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Encyclopedia > Sumo
Sumo (相撲)

A Sumo match between Ozeki Kaio and Tamanoshima in May 2005. Notice the referee (gyoji) at right.
Focus Grappling
Hardness Full-contact
Country of origin Flag of Japan Japan
Olympic Sport No
Official Site http://www.sumo.or.jp/eng/

Sumo (相撲 sumō?) is a competitive contact sport where two wrestlers (rikishi) attempt to force one another out of a circular ring (dohyo) or to touch the ground with anything other than the soles of the feet. The sport originated in Japan, the only country where it is practiced professionally. The Japanese consider sumo a gendai budō (a modern Japanese martial art), though the sport has a history spanning many centuries. Sumo may refer to: Sumo, a form of wrestling The Sumo (people) of Central America Sumo language, spoken by the Sumo people of Central America TATA Sumo, a popular vehicle manufactured by Indias TATA Motors SUMO protein, the small ubiquitin-related modifier involved in post-translational modification of proteins... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Sumo match at the Kokugikan sumo arena (Ozeki Kaio vs. ... Kaio Hiroyuki (魁皇博之, born July 24, 1972 as Hiroyuki Koga) is a professional sumo wrestler from Fukuoka, Japan. ... A Gyoji (行司) is a referee in professional sumo wrestling in Japan. ... For other uses, see Grapple. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Tackles like this one (Womens Australian rules football) are used in contact sports including many varieties of Football. ... Wrestling can be: Sport wrestling Professional wrestling Another term for grappling This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Dohyo (土俵) is a ring in which sumo wrestling bouts are held. ... Gendai budō (現代 武道) is a Japanese expression that is used to define the modern Japanese martial arts. ... Japanese martial arts refers to the enormous variety of martial arts native to Japan. ...


The sumo tradition is very ancient, and even today the sport includes many ritual elements, such as the use of salt for purification, from the days sumo was used in the Shinto religion. Life as a rikishi is highly regimented, with rules laid down by the Sumo Association. Professional sumo wrestlers are required to live in communal "sumo training stables" known in Japanese as heya where all aspects of their daily lives - from meals to their manner of dress - are dictated by strict tradition. Edible salt is mostly sodium chloride (NaCl). ... The Japan Sumo Association (日本相撲協会 or Nihon Sumo Kyokai) is the body who operate and control professional sumo wrestling in Japan. ... Heya - The organization a sumo wrestler belongs to. ...

Contents

Origins of sumo

Replica of Sumo by Hiroshige at Sumida River terrace, Tokyo
Replica of Sumo by Hiroshige at Sumida River terrace, Tokyo

In addition to its use as a trial of strength in combat, it has also been associated with Shinto ritual, and even today certain shrines carry out forms of ritual dance where a human is said to wrestle with a kami (a Shinto divine spirit). It was an important ritual at the imperial court. Representatives of each province were ordered to attend the contest at the court and fight. They were required to pay for their travels themselves. The contest was known as sumai no sechie, or "sumai party." Look up replica in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Memorial portrait of Hiroshige by Kunisada. ... The Sumida River flowing through Adachi, Tokyo The Sumida River (隅田川, Sumida-gawa) is a river which flows through Tokyo, Japan. ... Look up terrace in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... A Jinja (Japanese: 神社) is a Shinto shrine including its surrounding natural area but it is more common to refer to buildings as a jinja. ... Ceremonial dance is a major category or classification of dance forms or dance styles, where the purpose is ceremonial or ritualistic. ... “Megami” redirects here. ...

Sumo wrestler Somagahana Fuchiemon, c. 1850
Sumo wrestler Somagahana Fuchiemon, c. 1850

Over the rest of Japanese recorded history, sumo's popularity has changed according to the whims of its rulers and the need for its use as a training tool in periods of civil strife. The form of wrestling combat probably changed gradually into one where the main aim in victory was to throw one's opponent. The concept of pushing one's opponent out of a defined area came some time later.


It is believed that a ring, defined by more than the area given to the wrestlers by spectators, came into being in the 16th century as a result of a tournament organized by the then principal warlord in Japan, Oda Nobunaga. At this point wrestlers would wear loose loincloths, rather than the much stiffer mawashi of today. During the Edo period, wrestlers would wear a fringed kesho-mawashi during the bout, whereas today these are worn only during pre-tournament rituals. Most of the rest of the current forms within the sport developed in the early Edo period. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In sumo, a mawashi (Japanese: 廻し) is the belt that the rikishi (or sumo wrestler) wears during training or in competition. ... The Edo period ), also called Tokugawa period, is a division of Japanese history running from 1603 to 1868. ... In sumo, a mawashi is the belt that the rikishi (or sumo wrestler) wears during training or in competition. ... The Edo period ), also called Tokugawa period, is a division of Japanese history running from 1603 to 1868. ...


Professional sumo (大相撲 ōzumō?) can trace its roots back to the Edo Period in Japan as a form of sporting entertainment. The original wrestlers were probably samurai, often ronin, who needed to find an alternative form of income. The Edo period ), also called Tokugawa period, is a division of Japanese history running from 1603 to 1868. ... For other uses, see Samurai (disambiguation). ... Graves of the forty-seven Ronin at Sengaku-ji Ronin robbing a merchants house in Japan around 1860 (1) For other uses, see Ronin (disambiguation). ...


Nations adjacent to Japan, sharing many cultural traditions, also feature styles of traditional wrestling that bear resemblance to sumo. Notable examples include Mongolian wrestling, Chinese Shuai jiao (摔角), and Korean Ssireum. Examples of Chinese art from 220 BCE show the wrestlers stripped to the waist and their bodies pressed shoulder to shoulder.[1] Mongolian wrestling is a traditional Mongolian sport that has existed in Mongolia for centuries. ... Shuai jiao (Chinese: 摔跤 or 摔角; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shuai-chiao) is the modern Chinese term for Chinese and Mongolian wrestling. ... Image:Ssireum-1. ...


Winning a sumo bout

The winner of a sumo bout is either:

  1. The first wrestler to force his opponent to step out of the ring.
  2. The first wrestler to force his opponent to touch the ground with any part of his body other than the bottom of his feet.

On rare occasions the referee or judges may award the win to the wrestler who touched the ground first; this happens if both wrestlers touch the ground at nearly the same time and it is decided that the wrestler who touched the ground second had no chance of winning as, due to the superior sumo of his opponent, he was already in an irrecoverable position. The losing wrestler is referred to as being shini-tai (“dead body”) in this case. Shini-tai (死に体) is a term used in sumo wrestling. ...


There are also a number of other rarely used rules that can be used to determine the winner. For example a wrestler using an illegal technique (or kinjite) automatically loses, as does one whose mawashi (or belt) becomes completely undone. A wrestler failing to turn up for his bout (including through a prior injury) also automatically loses (fusenpai). After the winner is declared, an off-stage gyoji (or referee) determines the kimarite (or winning technique) used in the bout, which is then announced to the audience. Kinjite (禁じ手 or 禁手 lit. ... In sumo, a mawashi (Japanese: 廻し) is the belt that the rikishi (or sumo wrestler) wears during training or in competition. ... A sign is held up to show the crowd that Tosanoumi (土佐の海) is receiving a fusensho victory. ... A Gyoji (行司) is a referee in professional sumo wrestling in Japan. ... Kimarite (決まり手 Kimari-te) are winning techniques in a Sumo bout. ...


