fishermen will say prayers and perform rituals to the forest god, Bonbibi, before setting out on expeditions. Fishermen and bushmen make facial masks to wear on the back of their heads, due to the fact that tigers always attack from behind. This worked for a short time, but the tigers quickly realized it was a hoax, and the attacks continued. Government officials wear stiff pads that rise up the back of the neck, similar to the pads of an American football player. This is to prevent the tigers from biting into the spine, which is their favoured attack method. United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ...

There are several speculated causes as to why these tigers maul humans:

  • Since the Sundarbans is located in a coastal area, the water is relatively salty. In all other habitats, tigers drink fresh water. It is rumored that the saltiness of the tiger's water in this area has put them in a state of constant discomfort, leading them to be extremely aggressive. Freshwater lakes have been artificially made but to no avail.
  • The high tides in the area destroy the tiger's scents which serve as territorial markers. Thus, the only way for a tiger to defend its territory is to physically dominate everything that enters.
  • Another possibility is that these tigers have grown used to human flesh due to the weather. Floods in this part of India kill thousands, and the bodies drift out in to the swampy waters, where tigers scavenge on them.
  • Another possibility is that the tigers find hunting animals difficult due to the continuous high & low tides making the area marsh-like and slippery. Humans travel through the Sunderbans on boats gathering honey and fishing, making an easy or accessible prey. It is also believed that when a person stoops to work, the tiger mistakes them for an animal, and has, over time, acquired a 'taste' for the human flesh.

For the village on the Isle of Wight, see Freshwater, Isle of Wight. ... Look up flood in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The word Animals when used alone has several possible meanings in the English language. ... Freshwater marsh in Florida In geography, a marsh is a type of wetland, featuring grasses, rushes, reeds, typhas, sedges, cat tails, and other herbaceous plants (possibly with low-growing woody plants) in a context of shallow water. ...


  • Blasco, F. (1975). The Mangroves of India. Institut Francis de Pondichery, Travaux de las Section Scientifique et Technique, Tome XIV, Facicule 1. Pondichery, India.
  • FAO (1995). Integrated Resource Management Plan of the Sundarbans Reserved Forest - Final Report. FAO Project BGD/84/056. FAO, Rome, Italy.
  • Forestal (1960). Forest Inventory 1958-59 Sundarbans Forests. Oregon: Forestal Forestry and Engineering International Ltd, Canada.
  • IUCN (1994). Mangroves of the Sundarbans. Volume 2: Bangladesh. The IUCN Wetlands Programme. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
  • ODA (1985). A forest inventory of the Sundarbans, Bangladesh. Main Report. Land Resources Development Centre, Surbiton, England.
  • Wahid, S.M., Alam, M.J. and Rahman, A. (2002). "Mathematical river modelling to support ecological monitoring of the largest mangrove forest of the world – the *Sundarbans". Proceedings of First Asia-Pacific DHI software conference, 17-18 June, 2002.
  • Montgomery, Sy (1995). Spell of the Tiger: The Man-Eaters of Sundarbans. Houghton Mifflin Company, New York.

External links

     Geography of South Asia     
Himalaya | Western Ghats | Eastern Ghats | Aravalli Range | The Nilgiris | Vindhya Range | Satpura Range | Garo Hills | Shivalik Hills | Khasi Hills | Annamalai Hills | Cardamom Hills | Sulaiman Mountains | Karakoram | Hindu Kush | Chittagong Hill Tracts | Deccan Plateau | Thar Desert | Makran | Chota Nagpur | Naga Hills | Mysore Plateau | Ladakh Plateau
Indo-Gangetic plain | Indus River Delta | Ganga basin | Ganges Delta | Atolls of Maldives | Coromandel Coast | Konkan | Lakshadweep | Andaman and Nicobar Islands | Sundarbans | Rann of Kutch
Main India | Pakistan | Nepal | Bhutan | Sri Lanka | Bangladesh | The Maldives | Portal:Himalaya region

