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Encyclopedia > Sun Tzu
Sun Tzu

Portrait of Sun Tzu
Born: c. 544 BC
Possibly in state of Qi
Died: c. 496 BC
Possibly in state of Wu
Occupation: General
Nationality: Chinese
Subjects: Military strategy
Influenced: Robert Greene, John Boyd
This article contains Chinese text.
Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters.
For the mathematician, see Sun Tzu (mathematician).

Sun Tzu (Chinese: ; pinyin: Sūn Zǐ) ("Master Sun") is an honorific title bestowed upon Sūn Wǔ (孫武; c. 544 BC – 496 BC), the author of The Art of War, an immensely influential ancient Chinese book on military strategy. He is also one of the earliest realists in international relations theory. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... State of Qi (small seal script, 220 BC) See Qi (disambiguation) for other meanings of Qi. Qi (齊; pinyin: qi2) was a relatively powerful state during the Spring and Autumn Period and Period of the Warring States. ... Wu was a state during the Spring and Autumn Period in China. ... This article is about work. ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... This article is about real and historical warfare. ... Robert Greene was born in Los Angeles in 1959. ... Colonel John (Richard) Boyd (January 23, 1927–March 9, 1997) was a United States Air Force fighter pilot and military strategist of the late 20th century whose theories have been highly influential in the military and in business. ... Image File history File links Zhongwen. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Han Tu: A Chinese character or Han character (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... Sun Tzu or Sun Zi was a Chinese mathematician, sometime between the third to fifth century CE. Interested in astronomy and trying to develop a calendar, he investigated Diophantine equations. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... For other uses, see The Art of War (disambiguation). ... This article is about real and historical warfare. ... Main International Relations Theories Politics Portal This box:      For other uses, see Realism (disambiguation). ... Main International Relations Theories and derivates Realism & Neorealism Idealism, Liberalism & Neoliberalism Marxism & Dependency theory Functionalism & Neofunctionalism Critical theory & Constructivism International relations theory attempts to provide a conceptual model upon which international relations can be analyzed. ...


In the author's name, Sūn Wǔ, the character wu, meaning "military", is the same as the character in wu shu, or martial art. Sun Wu also has a courtesy name, Chang Qing (長卿; Cháng Qīng). WÇ”shù, in Simplified Chinese Wushu (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: wÇ”shù  ; Cantonese: mou5söt6) literally means martial art. It is a more precise term than the widely used term kung fu, which can mean either martial art or skill: a craftsperson or artisan could be said to have... Hawaiian State Grappling Championships. ... A Chinese style name, sometimes also known as a courtesy name, is an extra name that could be used in place of the given name. ...

Contents

As a historical figure

The only surviving source on the life of Sun Tzu is the biography written in the 2nd century BC by the historian Sima Qian, who describes him as a general who lived in the state of Wu in the 6th century BC, and therefore a contemporary of one of the great Chinese thinkers of ancient times—Confucius. According to tradition, Sun Tzu was a member of the shi. The shi were landless Chinese aristocrats who were descendants of nobility who lost their dukedoms during the territorial consolidation of the Spring and Autumn Period. Unlike most shi, who were traveling academics, Sun Tzu worked as a mercenary (similar to a modern military consultant). According to tradition, King Helü of Wu hired Sun Tzu as a general approximately 512 BC after finishing his military famous treatise. What is now known as the The Art of War was entitled Sun Tzu; naming a work after the author was common in China prior to the Qin era. After his hiring the kingdom of Wu, which had previously been considered a semi-barbaric state, went on to become the most powerful state of the period by conquering Chu, one of the most powerful states in the Spring and Autumn Period. Sun Tzu, always wanting a peaceful and quiet life, suddenly disappeared when King Helu finally conquered Chu. As a result, his exact date of death remains unknown. (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 2nd century BC started on January 1, 200 BC and ended on December 31, 101 BC. // Coin of Antiochus IV. Reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ... Sima Qian Si Ma Qian (司馬遷) (c. ... This article is about the Spring and Autumn state. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 6th century BC started on January 1, 600 BC and ended on December 31, 501 BC. // Monument 1, an Olmec colossal head at La Venta The 5th and 6th centuries BC were a time of empires, but more importantly, a time... Confucius (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kung-fu-tzu), lit. ... The Spring and Autumn Period (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) was a period in Chinese history, which roughly corresponds to the first half of the Eastern Zhou dynasty (from the second half of the 8th century BC to the first half of the 5th century). ... King Helü (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ) of the state of Wu (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ) (r. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC Events and Trends Establishment of the Roman Republic March 12, 515 BC - Construction is completed on the... For other uses, see The Art of War (disambiguation). ... Qin empire in 210 BC Capital Xianyang Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism Government Monarchy History  - Unification of China 221 BC  - Death of Qin Shi Huangdi 210 BC  - Surrender to Liu Bang 206 BC The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded... State of Chu (small seal script, 220 BC) Chu (楚) was a kingdom in what is now southern China during the Spring and Autumn period (722-481 BCE) and Warring States Period (481-212 BCE). ...