Matches often last only a few seconds, as usually one wrestler is quickly ousted from the circle or thrown to the ground. However, they can occasionally last for several minutes. Each match is preceded by an elaborate ceremonial ritual. The wrestlers themselves are renowned for their great girth, as body mass is often a winning factor in sumo, though with skill, smaller wrestlers can topple far larger opponents.[2] For other senses of this word, see ritual (disambiguation). ...


The wrestling ring (dohyō)

Main article: dohyō

Sumo matches take place in a dohyō (土俵): a ring, 4.55 metres in diameter, of rice-straw bales on top of a platform made of clay mixed with sand. A new dohyō is built for each tournament by the yobidashi. At the center are two white lines, the shikiri-sen, behind which the wrestlers position themselves at the start of the bout.[3] A roof resembling that of a Shinto shrine may be suspended over the dohyō. A dohyō The dohyō (土俵) is the ring in which sumo wrestling bouts are held. ... A dohyō The dohyō (土俵) is the ring in which sumo wrestling bouts are held. ... For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sand (disambiguation). ... The Yobidashi (呼び出し) (announcer or beckoner) calls a professional sumo wrestler, or rikishi, to the dohyo (or wrestling ring) immediately prior to his bout. ... A torii is a gate leading to a jinja. ...


Professional sumo

Sumo wrestlers gather in a circle around the gyoji (Referee) in the dohyō-iri (ring-entering ceremony).
Sumo wrestlers gather in a circle around the gyoji (Referee) in the dohyō-iri (ring-entering ceremony).

Professional sumo is organized by the Japan Sumo Association.[4] The members of the association, called oyakata, are all former wrestlers, and are the only people entitled to train new wrestlers. All practising wrestlers are members of a training stable (heya) run by one of the oyakata, who is the stablemaster for the wrestlers under him. Currently there are 54 training stables for about 700 wrestlers.[5] ImageMetadata File history File links Sumo_ceremony. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Sumo_ceremony. ... The Japan Sumo Association (日本相撲協会 or Nihon Sumo Kyokai) is the body who operate and control professional sumo wrestling in Japan. ...


All sumo wrestlers take wrestling names called shikona (しこ名), which may or may not be related to their real names. Often wrestlers have little choice in their name, which is given to them by their trainer (or stablemaster), or by a supporter or family member who encouraged them into the sport. This is particularly true of foreign-born wrestlers. A wrestler may change his wrestling name several times during his sumo career.[4] The current trend is for more wrestlers, particularly native Japanese, to keep their own name rather than change it. A shikona (Japanese: 四股名 or 醜名) is a sumo wrestlers stage name. ...


Sumo wrestling is a strict hierarchy based on sporting merit. The wrestlers are ranked according to a system that dates back hundreds of years, to the Edo period. Wrestlers are promoted or demoted according to their previous performance, and a carefully prepared banzuke listing the full hierarchy is published two weeks prior to each sumo tournament. The banzuke from the September 1998 tournament Banzuke (also called banzuke-hyō) is a document listing the rankings of wrestlers put out before each official tournament in the sport of professional sumo. ...


Sumo divisions

Main article: Professional sumo divisions

There are six divisions in sumo: makuuchi (fixed at 42 wrestlers), jūryō (fixed at 28 wrestlers), makushita (fixed at 120 wrestlers), sandanme (fixed at 200 wrestlers), jonidan (approximately 230 wrestlers), and jonokuchi (approximately 80 wrestlers). Wrestlers enter sumo in the lowest jonokuchi division and, ability permitting, work their way up to the top division. Wrestlers in the top two divisions are known as sekitori, while lower division wrestlers are generally referred to by the generic term for wrestlers, rikishi.[6] Professional Sumo is divided into 6 ranked divisions. ... Makuuchi (幕内 )) or makunouchi (幕の内 )), is the top division of professional sumo. ... Professional Sumo is divided into 6 ranked divisions. ... Professional Sumo is divided into 6 ranked divisions. ... Professional Sumo is divided into 6 ranked divisions. ... Professional Sumo is divided into 6 ranked divisions. ... Professional Sumo is divided into 6 ranked divisions. ... A sekitori is a sumo wrestler or rikishi who is ranked in one of the top two professional divisions: makuuchi and juryo. ...


The topmost makuuchi division receives the most attention from fans and has the most complex hierarchy. The majority of wrestlers are maegashira and are numbered from one (at the top) down to about sixteen or seventeen. Above the maegashira are the three champion or titleholder ranks, called the sanyaku. These are, in ascending order, komusubi, sekiwake, and ōzeki. At the pinnacle of the ranking system is the rank of yokozuna.[6] Makuuchi (幕内 )) or makunouchi (幕の内 )), is the top division of professional sumo. ... Makuuchi (幕内 )) or makunouchi (幕の内 )), is the top division of professional sumo. ... Makuuchi (幕内 )) or makunouchi (幕の内 )), is the top division of professional sumo. ... Makuuchi (幕内 )) or makunouchi (幕の内 )), is the top division of professional sumo. ... Makuuchi (幕内 )) or makunouchi (幕の内 )), is the top division of professional sumo. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into sanyaku. ... Makuuchi (幕内 )) or makunouchi (幕の内 )), is the top division of professional sumo. ...


Yokozuna, or grand champions, are generally expected to be regularly in competition to win the top division tournament title. Hence the promotion criteria for yokozuna are very strict. In general, an ōzeki must win the championship for two consecutive tournaments or an "equivalent performance" to be considered for promotion to yokozuna.[4]. Makuuchi (幕内 )) or makunouchi (幕の内 )), is the top division of professional sumo. ...


Exhibition competitions are held at regular intervals every year in Japan, and approximately once every two years the top ranked wrestlers visit a foreign country for such exhibitions. None of these displays are taken into account in determining a wrestler's future rank. Rank is determined only by performance in Grand Sumo Tournaments (or honbasho), which are described in more detail below.[3] A honbasho is the term given to any of the six official professional sumo tournaments held each year. ...

Foreigner and sumo Wrestler, 1861
Foreigner and sumo Wrestler, 1861

Foreign participation

Professional sumo is practiced exclusively in Japan, but wrestlers of other nationalities participate. There are currently 59 wrestlers officially listed as foreigners.[7] In July 2007, there were 19 foreigners in the top two divisions, an all-time record, and for the first time, a majority of wrestlers in the top sanyaku ranks were from overseas.[8]


