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Encyclopedia > Sumerian king list
Ancient Mesopotamia
Euphrates · Tigris
Cities / Empires
Sumer: Uruk · Ur · Eridu
Kish · Lagash · Nippur
Akkadian Empire: Akkad
Babylon · Isin · Susa
Assyria: Assur · Nineveh
Dur-Sharrukin · Nimrud
Babylonia · Chaldea
Elam · Amorites
Hurrians · Mitanni
Kassites · Urartu
Chronology
Kings of Sumer
Kings of Assyria
Kings of Babylon
Language
Aramaic
Sumerian · Akkadian
Elamite · Hurrian
Mythology
Enûma Elish
Gilgamesh · Marduk

The Sumerian king list is an ancient text in the Sumerian language listing kings of Sumer from Sumerian and foreign dynasties. The later Babylonian king list and Assyrian king list were similar. Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ... Image File history File links Babylonlion. ... Surfer Rosa The Euphrates (IPA: /juːˈfreɪtiːz/; Greek: Euphrátēs; Akkadian: Pu-rat-tu; Hebrew: פְּרָת Pĕrāth; Syriac: Prâth; Arabic: الفرات Al-Furāt; Turkish: Fırat; Kurdish: فرهات, Firhat, Ferhat, Azeri: Fərat) is the western of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (the other... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... Sumer (or Šumer) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in the southern part of Mesopotamia (southeastern Iran) from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term Sumerian applies... Uruk (Sumerian Unug, Biblical Erech, Greek Orchoë and Arabic وركاء Warka), was an ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates, on the line of the ancient Nil canal, in a region of marshes, about 140 miles (230 km) SSE from Baghdad. ... For other uses, see UR. Ur seen across the Royal tombs, with the Great Ziggurat in the background, January 17, 2004 Ur was an ancient city in southern Mesopotamia, located near the mouth (at the time) of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers on the Persian Gulf and close to Eridu. ... Eridu (or Eridug) was an ancient city seven miles southwest of Ur . ... Kish [kish] (Tall al-Uhaymir) was an ancient city of Sumer, now in central Iraq. ... Lagash or Sirpurla was one of the oldest cities of Sumer and later Babylonia. ... The city of Nippur [nipoor] (Sumerian Nibru, Akkadian Nibbur) was one of the most ancient of all the Babylonian cities of which we have any knowledge, the special seat of the worship of the Sumerian god, Enlil, ruler of the cosmos subject to An alone. ... The Akkadian Empire usually refers to the Semitic speaking state that grew up around the city of Akkad north of Sumer, and reached its greatest extent under Sargon of Akkad. ... Akkad (or Agade) was a city and its region of northern Mesopotamia, situated on the left bank of the Euphrates, between Sippar and Kish (located in present-day Iraq, ca. ... Babylon (in Arabic: بابل; in Syriac: ܒܒܙܠ in Hebrew:בבל) was an ancient city in Mesopotamia (modern Al Hillah, Iraq), the ruins of which can be found in present-day Babil Province, about 80km south of Baghdad. ... An International Securities Identifying Number (ISIN) uniquely identifies a security. ... Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa. ... An Assyrian winged bull, or lemmasu. ... Assur (Assyrian: ܐܫܘܪ) also spelled Ashur, from Assyrian Aššur, was the capital of ancient Assyria. ... , For other uses, see Nineveh (disambiguation). ... Human-headed winged bull, found during Bottas excavation. ... Nimrud is an ancient Assyrian city located south of Nineveh on the river Tigris. ... Babylonia was a state in the south part of Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... For other uses, see Chaldean. ... Elam (Persian: تمدن ایلام) is one of the oldest recorded civilizations. ... Amorite (Hebrew ’emōrî, Egyptian Amar, Akkadian Tidnum or Amurrūm (corresponding to Sumerian MAR.TU or Martu) refers to a Semitic people who occupied the country west of the Euphrates from the second half of the third millennium BC, and also the god they worshipped (see Amurru). ... For the history of the kingdom of Mitanni (1500–1300 BC), see Mitanni. ... Kingdom of Mitanni Mitanni (cuneiform KUR URUMi-it-ta-ni, also Mittani Mi-ta-an-ni, in Assyrian sources Hanigalbat, Khanigalbat cuneiform Ḫa-ni-gal-bat ) was a Hurrian kingdom in northern Mesopotamia from ca. ... // The Kassites were a Near-Eastern mountain tribe which migrated to the Zagros Mountains and Mesopotamia (present Doroud) in 3000 and 4000 BC.