Coordinates: 21°56′N 88°51′E Wikitravel is a project to create an open content, complete, up-to-date, and reliable world-wide travel guide. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3042x2933, 2736 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x958, 167 KB) India This is a NASA World Wind screenshot. ... Download high resolution version (1000x662, 258 KB)The Himalayan mountain range with Mount Everest as seen from the International Space Station looking south-south-east over the Tibetan Plateau. ... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... The Agasthiyamalai range of the Western Ghats The Western Ghats are a mountain range in India. ... The Eastern Ghats are a discontinuous range of mountains, eroded and cut through by the four major rivers of southern India, the Godavari, Mahanadi, Krishna, and Kaveri. ... The Aravali Range The Aravali Range is a range of mountains in western India running approximately 300 miles northeast-southwest across Rajasthan state. ... Map of The Nilgiris district The Nilgiris or Blue Mountains, often called The Queen of Hills are a range of mountains and a district in the south-Indian states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala. ... The Vindhya Range is a range of hills in central India, which geographically separates The Indian subcontinent into northern India and Southern India. ... The Satpura Range is a range of hills in central India. ... The Garo Hills are part of the Garo-Khasi range in Meghalaya, India. ... The Siwalik Hills (sometimes spelled Shiwalik, Shivalik, or Sivalik) are a sub-Himalayan mountain range running 1,600 km long from the Tista River, Sikkim, through Nepal and India, into northern Pakistan. ... The Khasi Hills are part of the Garo-Khasi range in Meghalaya, India. ... Anaimalai hills are a trekking destination in the Western Ghats located in the southern indian state of Tamil Nadu, Coimbatore district, and is known for its abundant wildlife. ... The Cardamom Hills are elevated regions in Kerala, India. ... sorry guys it is unavailable and happens to be deleted--212. ... Located in the mountainous regions of Gilgit, Ladakh & Baltistan, Gilgit and Baltistan are in Pakistan, the Karakoram is one of the great Himalayan mountain ranges, with many of the highest and most daunting peaks of the world. ... The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (هندوکش in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Deccan Plateau is a vast plateau in India, encompassing most of Central and Southern India. ... A NASA satellite image of the Thar Desert, with the India-Pakistan border superimposed is found in canada, united states. ... Makran is the southern region of Balochistan, in Iran and Pakistan along the coast of the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman. ... The Chota Nagpur Plateau (also Chhota Nagpur) is a plateau in eastern India, which covers much of Jharkhand state as well as adjacent parts of Orissa, Bihar, and Chhattisgarh. ... Naga hills, reaching a height of around 3825 meters, lie on the border of India and Myanmar. ... The Mysore Plateau, also known as the South Karnataka Plateau, is one of the four geographically unique regions of the Indian state of Karnataka. ... Ladakh (Tibetan script: ལ་དྭགས་, Hindi: लद्दाख़, Urdu: لدّاخ; IPA: , land of high passes) is a region in the state of Jammu and Kashmir in Northern India sandwiched between the Karakoram mountain range to the north and the Himalayas to the south. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1023x505, 196 KB) Summary Dabhol beach as seen from the ferry when crossing over from Guhaghar. ... The Indo-Gangetic Plain is a rich, fertile and ancient land encompassing most of northern and eastern India, the most populous parts of Pakistan, and virtually all of Bangladesh. ... Indus River Delta The Indus River Delta occurs where the Indus River flows into the Arabian Sea in Pakistan. ... The Ganga basin is a part of the composite Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna basin, which drains an area of 1,086,000 square kilometres. ... Image:Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta. ... Each administrative atoll is marked, along with the thaana letter used to identify the atoll. ... The Coromandel Coast is the name given to the southeastern coast of the Indian peninsula. ... A typical view of the Konkan, consisting of white-sand beaches and palm trees (mostly coconut and betel nut). ... Lakshadweep ( ; Malayalam: ലക്ഷദ്വീപ്, []) is the smallest union territory of India. ... Map of Andaman and Nicobar Islands with an extra detailed area around Port Blair The Andaman & Nicobar Islands   (Tamil: அந்தமான் நிகோபார் தீவுகள், Hindi: अंडमान और निकोबार द्वीप) is a union territory of India. ... Rann of Kutch on the Top Left. ... Maldives is a country of South Asia, situated in the Indian Ocean, south-southwest of India. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

  Results from FactBites:
UNEP-WCMC Protected Areas Programme - The Sundarbans (3737 words)
In the eastern part of the Sundarbans the surface soil is soft and fertile, whereas it is harder and less suitable for tree growth in the west (Choudhury, 1968).
The Sundarbans of Bangladesh and India support one of the largest populations of tiger Panthera tigris (EN), with an estimated 350 in that of the former (Hendrichs, 1975).
It has been recommended that the Sundarbans be managed as a single unit with full protection afforded to both wildlife and habitat in the wildlife sanctuaries, and with forest resources exploited at sustainable levels but wildlife protected elsewhere in the reserved forest.
Sundarbans - LoveToKnow 1911 (180 words)
SUNDARBANS, or a, tract of waste country in Bengal, India, forming the seaward fringe of the Gangetic delta.
It has never been surveyed, nor has the census been extended to it.
The Sundarbans are everywhere intersected by river channels and creeks, some of which afford water communication between Calcutta and the Brahmaputra valley, both for steamers and for native boats.
  More results at FactBites »



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