A Japanese-American, Toyonishiki, and a Korean, Rikidozan, both achieved sekitori status prior to World War II, but neither were officially listed as foreigners. The first non-Asian to achieve fame and fortune in sumo was Hawaii-born Takamiyama. He reached the top division in 1968 and in 1972 became the first foreigner to win the top division championship. He was followed by fellow Hawaiians Konishiki, the first foreigner to reach the rank of ōzeki in 1987; and Akebono, who became the first foreign born yokozuna in 1993. Musashimaru, a Samoan-born Hawaiian, became the second foreigner to reach sumo's top rank in 1999. Both of the current yokozuna, Asashōryū and Hakuhō, are Mongolian. They are among a group of Mongolian wrestlers who have achieved success in the upper ranks. Wrestlers from Eastern Europe countries such as Georgia and Russia have also found success in the upper levels of sumo. In 2005 Kotoōshū from Bulgaria became the first wrestler of European birth to attain the ōzeki ranking. Rikidōzan (Japanese: 力道山, Korean: 역도산, November 14, 1924 - December 15, 1963) was a professional wrestler, known as the Father of Puroresu and one of the most influential men in wrestling history. ... A sekitori is a sumo wrestler or rikishi who is ranked in one of the top two professional divisions: makuuchi and juryo. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Takamiyama Daigoro (Born 16 June 1944 as Jesse James Waluni Kahaulau in Hawaii, USA) was the first foreign born sumo wrestler to win the top division championship in 1972. ... This article refers to the Hawaiian sumo wrestler. ... Akebono Taro , born May 8, 1969 as Chad George Rowan) is a retired sumo wrestler. ... Musashimaru Koyo , born May 2, 1971 as Fiamalu Penitani in Samoa), was the second foreign-born sumo wrestler in history to reach the rank of yokozuna. ... AsashōryÅ« Akinori (born September 27, 1980 as Dolgorsürengiin Dagvadorj, Mongolian: , in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia) is the first sumo wrestler (rikishi) from Mongolia to reach yokozuna, the highest rank. ... Hakuhō Shō ) is a professional sumo wrestler (rikishi) born Munkhbat Davaajargal on March 11, 1985 in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. ... Kotooshu Katsunori ), (born Kaloyan Stefanov Mahlyanov (Bulgarian: ) on February 19, 1983 in Veliko Tarnovo, Bulgaria) is a professional sumo wrestler or rikishi. ...


Until relatively recently, the Japan Sumo Association had no restrictions at all on the number of foreigners allowed in professional sumo. In May 1992, shortly after the Ōshima stable had recruited six Mongolians at the same time, the Sumo Association's new director Dewanoumi, the former yokozuna Sadanoyama, announced that he was considering limiting the number of overseas recruits per stable and in sumo overall.[4] There was no official ruling, but no stable recruited any foreigners for the next six years.[9] This unofficial ban was then relaxed, but only two new foreigners per stable were allowed, until the total number reached 40.[9] Then in 2002, a one foreigner per stable policy was officially adopted. (The ban was not retrospective, so foreigners recruited before the changes were unaffected). Though the move has been met with criticism, there are no plans to relax the restrictions at this time.[9] However, is possible for a place in a heya to be opened up if a foreign born wrestler acquires Japanese citizenship. This occurred when Hisanoumi changed his nationality from Tongan at the end of 2006, allowing another Tongan to enter his stable,[10] and Kyokutenhō's change of citizenship allowed Ōshima stable to recruit Mongolian Kyokushuho in May 2007. The Japan Sumo Association (日本相撲協会 or Nihon Sumo Kyokai) is the body who operate and control professional sumo wrestling in Japan. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Professional sumo tournaments

The sumo hall of Ryōgoku in Tokyo during the May, 2001 tournament.
The sumo hall of Ryōgoku in Tokyo during the May, 2001 tournament.

There are six Grand Sumo tournaments (or honbasho) each year: three at The Sumo Hall (or Ryōgoku Kokugikan) in Ryōgoku, Tokyo (January, May, and September), and one each in Osaka (March), Nagoya (July) and Fukuoka (November). Each tournament begins on a Sunday and runs for 15 days, ending also on a Sunday.[11] Each wrestler in the top two divisions (sekitori) has one match per day, while the lower ranked rikishi compete in seven bouts, approximately one every two days. Ryogoku Sumo hall, Tokyo. ... Ryogoku Sumo hall, Tokyo. ... A honbasho is the term given to any of the six official professional sumo tournaments held each year. ... Ryōgoku Kokugikan ) is an indoor sporting arena located in Tokyo, Japan. ... Katsushika Hokusai published this view of the bridge as an ukiyoe print. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Osaka (disambiguation). ... Nagoya ) is the fourth largest city in Japan. ... This article is about a city in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. ... A sekitori is a sumo wrestler or rikishi who is ranked in one of the top two professional divisions: makuuchi and juryo. ... Rikishi (力士) is a term most commonly used to describe a professional sumo wrestler. ...


Each day is structured so the highest-ranked contestants compete at the end of the day. Thus, wrestling will start in the morning with the jonokuchi wrestlers and end at around six o'clock in the evening with bouts involving the yokozuna, or the ōzeki in the case of the yokozuna's absence. The wrestler who wins the most matches over the fifteen days wins the tournament championship (yūshō). If two wrestlers are tied for the top, they wrestle each other and the winner takes the title. Three-way ties for the top position are rare, at least in the top division. In these cases the three wrestle each other in pairs with the first to win two in a row taking the tournament. More complex systems for championship playoffs involving four or more wrestlers also exist, but these are usually only seen in determining the winner of one of the lower divisions. Professional Sumo is divided into 6 ranked divisions. ...

Sumo Nobori flags
Sumo Nobori flags

The matchups for each day of the tournament are announced a day in advance. They are determined by oyakata (or sumo elders) who are members of the judging division of the Sumo Association. As there are many more wrestlers in each division than matchups during the tournament each wrestler will only compete against a selection of opponents, mostly from the same division. With the exception of the sanyaku ranked wrestlers the first bouts tend to be between wrestlers who are within a couple of ranks of each other. Afterwards the selection of opponents takes into account a wrestler's prior performance. For example in the lower divisions the last matchups often involve undefeated wrestlers competing against each other, even if they are from opposite ends of the division. In the top division in the last few days wrestlers with exceptional records will often have matches against much more highly ranked opponents, including sanyaku wrestlers, especially if they are still in the running for the top division championship. Similarly more highly ranked wrestlers with very poor records may find themselves fighting wrestlers much further down the division. For the yokozuna and ōzeki the first week and a half of the tournament tends to be taken up with bouts against the top maegashira, the komusubi and sekiwake, with the bouts between them being concentrated into the last five days or so of the tournament (depending on the number of top ranked wrestlers competing). It is traditional that on the final day the last three bouts of the tournament are between the top six ranked wrestlers, with the top two competing in the very final matchup, unless injuries during the tournament prevent this. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (596x920, 153 KB) Sumo Nobori flags outside the Fukuoka International Centre, November 2006. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (596x920, 153 KB) Sumo Nobori flags outside the Fukuoka International Centre, November 2006. ... Nobori (幟), literally meaning banner, had a more specific meaning on the battlefields of feudal Japan. ... The Japan Sumo Association (日本相撲協会 or Nihon Sumo Kyokai) is the body who operate and control professional sumo wrestling in Japan. ... Makuuchi (幕内 )) or makunouchi (幕の内 )), is the top division of professional sumo. ... Makuuchi (幕内 )) or makunouchi (幕の内 )), is the top division of professional sumo. ...


There are certain match-ups that are prohibited in regular tournament play. Wrestlers who are from the same training stable cannot compete against each other, nor can wrestlers who are brothers, even if they join different stables. The one exception to this rule being that training stable partners and brothers can face each other in a championship deciding playoff match.