[1] They spoke a non-Indo-European, non-Semitic language. ... Urartu at its greatest extent 743 BC Urartu (Biainili in Urartian) was an ancient kingdom in the mountainous plateau between Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, and Caucasus mountains, later known as the Armenian Highland, and it centered around Lake Van (present-day eastern Turkey). ... The Chronology of the Ancient Orient deals with the notoriously difficult task of assigning years of the Common Era to various events, rulers and dynasties of the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC. The chronology of this region is based on five sets of primary materials. ... This page lists the Kings of Lamestia from the late sixties. ... The following is a list of the Kings of Babylon, a major city of ancient Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... Sumerian ( native tongue) was the language of ancient Sumer, spoken in Southern Mesopotamia from at least the 4th millennium BCE. It was gradually replaced by Akkadian as a spoken language in the beginning of the 2nd millenium BCE, but continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial, literary and scientific... Akkadian (lišānum akkadītum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... Elamite is an extinct language, which was spoken by the ancient Elamites (also known as Ilamids). ... Hurrian is a conventional name for the language of the Hurrians (Khurrites), a people who entered northern Mesopotamia around 2300 BC and had mostly vanished by 1000 BC. Hurrian was the language of the Mitanni kingdom in northern Mesopotamia, and was likely spoken at least initially in Hurrian settlements in... Mesopotamian mythology is the collective name given to Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, and Babylonian mythologies from the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Iraq. ... Enûma Eliš is the Babylonian creation epic. ... Gilgamesh, according to the Sumerian king list, was the fifth king of Uruk (Early Dynastic II, first dynasty of Uruk), the son of Lugalbanda, ruling circa 2650 BC. He is also the central character in the Epic of Gilgamesh, which says that his mother was Ninsun, (whom some call Rimat... Marduk (Sumerian spelling in Akkadian: AMAR.UTU solar calf; Biblical: Merodach) was the Babylonian name of a late-generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon, who, when Babylon permanently became the political center of the Euphrates valley in the time of Hammurabi (18th century... Sumerian ( native tongue) was the language of ancient Sumer, spoken in Southern Mesopotamia from at least the 4th millennium BCE. It was gradually replaced by Akkadian as a spoken language in the beginning of the 2nd millenium BCE, but continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial, literary and scientific... A monarch (see sovereignty) is a type of ruler or head of state. ... Sumer (or Šumer) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in the southern part of Mesopotamia (southeastern Iran) from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term Sumerian applies... The Babylonian king list is not merely a list of kings of Babylon, but is a very specific ancient list of supposed Babylonian kings recorded in several ancient locations, and related to the Sumerian king list. ... The Assyrian king list is not merely a list of kings of Assyria, but is a very specific ancient list of supposed Assyrian kings recorded in several ancient locations, and related to the Sumerian king list. ...