Fame of treatise

In Chinese Sun Tzu (the original book title) is now commonly called Sunzi bingfa (also transliterated as Sun-tzu ping fa or Sun-tse ping fa). Sunzi is a modern transliteration of Sun Tzu. Bing Fa can be translated as "principle for using forces",[1] "military methods", "army procedures", or "martial arts". Around 298 BC, the historian Zhuang Zi, writing in the state of Zhao, recorded that Sun Tzu’s theory had been incorporated into the martial arts techniques of both offense and defense and of both armed and unarmed combat. His Bing Fa was the philosophical basis of what we now know as the Asian martial arts. Amiot's AD 1722 translation of Sun Tzu into French (the first time it had been translated into a European language) entitled Art Militaire des Chinois is likely to have influenced translations into the English often titled The Art of War. Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC Years: 303 BC 302 BC 301 BC 300 BC 299 BC - 298 BC - 297 BC 296 BC... This is a list of martial arts, broken down by region and style. ... // Events Abraham De Moivre states De Moivres theorem connecting trigonometric functions and complex numbers Publication of the first book of Bachs Well-Tempered Clavier Fall of Persias Safavid dynasty during a bloody revolt of the Afghani people. ...


Historicity

The historicity of Sun Tzu is discussed extensively in the introduction to Lionel Giles' 1910 translation of The Art of War available as a Project Gutenberg online text. In Giles' introduction to his translation, he expands on the doubt and confusion which has surrounded the historicity of Sun Tzu. Translated the 1910 edition of Sun Tzus Art of War. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ...


In 1972 a set of bamboo engraved texts were discovered in a grave near Linyi in Shandong.[2] These have helped to confirm parts of the text which were already known and have also added new sections.[3] This version has been dated to between 134 BC – 118 BC,[4] and so rules out older theories that parts of the text had been written much later.


The two most common historical Chinese versions of the Art of War, (the Complete Specialist Focus and Military Bible versions) were the sources for early translation into English and other languages. It wasn't until the 1970s that these works were compiled with more recent archeological discoveries into a single more complete version in Taipei. The resulting work is known as the Complete Version of Sun Tzu's Art of War for the National Defense Research Investigation Office has been the source for more recent and more complete translations.


The Art of War has been one of the most popular combat collections in history. Ancient Chinese long viewed this book as one of the entrance test materials, and it is one of the most important collections of books in the Chinese literature. It is said that Mao Zedong and Joseph Stalin both read this book while in war. “Mao” redirects here. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from...


Related text

Sun Bin, also known as Sun the Mutilated, allegedly a crippled descendent of Sun Tzu, also wrote a text known as the Art of War. A more accurate title might be the Art of Warfare since this was more directly concerned with the practical matters of warfare, rather than military strategy.[5] At least one translator has used the title The Lost Art of War, referring to the long period of time during which Sun Bin's book was lost. There is, however, no similarity between the content or writing style of Sun Bin and Sun Tzu. Sun Bin (孫臏; pinyin: Sūn Bìn; d. ...