Bout preparation

Yokozuna Asashōryū waits for his match
Yokozuna Asashōryū waits for his match

A top division wrestler will arrive at the stadium in the afternoon and enter the changing room. There are 'East' and 'West' rooms so competing wrestlers do not meet their opponents of the day prior to the match. The wrestler will change first into his kesho-mawashi, an ornate, embroidered silk 'apron', which he will wear during the ring entering ceremony, or dohyō-iri. There are four dohyō-iri on each day, two for jūryō and two for makuuchi division wrestlers. In each case there is a procession of those in the east changing room and one for those in the west. During the ceremony the wrestlers are introduced to the crowd one by one in ascending rank order and form a circle around the ring facing outwards. Once the highest ranked wrestler is introduced they turn inwards and perform a brief ritual before filing off and returning to their changing rooms. Yokozuna have a separate, more elaborate dohyō-iri; see yokozuna. AsashōryÅ« Akinori (born September 27, 1980 as Dolgorsürengiin Dagvadorj, Mongolian: , in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia) is the first sumo wrestler (rikishi) from Mongolia to reach yokozuna, the highest rank. ... In sumo, a mawashi is the belt that the rikishi (or sumo wrestler) wears during training or in competition. ... Professional Sumo is divided into 6 ranked divisions. ... Makuuchi (幕内 )) or makunouchi (幕の内 )), is the top division of professional sumo. ...


Once in the changing room the wrestlers change into their fighting mawashi and await their bouts. The wrestlers reenter the arena two bouts prior to their own and sit down at the side of the ring. There are no weight divisions in sumo, and considering the range of body weights in sumo, an individual wrestler can sometimes face an opponent twice his own weight. When it is their turn they will be called into the ring by a yobidashi (announcer) and they will mount the dohyō.[12] In sumo, a mawashi (Japanese: 廻し) is the belt that the rikishi (or sumo wrestler) wears during training or in competition. ... The Yobidashi (呼び出し) (announcer or beckoner) calls a professional sumo wrestler, or rikishi, to the dohyo (or wrestling ring) immediately prior to his bout. ...


On mounting the dohyō the wrestler performs a number of rituals derived from Shinto practice. Facing the audience, he claps his hands and then performs the leg-stomping shiko exercise to drive evil spirits from the dohyō as the gyōji, or referee, who will coordinate the bout announces the wrestlers' names once more. Stepping out of the ring into their corners, each wrestler is given a ladleful of water, the chikara-mizu ("power water"), with which he rinses out his mouth; and a paper tissue, the chikara-gami ("power paper"), to dry his lips. Then both step back into the ring, squat facing each other, clap their hands, then spread them wide (traditionally to show they have no weapons). Returning to their corners, they each pick up a handful of salt which they toss onto the ring to purify it. Sumo match (Ozeki Kaio vs. ...


Finally the wrestlers crouch down at the shikiri-sen, or starting lines, each trying to stare the other down. When both reach unspoken agreement, they spring from their crouch for the initial charge, the tachi-ai. In the upper divisions, they almost never charge on the first occasion. Instead, after staring they return to their corners for more mental preparation. More salt is thrown whenever they step back into the ring. This can happen a number of times (about three, or even more in the case of the highest ranks) until on the last occasion the referee informs them they must start the bout. The total length of time for this preparation is around four minutes for the top division wrestlers, but in the lower divisions they are expected to start more or less immediately. The tachi-ai (立合い) is the initial charge between two sumo wrestlers at the beginning of a bout. ...


A professional sumo bout

Sumo wrestlers, at the Grand Tournament in Osaka, July 2006.
Sumo wrestlers, at the Grand Tournament in Osaka, July 2006.

At the tachi-ai both wrestlers must jump up from the crouch simultaneously at the start of the bout, and the referee can restart the bout if this does not occur. Upon completion of the bout, the referee must immediately designate his decision by pointing his gunbai or war-fan towards the winning side. The referee's decision is not final and may be disputed by the five shimpan (judges) seated around the ring. If this happens they will meet in the centre of the ring to hold a mono-ii (lit: a talk about things). After reaching a consensus they can uphold or reverse the referee's decision or order a rematch, known as a torinaoshi. The wrestlers will then return to their starting positions and bow to each other before retiring. A winning wrestler may receive additional prize money in envelopes from the referee if the matchup has been sponsored. If a yokozuna is defeated by a lower ranked wrestler, it is common and expected for audience members to throw their seat cushions into the ring (and onto the wrestlers), though this practice is technically prohibited. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2000x1333, 557 KB) Taken at a sumo tournament in Osaka. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2000x1333, 557 KB) Taken at a sumo tournament in Osaka. ... For other uses, see Osaka (disambiguation). ... The gunbai (軍配) is a solid fan usually made of wood, used by samurai officers in Japan to communicate commands to their soldiers. ... Shimpan (審判) are the umpires of a professional sumo bout. ... Torinaoshi (取り直し) is a term used in sumo matches to describe a do-over. ...

A short video clip of a sandanme division bout between 萬華城 (Mankajō, left) and 剛天佑 (Gōtenyū, right). Mankajō was the eventual winner of this unusually long match on day twelve of the 2007 May honbasho.
A short video clip of a sandanme division bout between 萬華城 (Mankajō, left) and 剛天佑 (Gōtenyū, right). Mankajō was the eventual winner of this unusually long match on day twelve of the 2007 May honbasho.

In contrast to the time in bout preparation, bouts are typically very short, usually less than a minute, and often only a few seconds. Extremely rarely a bout can go on for many minutes (up to four minutes), in which case the referee may call a mizu-iri or "water break". The wrestlers are carefully separated, have a brief break and then return to the exact position they left off in. It is the referee's responsibility to reposition the wrestlers. If after four more minutes they are still deadlocked they may have a second break, after which they start from the very beginning. Further deadlock with no end of the bout in sight can lead to a draw,(hiriwake), an extremely rare result in modern sumo. The last draw in the top division was in September 1974.[4] Image File history File links Sumoclip-may242007-tokyo. ... Image File history File links Sumoclip-may242007-tokyo. ... A water stop is a break and a place to break for drinking water in sports events (sports competitions or training) for some types of sports, such as various long distance types of running (e. ...


The last day of the tournament is called senshuraku, which literally means the pleasure of a thousand autumns. This colorful name for the culmination of the tournament echoes the words of the playwright Zeami to represent the excitement of the decisive bouts and the celebration of the victor. The Emperor's Cup is presented to the wrestler who wins the top division (makuuchi) championship. Numerous other (mostly sponsored) prizes are also awarded to him. These prizes are often rather elaborate, ornate gifts, such as giant cups, decorative plates, and statuettes. Others are obviously commercial, such as one trophy shaped like a giant Coca-Cola bottle. Zeami Motokiyo (世阿弥 元清; c. ...


Promotion and relegation are determined by a wrestler's score over the 15 days. The term kachikoshi indicates a record having more wins than losses, as opposed to makekoshi, which indicates more losses than wins. In the top division, kachikoshi means a score of 8–7 or better, while makekoshi means a score of 7–8 or worse. A wrestler who achieves kachikoshi will almost always be promoted further up the ladder, the level of promotion being higher for better scores. See the makuuchi article for more details on promotion and relegation. In many sports leagues around the world (with North American and Australian professional leagues being the most notable exceptions), relegation (or demotion) means the mandated transfer of the least successful team(s) of a higher division into a lower division at the end of the season. ... Kachikoshi (勝ち越し) means a majority of wins in a professional sumo championship. ... Makekoshi (負け越し) means a majority of losses in a professional sumo championship. ... Makuuchi (幕内 )) or makunouchi (幕の内 )), is the top division of professional sumo. ...