Contents

Description

The list records the location of the "official" kingship and the rulers, with the lengths of their rule. The kingship was believed to be handed down by the gods, and could be passed from one city to another by military conquest. The list mentions only one female ruler: Kug-Baba, the tavern-keeper, who alone accounts for the third dynasty of Kish. This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Kug-Baba (or Kubaba) of Kish, called the tavern-keeper is the only female ruler mentioned in the Sumerian king list. ... Kish [kish] (Tall al-Uhaymir) was an ancient city of Sumer, now in central Iraq. ...


The list peculiarly blends from antediluvian, mythological kings with exceptionally long reigns, into more plausibly historical dynasties. It cannot be ruled out that most of the earliest names in the list correspond to historical rulers who later became legendary figures. According to the Bible, the only survivors from the antediluvian period were Noah and his family. ...


The first name on the list whose existence has been authenticated through recent archaeological discoveries, is that of Enmebaragesi of Kish, whose name is also mentioned in the Gilgamesh epics. This has led some to suggest that Gilgamesh himself was a historical king of Uruk, who ruled sometime around 2600 BC in the First Dynasty of Uruk. Additionally, Dumuzi is one of the spellings of the name of the god of nature, Tammuz, whose usual epithet was the fisherman or the shepherd. Enmebaragesi (Me-Baragesi, En-Men-Barage-Si, Enmebaragisi), according to the Sumerian king list, was a king of Kish who subdued Elam and reigned 900 years, but was captured single handedly by Dumuzid the fisherman of Uruk, predecessor of Gilgamesh. ... The Deluge tablet of the Gilgamesh epic in Akkadian The Epic of Gilgamesh is from Babylonia, dating from long after the time that king Gilgamesh was supposed to have ruled. ... Gilgamesh, according to the Sumerian king list, was the fifth king of Uruk (Early Dynastic II, first dynasty of Uruk), the son of Lugalbanda, ruling circa 2650 BC. He is also the central character in the Epic of Gilgamesh, which says that his mother was Ninsun, (whom some call Rimat... Tammuz or Tamuz (Arabic تمّوز Tammūz; Hebrew תַּמּוּז, Standard Hebrew Tammuz, Tiberian Hebrew Tammûz; Akkadian Duʾzu, Dūzu; all from Sumerian Dumuzid or Dumuzi legal son who was the dying and rising shepherd... Tammuz or Tamuz Arabic تمّوز TammÅ«z; Hebrew תַּמּוּז, Standard Hebrew Tammuz, Tiberian Hebrew Tammûz; Akkadian Duʾzu, DÅ«zu; Sumerian Dumuzi was the name of a Babylonian deity. ...


Conspicuously absent from this list are the priest-rulers of Lagash, who are known directly from inscriptions from ca. the 25th century BC. Another early ruler in the list who is clearly historical is Lugal-Zage-Si of Uruk of the 23rd century BC, who conquered Lagash, and who was in turn conquered by Sargon of Akkad. Lagash or Sirpurla was one of the oldest cities of Sumer and later Babylonia. ... // The ruined pyramid of Userkaf at Saqqara. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Uruk (Sumerian Unug, Biblical Erech, Greek Orchoë and Arabic وركاء Warka), was an ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates, on the line of the ancient Nil canal, in a region of marshes, about 140 miles (230 km) SSE from Baghdad. ... (24th century BC - 23rd century BC - 22nd century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2334 - 2279 BC (short chronology) Sargon of Akkads conquest of Mesopotamia. ... Sargon of Akkad, or Sargon the Great (Akkadian Šarukinu, the true king, reigned 2334 BC - 2279 BC, short chronology), founder of the Dynasty of Akkad. ...


The list is central, for lack of a more accurate source, to the chronology of the 3rd millennium BC. However, the presence in the list of dynasties which plausibly reigned simultaneously, but in different cities, makes it impossible to trust the addition of the figures to produce a strict chronology. Taking this into account, many regnal dates have been revised in recent years, and are generally placed much later nowadays than the regnal dates given in older publications, sometimes by an entire millennium. Some have proposed re-reading the units given in more realistic numbers, such as taking the figures, given in sars (units of 3600) for the antediluvians, as instead being either decades or simply years. Uncertainty, especially as to the duration of the Gutian period, also makes dates for events predating the Third dynasty of Ur (ca. 21st century BC) with any accuracy practically impossible (see also Shulgi, Ur-Nammu). The Chronology of the Ancient Orient deals with the notoriously difficult task of assigning years of the Common Era to various events, rulers and dynasties of the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC. The chronology of this region is based on five sets of primary materials. ... The 3rd millennium BC spans the Early to Middle Bronze Age. ... The Gutian kings came to some power in Mesopotamia in ca. ... The Third Dynasty of Ur refers simultaneously to a 21st to 20th century BC (short chronology) Sumerian ruling dynasty based in the city of Ur and a short-lived territorial-political state that some historians regard as a nascent empire. ... (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2112 BC — 2095 BC — Sumerian campaigns of Ur-Nammu. ... Shulgi of Urim is the second king of the Sumerian Renaissance. He reigned for 48 years, dated to 2047 BC–1999 BC short chronology (also tentatively dated to 2161 BC–2113 BC on the basis of a solar eclipse). ... Ur-Nammu (or Urnamma) was an ancient Sumerian king of Ur, fl. ...