References

  1. ^ J H Huang, Sun Tzu The New Translation, 1993
  2. ^ membres.lycos.fr/suntsu/Sun_Tzu.htm. Retrieved on 2007-07-25.
  3. ^ www.sonshi.com/ames.html. Retrieved on 2007-07-25.
  4. ^ www.fak.dk/Files/Filer/FSMO/Specialer/200304/Military_theory_and_concept_of_Jointness.pdf (PDF). Retrieved on 2007-07-25.
  5. ^ www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil/airchronicles/aureview/1980/jul-aug/killigrew.html. Retrieved on 2007-07-25.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Sun Tzu

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... The Philosophy of war examines war beyond the typical questions of weaponry and strategy, inquiring into the meaning and etiology of war, what war means for humanity and human nature as well as the ethics of war. ... The Yinqueshan Han Slips (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) are ancient Chinese writing tablets, made of bamboo strips, were discovered in 1972. ... This is a list of military writers, alphabetical by last name. ... The Thirty-Six Strategems (三十六計) is a collection of 36 Chinese proverbs used to illustrate strategems used in politics as well as in civil interaction. ... The Arthashastra (more precisely Arthaśāstra) is a treatise on statecraft and economic policy which identifies its author by the names Kautilya[1] and Viṣṇugupta,[2] who are traditionally identified with the Mauryan minister Cāṇakya. ... Chānakya (Sanskrit: चाणक्य) (c. ...

External links

Wikisource
Wikisource has original works written by or about:
Sun Tzu
  • Works by Sun Tzu at Project Gutenberg
    • The Art of War translated by Lionel Giles (1910), Project Gutenberg edition with considerable (but dated) text on Sun Tzu
    • The Art of War translated by Lionel Giles (1910), Project Gutenberg edition without the translator's annotations, and including an HTML version
    • The Art of War, Chinese original at Project Gutenberg
  • Sun Tzu The Art of War by Sonshi Translation, message board, author interviews
Persondata
NAME Tzu, Sun
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Sun Tzu; 孫子 (Chinese); Sūn Zǐ (pinyin)
SHORT DESCRIPTION Chinese general and writer
DATE OF BIRTH c. 544 BC
PLACE OF BIRTH Probably in state of Qi
DATE OF DEATH c. 496 BC
PLACE OF DEATH Probably in state of Wu

  Results from FactBites:
 
Sun Tzu - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (675 words)
According to tradition, Sun Tzu was a member of the landless Chinese aristocracy, the shih, descendants of nobility who had lost their dukedoms during the consolidation of the Spring and Autumn Period.
Sun Bin, also known as Sun the Mutilated, allegedly a crippled descendent of Sun Tzu, also wrote a text known as the Art of War.
Sun Tzu also is rumored to be an ancestor of Sun Quan, the founder of the Wu Kingdom, which was one of the three competing super-dynasties during the Three Kingdoms era.
SUN TZU ON THE ART OF WAR - TSCM.COM (20805 words)
Sun Wu's father Sun P`ing, rose to be a Minister of State in Ch`i, and Sun Wu himself, whose style was Ch`ang-ch`ing, fled to Wu on account of the rebellion which was being fomented by the kindred of T`ien Pao.
Sun Hsing-yen says in his preface: -- During the Ch`in and Han dynasties Sun Tzu's ART OF WAR was in general use amongst military commanders, but they seem to have treated it as a work of mysterious import, and were unwilling to expound it for the benefit of posterity.
Sun Tzu said: In the operations of war, where there are in the field a thousand swift chariots, as many heavy chariots, and a hundred thousand mail-clad soldiers, [The "swift chariots" were lightly built and, according to Chang Yu, used for the attack; the "heavy chariots" were heavier, and designed for purposes of defense.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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