A top division wrestler who is not an ozeki or yokozuna and who finishes the tournament with kachikoshi is also eligible to be considered for one of the three sanshō prizes awarded for "technique" (ginōshō), "fighting spirit" (kantōshō), and for the defeating the most yokozuna and ozeki (shukunshō), sometimes referred to as "outstanding performance". Sansho is a term used to describe one of the three special prizes awarded to top (Makuuchi division sumo wrestlers for excptional performance during a sumo basho or tournament. ... Sansho is a term used to describe one of the three special prizes awarded to top (Makuuchi division sumo wrestlers for excptional performance during a sumo basho or tournament. ... Sansho is a term used to describe one of the three special prizes awarded to top (Makuuchi division sumo wrestlers for excptional performance during a sumo basho or tournament. ... Makuuchi (幕内 )) or makunouchi (幕の内 )), is the top division of professional sumo. ... Makuuchi (幕内 )) or makunouchi (幕の内 )), is the top division of professional sumo. ... Sansho is a term used to describe one of the three special prizes awarded to top (Makuuchi division sumo wrestlers for excptional performance during a sumo basho or tournament. ...


Please see the list of sumo tournament winners for an overview of the yusho winners since 1909. This list of sumo wrestlers contains all Yusho winners of Makuuchi since the introduction of six yearly tounaments in 1958. ... A yusho is a championship of a tournament in any division of sumo. ...


Life as a professional sumo wrestler

Young low-ranking sumo wrestlers at the Tomozuma Stable in Tokyo end their daily workout routine with a ritualized dance that emphasizes teamwork
Young low-ranking sumo wrestlers at the Tomozuma Stable in Tokyo end their daily workout routine with a ritualized dance that emphasizes teamwork

A sumo wrestler leads a highly regimented way of life. The Sumo Association prescribes the behavior of its wrestlers in a way that would be more commonly associated with life in a commune. For example, in the wake of a serious car accident involving a wrestler the Association banned wrestlers from driving their own cars. Breaking the rules can result in fines and/or suspension, not only for the offending wrestler, but also for his stablemaster. Image File history File links Sumoworkout. ... Image File history File links Sumoworkout. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... The Japan Sumo Association (日本相撲協会 or Nihon Sumo Kyokai) is the body who operate and control professional sumo wrestling in Japan. ... A Commune is a kind of intentional community where most resources are shared and there is little or no personal property. ...


On entering sumo, they are expected to grow their hair long to form a topknot, or chonmage, similar to the samurai hairstyles of the Edo Period. Furthermore they are expected to wear the chonmage and traditional Japanese dress when in public. Consequently, sumo wrestlers can be identified immediately when in public. The chonmage (丁髷, ちょんまげ) is a form of Japanese traditional haircut worn by men. ... For other uses, see Samurai (disambiguation). ... The Edo period ), also called Tokugawa period, is a division of Japanese history running from 1603 to 1868. ...


The type and quality of the dress depends on the wrestler's rank. Rikishi in jonidan and below are allowed to wear only a thin cotton robe called a yukata, even in winter. Furthermore they must wear a form of wooden sandals called geta when outside. These make a clip-clop sound as one walks in them. Wrestlers in the makushita and sandanme divisions can wear a form of traditional short overcoat over their yukata and are allowed to wear straw sandals, called zori. The sekitori can wear silk robes of their own choice and the quality of the garb is significantly improved. They also are expected to wear a more elaborate form of topknot called an oichi-o (lit. big ginkgo leaf) on formal occasions. Professional Sumo is divided into 6 ranked divisions. ... Young woman in yukata in Kyoto, Japan CGI image of yukata-clad woman Yukata (Japanese: 浴衣) is a Japanese summer garment. ... A pair of geta Geta (下駄) are a form of Japanese footwear that resembles both clogs and flip-flops. ... Professional Sumo is divided into 6 ranked divisions. ... Professional Sumo is divided into 6 ranked divisions. ... Straw Zori from the 19th century Modern, plastic womens zori Zori (jp: 草履 zōri) are thonged Japanese sandals made of straw (usually rice straw) or other plant fibers, lacquered wood, or—increasingly—synthetic materials. ... A sekitori is a sumo wrestler or rikishi who is ranked in one of the top two professional divisions: makuuchi and juryo. ... Binomial name Ginkgo biloba L. The Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), sometimes also known as the Maidenhair tree, is a unique tree with no living relatives. ...


Similar distinctions are made in stable life. The junior rikishi must get up earliest, around 5 a.m., for training whereas the sekitori may start around 7 a.m. When the sekitori are training the junior rikishi may have chores to do, such as assisting in cooking the lunch, cleaning and preparing the bath, or holding a sekitori's towel for him for when he needs it. The ranking hierarchy is preserved for the order of precedence in bathing after training, and in eating lunch.


Rikishi are not normally allowed to eat breakfast and are expected to have a form of siesta after a large lunch. The most common type of lunch served is the traditional "sumo meal" of chankonabe which consists of a simmering stew cooked at table which contains various fish, meat, and vegetables. It is usually eaten with rice and washed down with beer. This regimen of no breakfast and a large lunch followed by a sleep helps rikishi put on weight so as to compete more effectively. A painting of a young woman taking a siesta. ... Chankonabe is a Japanese stew commonly eaten in vast quantity by sumo wrestlers as part of a weight gain diet. ...


In the afternoon the junior rikishi will again usually have cleaning or other chores to do, while their sekitori counterparts may relax, or deal with work issues related to their fan clubs. Younger rikishi will also attend classes, although their education differs from the typical curriculum of their non-sumo peers. In the evening sekitori may go out with their sponsors while juniors stay at home in the stable, unless they are to accompany the stablemaster or a sekitori as his manservant (or tsukebito) when he is out (this is normally a more privileged role given to a rikishi who may be nearing sekitori status himself). Becoming a tsukebito (or personal assistant) for a senior member of the stable is a typical chore. A sekitori will have many tsukebito, with the most junior responsible for cleaning and other mundane tasks. Only the most senior tsukebito will accompany the sekitori when he goes out.


The sekitori also are given their own room in the stable or, may live in their own apartments. In contrast, the junior rikishi sleep in communal dormitories. Thus the world of the sumo wrestler is split broadly between the junior rikishi, who serve, and the sekitori, who are served. Life is especially harsh for new recruits, to whom the worst jobs tend to be allocated, and there is a high dropout rate at this stage.


The negative effects of the sumo lifestyle become dangerously apparent later in life. Sumo wrestlers have a life expectancy of between 60 and 65, more than 10 years shorter than the average Japanese male. They often develop diabetes and high blood pressure, and are prone to heart attacks. The excessive intake of alcohol can lead to liver problems and the stress on their joints can cause arthritis. Recently, the standards of weight gain are becoming less strict, in an effort to improve the overall health of the wrestlers.[13][14] The average height of sumo wrestlers is around 178 cm (5' 10"). This article is about the measure of remaining life. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... Arterial hypertension, or high blood pressure is a medical condition where the blood pressure is chronically elevated. ... Heart attack redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... Arthritis (from Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation; plural: arthritides) is a group of conditions where there is damage caused to the joints of the body. ... Height is the measurement of distance between a specified point and a corresponding plane of reference. ... A centimetre (American spelling centimeter, symbol cm) is a unit of length that is equal to one hundredth of a metre, the current SI base unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...


Salary and payment

As of 2006, the monthly salary figures for makuuchi (in Japanese Yen) were:[15] Makuuchi (幕内 )) or makunouchi (幕の内 )), is the top division of professional sumo. ... Yen redirects here. ...

