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Encyclopedia > Summit (topography)

A topographical summit is a point on a surface which is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. Mathematically speaking, a summit is a local maximum in elevation. Basic Definition In geography, the elevation of a geographic location is its height above mean sea level (or some other fixed point). ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, known today as the father of geometry; shown here in a detail of The School of Athens by Raphael. ...

Near the summit of Tai Mo Shan, Hong Kong.
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Near the summit of Tai Mo Shan, Hong Kong.

Colloquially, a summit generally refers to a mountain peak with some significant amount of topographic prominence. Usually this should be true within a surrounding of about 1 km or more. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Tai Mo Shan capped in the mist Tai Mo Shan (Chinese: 大帽山, literally meaning Big Hat Mountain; also 大霧山, literally meaning Foggy Mountain) has the highest peak in Hong Kong, with an altitude of 958 m. ... Mount McKinley (Denali) in Alaska (USA) has the highest visible base-to-summit elevation on Earth (approximately 5400 metres). ... In topography, prominence, also known as autonomous height, relative height, shoulder drop or prime factor (in Europe), is a concept used in the categorization of hills and mountains. ... The Matterhorn, a classic peak A pyramidal peak, or sometimes in its most extreme form called a glacial horn, is a mountaintop that has been modified by the action of ice during glaciation and frost weathering. ...


When referring to geographic features such as mountains on a topographic map, constant levels of terrain heights are shown by contour lines. The elevation of a mountain denotes the highest point or summit and is typically illustrated as a small circle on a topo map with the AMSL height shown in either metres or feet or both. If the peak is a trigonometric point (measured exactly) this map sign may be a small triangle. It has been suggested that Topographic profile be merged into this article or section. ... Elevation contour map A contour line (also level set, isopleth, isogram or isarithm) for a function of two variables is a curve connecting points where the function has a same particular value. ... The term above mean sea level (AMSL) refers to the elevation (on the ground) or altitude (in the air) of any object, relative to the average sea level. ... The metre, or meter (US), is a measure of length. ... A foot (plural: feet) is any of several old units of distance or length, measuring around a quarter to a third of a meter. ... Surveyor at work with a leveling instrument. ...


See also: pyramidal peak, hill, maximum The Matterhorn, a classic peak A pyramidal peak, or sometimes in its most extreme form called a glacial horn, is a mountaintop that has been modified by the action of ice during glaciation and frost weathering. ... A hill in Hungary with a hillside vintage garden For the landform that extends less than 600 metres above the surrounding terrain and that is smaller than a mountain, see the mountain article. ... The largest and the smallest element of a set are called extreme values, or extreme records. ...


 
 

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