Yokozuna Asashoryu performing the distinctive dohyō-iri of his rank
Yokozuna Asashoryu performing the distinctive dohyō-iri of his rank
  • yokozuna: 2,820,000 or about $24,500 USD
  • ōzeki: 2,347,000 or about $20,400 USD
  • sanyaku: 1,693,000 or about $14,800 USD
  • maegashira: 1,309,000 or about $11,300 USD
  • jūryō: 1,036,000 or about $9,000 USD

Wrestlers lower than Juryo, who are considered to be trainees, do not receive a salary, but only a fairly small allowance. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3008x2000, 2663 KB) A Yokozuna blessing the ring at prior to the begining of the matches. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3008x2000, 2663 KB) A Yokozuna blessing the ring at prior to the begining of the matches. ... Makuuchi (幕内 )) or makunouchi (幕の内 )), is the top division of professional sumo. ... Makuuchi (幕内 )) or makunouchi (幕の内 )), is the top division of professional sumo. ... Makuuchi (幕内 )) or makunouchi (幕の内 )), is the top division of professional sumo. ... Makuuchi (幕内 )) or makunouchi (幕の内 )), is the top division of professional sumo. ... Professional Sumo is divided into 6 ranked divisions. ...


In addition to the basic salary, sekitori wrestlers also receive additional bonus income, called mochikyukin, six times a year (once every tournament, or basho) based on the cumulative performance in their career to date. This bonus increases every time that the rikishi scores a kachikoshi (with larger kachikoshi giving larger raises.) Special increases in this bonus are also awarded for winning the top division championship (with an extra large increase for a "perfect" championship victory with no losses), and also for scoring a kinboshi (an upset of a yokozuna by a maegashira). Mochikyukin (持ち給金) is a system of payment for sumo wrestlers that supplements the basic salary that sekitori earn. ... Kinboshi, literally meaning gold star, is a term used in professional sumo wrestling to describe a maegashira victory over a yokozuna. ... Makuuchi (幕内 )) or makunouchi (幕の内 )), is the top division of professional sumo. ... Makuuchi (幕内 )) or makunouchi (幕の内 )), is the top division of professional sumo. ...


sanyaku wrestlers also receive a relatively small additional tournament allowance, depending on their rank, and yokozuna receive an additional allowance every second tournament, associated with the making of a new tsuna. Makuuchi (幕内 )) or makunouchi (幕の内 )), is the top division of professional sumo. ...


There is also prize money for the winner of each divisional championship, which increases from 100,000 yen for a jonokuchi victory up to 10,000,000 yen for winning the top division. For wrestlers in the top division giving an exceptional performance in the eyes of a judging panel there are also three special prizes (the sansho) which are worth 2,000,000 yen each.[16] Professional Sumo is divided into 6 ranked divisions. ... Sansho is a term used to describe one of the three special prizes awarded to top (Makuuchi division sumo wrestlers for excptional performance during a sumo basho or tournament. ...


Individual top division matches can also be sponsored by companies. In such cases the winner of the bout typically receives around 30,000 yen net per sponsor (out of the sponsors contribution of 60,000 yen -- much of the remainder goes in paying the wrestler's tax on the prize). These bout prizes are called kenshokin. For bouts involving yokozuna and ozeki the number of sponsors of the matchup can be quite large, whereas for lower ranked matchups there may be no bout sponsors at all unless one of the wrestlers is particularly popular, or unless a company has a policy of sponsoring all his matchups. No bout prize money is awarded for a bout decided by a fusensho (forfeit victory). A sign is held up to show the crowd that Tosanoumi (土佐の海) is receiving a fusensho victory. ...

God of sumo, Nomi no Sukune
God of sumo, Nomi no Sukune

Sumo and Shinto

Shinto has historically been used as a means for Japanese nationalism and ethnic identity, especially prior to the end of World War II. It has served to symbolize and provide a sense of belonging, to identify and unify the Japanese people culturally, and to serve as a barrier demarcating the Japanese from other peoples, providing them with a sense of cultural uniqueness. In its association with Shinto, sumo has also been seen as a bulwark of Japanese tradition.[17] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Shinto ritual pervades every aspect of sumo. Before a tournament, two of the gyōji functioning as Shinto priests enact a ritual to consecrate the newly-constructed dohyō, and various Shinto rituals are associated even with the practice dohyō at heya. Both the dohyō-iri, or ring-entering ceremonies performed by the top two divisions before the start of their wrestling day, and in the rituals performed by both combatants immediately before a bout, are derived from Shinto.[18] It retains other Shinto associations as well. The yokozuna's ring-entering ceremony is regarded as a purification ritual in its own right, and is occasionally performed at Shinto shrines for this purpose. Every newly-promoted yokozuna performs his first ring-entering ceremony at the Meiji Shrine in Tokyo. The central sanctuary where the Meiji emperor is enshrined. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ...


Controversies

Match-Fixing

Due to the amount of money changing hands depending on rank, and prize money, there have been accusations of yaocho (corruption, bout-fixing) in sumo from time to time. A 2000 economic study on corruption[19] focused on sumo as a closed system in which to study corruption. The authors of the study found that 70% of wrestlers with 7-7 records on the final day of the tournament (i.e., seven wins and seven losses, and one fight to go) won. The percentage was found to rise the more times the two wrestlers had met, and decrease when the wrestler was due to retire. The study, which was detailed in Freakonomics, found the 7-7 wrestler wins around 80% of the time when statistics suggest they have a probability of winning only 48.7% of the time against their opponent. The authors conclude that those who already have 8 wins collude with those who are 7-7 and let them win, since they have already secured their ranking. Yaocho 八百長 ) is a Japanese word meaning a cheating activity which is committed at such places where some match, fighting, game, competition etc. ... Freakonomics: A Rogue Economist Explores the Hidden Side of Everything is a 2005 book by University of Chicago economist Steven Levitt and New York Times journalist Stephen J. Dubner that has been described as melding pop culture with economics. ...


A possible counter-argument to the Freakonomics conclusion is that a 7-7 rikishi is highly motivated to win his last match to gain promotion, rather than demotion, while the 8-6 rikishi has already guaranteed his promotion, so is not as motivated. The authors revealed a more damning statistic, however. According to their research, the next tournament in which the two wrestlers met, there was a significant advantage to the 8-6 wrestler over the 7-7, regardless of the performance of either wrestler. The 7-7 wrestler would win only 40% percent of the rematches with the 8-6 wrestler. The authors suggest that winning 80% in the first match and then only 40% in the rematch (and back to the expected 50% in subsequent matches) between the same wrestlers suggest a rigging of the bouts. Additionally, the authors find that after allegations of rigging by the media, 7-7 wrestlers won only 50% of their matches against 8-6 wrestlers instead of 80%.


Gender Issues

Other ongoing criticisms towards sumo revolve around its general exclusion of women from competition and ceremonies. Women are not allowed to enter or touch the sumo wrestling ring (dohyō), as this is traditionally seen by Shintoists to be a violation of the purity of the dohyō.[20] The female Governor of Osaka in the late 1990s, Fusae Ohta, when called upon to present the Governor's Prize to the champion of the annual Osaka tournament, was required to do so on the walkway beside the ring or send a male representative in her place. She repeatedly challenged the Sumo Association's policy by requesting to be allowed to fulfill her traditional role as Governor. Her requests were repeatedly rejected until she stepped down from office in 2007. Additionally, female-based sumo, even though it is popular in areas of the West, is not considered to be authentic by most Japanese and is prohibited from taking place in anything but amateur settings.[21] A dohyō The dohyō (土俵) is the ring in which sumo wrestling bouts are held. ... For other uses, see Osaka (disambiguation). ...


The view of those who criticize this continuing "men-only" policy in sumo is that it is discriminatory and oppressive.[20] In general, women in the Sumo world are only expected to be supportive wives of rikishi, and, in the case that their husband has become a stable master, a surrogate mother for all of his disciples.[3] The view of the Sumo Association is that this is a tradition that has been firmly maintained through the centuries, so it would be a dishonor to all of their ancestors to change it.[20]


The only noted case of a woman stepping onto a dohyō in recent times during a nationally televised tournament occurred on September 19, 2007. On this day the woman in question approached the dohyō carrying several large sheets of paper only to be stopped by a female security guard. After the woman pushed her aside, she managed to climb onto the dohyō before popular rikishi Takamisakari, ring-side judge Nishikido, and attendants managed to pull her away. When questioned the woman appeared incoherent.[22] is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


Hazing

It has been well-known and accepted for many years that sumo stables engage in the systematic hazing and physical punishment of young disciples in order to "toughen them up."[3] Stable masters have often been proud to show to the media how they frequently use a shinai to beat up on those who make mistakes, and elder rikishi are often put in charge of bullying younger ones to keep them in line, for instance, by making them hold heavy objects for long periods of time.[3] However, this system of hazing was widely criticized in late 2007 when it came to light that a 17 year old sumo trainee named Takashi Saito from the Tokitsukaze stable had died after a serious bullying incident involving his stablemaster Futatsuryu Junichi hitting him in the head with a large beer bottle and fellow rikishi being subsequently ordered to physically abuse him further. The (now ex) stablemaster and three other wrestlers who were involved were arrested in February 2008, after which Japanese Prime Minister Yasuo Fukuda demanded the Sumo Association take steps to ensure such an incident never happens again.[23] A Shinai made from bamboo A shinai (Japanese: ) is a practice weapon used primarily in kendo and is used as if it were a sword. ... The Tokitsukaze stable ) is a stable of sumo wrestlers, one of the Tokitsukaze group of stables. ... Futatsuryu Junichi (双津竜 順一, born February 28, 1950) is a former sumo wrestler from Hokkaidō, Japan. ... Emblem of the Office of Prime Minister of Japan Kantei, Official residence of PM The Prime Minister of Japan ) is the usual English-language term used for the head of government of Japan, although the literal translation of the Japanese name for the office is Prime Minister of the Cabinet. ... Yasuo Fukuda , born July 16, 1936) is the 91st Prime Minister of Japan and the president of the Liberal Democratic Party of Japan. ...

Tegata of the former makuuchi wrestler Terao
Tegata of the former makuuchi wrestler Terao

Image File history File links Teraotegata. ... Image File history File links Teraotegata. ...

Memorabilia

As with many sports, there are a wide variety of souvenirs and memorabilia that fans may acquire. Fans purchasing box seats or front row seats usually purchase the tickets through so-called tea houses, which provide sumo related items in a package that includes the purchase of the ticket. This sort of memorabilia can also be purchased separately. Plates, and cups with sumo related themes are a common item. One of the more unusual items that can be purchased is the tegata (lit. hand shape) of the wrestlers of whom one is a fan - the sumo version of an autograph. Tegata consist of a hand print of the wrestler using black or red ink accompanied by his fighting name written in calligraphic style by the wrestler himself. Original tegata can be quite expensive, but printed copies of the most popular wrestlers can be obtained very inexpensively. Only wrestlers in the top two jūryō and makuuchi divisions are permitted to make them. Another popular collectible is a copy of the banzuke for a tournament. A banzuke is a document that has been meticulously handwritten in calligraphic script and lists every wrestler who participates in a tournament in order of rank. The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Professional Sumo is divided into 6 ranked divisions. ... The banzuke from the September 1998 tournament Banzuke (also called banzuke-hyō) is a document listing the rankings of wrestlers put out before each official tournament in the sport of professional sumo. ...


Sumo in contrast to other Eastern martial arts

Sumo, while considered a martial art, diverges from the typical Eastern style both at the surface and at its heart. Whereas most martial arts award promotions through time and practice, sumo ranks can be gained and lost every two months in the official tournaments. Conversely, in more common Japanese martial arts (such as karate), ranks are gained after passing a single test, and practitioners of karate are not normally demoted, even after repeated poor performances at tournaments. This divergence from other martial arts creates a high-pressure, high-intensity environment for sumo wrestlers. All the benefits that sekitori wrestlers receive can be taken from them if they fail to maintain a high level of achievement in each official tournament. For other uses, see Karate (disambiguation). ... A sekitori is a sumo wrestler or rikishi who is ranked in one of the top two professional divisions: makuuchi and juryo. ...


Furthermore, sumo does not provide any means of achievement besides the official tournaments. Rank is determined solely by winning records during an official tournament. On the other hand, in many other Eastern martial arts, competitors can display their skill by performing standard routines, called kata or forms, to receive recognition. Thus, sumo wrestlers are very specialized fighters who train to win their bouts using good technique, as this is their only means of gaining better privileges in their stables and higher salaries. Kata (åž‹ or å½¢) (literally: form) is a Japanese word describing detailed choreographed patterns of movements practiced either solo or in pairs. ...


Amateur sumo

Sumo is also an amateur sport, with participants in college, high school and grade school in Japan. In addition to college and school tournaments, there are also open amateur tournaments. The sport at this level is stripped of most of the ceremony. The most successful amateur wrestlers in Japan (usually college champions) can be allowed to enter professional sumo at makushita (third division) rather than from the very bottom of the ladder. This rank is called makushita tsukedashi, and is currently makushita 10. Many of the current top division wrestlers entered professional sumo by this route. All entry by amateur athletes into the professional ranks is subject to them being young enough (23 or under) to satisfy the entry requirements. Professional Sumo is divided into 6 ranked divisions. ...


The sport is very popular among young children, especially those who are considered to be overweight, or whose father also participates in sumo. It is generally seen as an advantage if a child is obese, their oversized body mass allows them to better stabilize themselves and take down their opponent.[citation needed] These children vary in their proportion of body fat. ...


There is also an International Sumo Federation, which encourages the sport's development worldwide, including holding international championships. A key aim of the federation is to have Sumo recognized as an Olympic sport. Accordingly, amateur tournaments are divided into weight classes (men: Lightweight up to 187 lb (85 kg) [85 kg], Middleweight up to 253 lb (115 kg) [115 kg], Heavyweight 253+ lb [115+ kg] and Open Weight [unrestricted entry]), and include competitions for female wrestlers (Lightweight up to 143 lb (65 kg) [65 kg], Middleweight up to 176 lb (80 kg) [80 kg], Heavyweight 176+ lb [80+ kg] and Open Weight). The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ...


Amateur Sumo clubs are gaining in popularity in the United States, with competitions regularly being held in major cities across the country. The sport has long been popular on the West Coast and in Hawai'i, where it has played a part in the festivals of the Japanese ethnic communities. Now, however, the sport has grown beyond the sphere of Japanese diaspora and athletes come from a variety of ethnic, cultural and sporting backgrounds. The Japanese diaspora, and its individual members known as nikkei, are Japanese emigrants from Japan and their descendants. ...


Amateur sumo is particularly strong in Europe. Many athletes come to the sport from a background in judo, freestyle wrestling, or other grappling sports such as Sambo. Some Eastern European athletes have been successful enough to be scouted into professional sumo in Japan, much like their Japanese amateur counterparts. The most proficient of these to date is the Bulgarian Kotooshu, who is the highest ranking foreign wrestler who was formerly an amateur sumo athlete. This article is about the martial art and sport. ... This article is about freestyle wrestling. ... For other uses, see Grapple. ... Sambo (Russian: ) -- (also called Sombo in the US and sometimes written in all-caps) is a modern martial art, combat sport and self-defense system developed in the former Soviet Union, and recognized as an official sport by the USSR All-Union Sports Committee in 1938, presented by Anatoly Kharlampiev. ... The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ...


See also

martial arts Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... The following words are terms used in sumo wrestling in Japan. ... The currently active Sumo wrestlers competing in the top division (in November 2006) include the following: // Asashoryu Akinori Chiyotaikai Ryuji Hakuho Sho Kaio Hiroyuki Tochiazuma Daisuke Kotooshu Katsunori Kotomitsuki Keiji Miyabiyama Tetsushi Aminishiki Ryuji Kisenosato Yutaka Kokkai Futoshi Roho Yukio Ama Kohei Aminishiki Ryuji Asasekiryu Taro Asofuji Seiya Baruto Kaito... This is a list of past wrestlers (either retired or deceased) in the sport of professional sumo. ... The following is an alphabetical list of heya or sumo training stables currently active in professional sumo. ... This list of sumo wrestlers contains all Yusho winners of Makuuchi since the introduction of six yearly tounaments in 1958. ... This is a list of all Sumo wrestlers who have reached the sports highest rank of Yokozuna. ... Kimarite (決まり手 Kimari-te) are winning techniques in a Sumo bout. ...

References

  • Benjamin, David (1991). The Joy of Sumo - A Fan's Notes. Rutland, Vermont, U.S.A. & Tokyo, Japan: Charles E. Tuttle Company. ISBN 0-8048-1679-4. 
  • Schilling, Mark (1994). Sumo - A Fan's Guide. Tokyo, Japan: The Japan Times, Ltd.. ISBN 4-7890-0725-1. 
  • Shapiro, David (1995). Sumo - A Pocket Guide. Rutland, Vermont, U.S.A. & Tokyo, Japan: Charles E. Tuttle Company. ISBN 0-8048-2014-7. 

Notes

  1. ^ Young, Robert W. (2007). History and Overview of the Martial Arts. USADOJO.COM. Retrieved on 2007-06-29.
  2. ^ Rules of Sumo. Beginner's Guide of Sumo. Japan Sumo Association. Retrieved on 2007-06-26.
  3. ^ a b c d e Hall, Mina (1997). The Big Book of Sumo: History, Practice, Ritual, Fight. Stone Bridge Press. ISBN 1-880656-28-0. 
  4. ^ a b c d e Sharnoff, Lorna (1993). Grand Sumo. Weatherhill. ISBN 0-8348-0283-x. 
  5. ^ Sumo Beya Guide (English). Japan Sumo Association. Retrieved on 2007-07-08.
  6. ^ a b Banzuke (English). Beginner's Guide of Sumo. Japan Sumo Association. Retrieved on 2007-06-27.
  7. ^ Foreigners in Sumo (English). dichne.com. Retrieved on 2007-06-27.
  8. ^ McCurry, Justin (3rd July 2007). Last of the Sumo - Japanese youth turn their backs on gruelling sport of emperors (English). The Guardian. Retrieved on 2007-07-08.
  9. ^ a b c Hiroyuki Tai (2005-11-25). Foreign sumo aspirants' numbers kept in check by stable quota policy (English). japantimes.co.jp. Retrieved on 2007-09-20.
  10. ^ Buckton, Mark (2007-01-23). Numbers break records, character creates legends. Japan Times. Retrieved on 2008-06-12.
  11. ^ An exception to this rule occurred when Hirohito, the former Emperor of Japan, died on Saturday, January 7, 1989. The tournament which was to start on the following day was postponed; starting on Monday, January 9 and finishing on Monday, January 24.
  12. ^ Schuler, Nicolas; Macan, Jelena (trans.) (April 2004). Detailed description of a sumo bout. Le Monde de Sumo N°3. Retrieved on 2007-08-03.
  13. ^ Becoming a Sumo Wrestler. Sumo East and West. Discovery Channel. Retrieved on 2005-11-18.
  14. ^ United Nations Statistics Division - Demographic and Social Statistics. Retrieved on 2005-11-18.
  15. ^ Rikishi Salaries (Japanese). Retrieved on 2007-10-29.
  16. ^ Sumo Questions. Retrieved on 2005-11-18.
  17. ^ Reader, Ian (December 1989). "Sumo: The Recent History of an Ethical Model for Japanese Society". International Journal of the History of Sport 6 (3): 285–298. doi:10.1080/09523368908713700. 
  18. ^ Sumo Ceremonies. Beginner's Guide of Sumo. Japan Sumo Association. Retrieved on 2007-08-02.
  19. ^ UCLA Asia Institute: Winning Isn't Everything: Corruption in Sumo Wrestling. Retrieved on 2005-11-18.
  20. ^ a b c ReDotPop Sumo. PopMatters (2000-04-05). Retrieved on 2008-03-12.
  21. ^ An Inside Look at Shin Sumo. Eastwest Lifestyle (2005-June). Retrieved on 2008-03-12.
  22. ^ 女性が土俵乱入、高見盛ら取り押さえ. Nikkan Sports (2007-09-28). Retrieved on 2008-03-30.
  23. ^ Japan PM angry over Sumo death. BBC (2008-02-08). Retrieved on 2008-02-08.

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Japan Sumo Association (日本相撲協会 or Nihon Sumo Kyokai) is the body who operate and control professional sumo wrestling in Japan. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Japan Sumo Association (日本相撲協会 or Nihon Sumo Kyokai) is the body who operate and control professional sumo wrestling in Japan. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Japan Sumo Association (日本相撲協会 or Nihon Sumo Kyokai) is the body who operate and control professional sumo wrestling in Japan. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Japan Times is one of the few independent English newspapers published in Japan: it mainly competes with English editions of the major dailies, such as the Daily Yomiuri and the Mainichi Daily News, as well as the International Herald Tribune. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Emperor Shōwa ) (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989) was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order reigning from December 25, 1926 until his death in 1989. ... The Emperor , literally heavenly sovereign,[1] formerly often called the Mikado) of Japan is the countrys monarch. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Discovery Channel is a cable and satellite TV channel founded by John Hendricks which is distributed by Discovery Communications. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The Japan Sumo Association (日本相撲協会 or Nihon Sumo Kyokai) is the body who operate and control professional sumo wrestling in Japan. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... PopMatters is an international magazine of cultural criticism. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nikkan Sports ) is the first-launched Japanese daily sports newspaper founded in 1946. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
The Suggested Upper Merged Ontology (SUMO) - Ontology Portal (289 words)
SUMO is the only formal ontology that has been mapped to all of the WordNet lexicon.
SUMO is free and owned by the IEEE.
The ontologies that extend SUMO are available under GNU General Public License.
Sumo Wrestling (1024 words)
Sumo appears in the earliest histories of Japan, the Nihon Shoki and the Kojiki, and in early Shinto.
In the Edo period, sumo became a popular feature of urban culture among the merchant class and it emerged as a professional sport with rules and ceremonies which are closely related to today's.
The rules of sumo are majestically simple: one of the two wrestlers loses when he is forced out of the wrestling ring which measures about 15 feet in diameter or if anything other than his feet touch the playing surface.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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