Some of the earliest known inscriptions containing the list date from the early 3rd millennium BC; for example, the Weld-Blundell Prism is dated to 2170 BC. The later Babylonian and Assyrian king lists that were based on it still preserved the earliest portions of the list well into the 3rd century BC, when Berossus popularised the list in the Hellenic world. Over the large period of time involved, the names inevitably became corrupted, and Berossus' Greek version of the list, ironically one of the earliest to be known to modern academics, exhibits particularly odd transcriptions of the names. This article cites its sources but does not provide page references. ...


The list

Early Dynastic I

Ante-diluvian kings, legendary, or earlier than ca. the 26th century BC. Their rules are measured in sars - periods of 3600 years - the next unit up after 60 in Sumerian counting (3600 = 60x60), and in ners - units of 600. The Deluge by Gustave Doré. The story of a Great Flood sent by a deity or deities to destroy civilization as an act of divine retribution is a widespread theme in Greek and many other cultural myths. ... (27th century BC - 26th century BC - 25th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC – Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period. ...


"After the kingship descended from heaven, the kingship was in Eridu(g). In Eridu(g), Alulim became king; he ruled for 28800 years."

  • Alulim of Eridu(g): 8 sars (28800 years)
  • Alalgar of Eridug: 10 sars (36000 years)
  • En-Men-Lu-Ana of Bad-Tibira: 12 sars (43200 years)
  • En-Men-Ana 1, 2
  • En-Men-Gal-Ana of Bad-Tibira: 8 sars (28800 years)
  • Dumuzi of Bad-Tibira, the shepherd: 10 sars (36000 years)
  • En-Sipad-Zid-Ana of Larag: 8 sars (28800 years)
  • En-Men-Dur-Ana of Zimbir: 5 sars and 5 ners (21000 years)
  • Ubara-Tutu of Shuruppag: 5 sars and 1 ner (18600 years)
  • Zin-Suddu 1

1:These two names are present on slightly over half of the versions of the sumerian king lists, but not on others. Adapa was an Ancient Sumerian king. ... Eridu (or Eridug) was an ancient city seven miles southwest of Ur . ... Ancient sumerian city. ... Tammuz or Tamuz Arabic تمّوز Tammūz; Hebrew תַּמּוּז, Standard Hebrew Tammuz, Tiberian Hebrew Tammûz; Akkadian Duʾzu, Dūzu; Sumerian Dumuzi was the name of a Babylonian deity. ... Ancient sumerian city. ... Ancient sumerian city. ... In the Epic of Gilgamesh, Utnapishtim (also known as the Sumerian character Ziusudra) is the wise king of the Sumerian city state of Shuruppak who, along with his wife, whose name was not mentioned in the story, survived a great flood sent by Enlil to drown every living thing on...


2:In the place of En-Men-Ana in some versions of the list is the name Kichu-Ana


Early Dynastic II

ca. 26th century BC. Many rulers known from contemporary inscriptions are not found in the King Lists. (27th century BC - 26th century BC - 25th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC – Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period. ...


"After the flood had swept over, and the kingship had descended from heaven, the kingship was in Kish."


First Dynasty of Kish

  • Jushur of Kish: 1200 years
  • Kullassina-bel of Kish: 960 years
  • Nangishlishma of Kish: 670 years
  • En-Tarah-Ana of Kish: 420 years
  • Babum of Kish: 300 years
  • Puannum of Kish: 840 years
  • Kalibum of Kish: 960 years
  • Kalumum of Kish: 840 years
  • Zuqaqip of Kish: 900 years
  • Atab of Kish: 600 years
  • Mashda of Kish: 840 years
  • Arwium of Kish: 720 years
  • Etana of Kish, the shepherd, who ascended to heaven and consolidated all the foreign countries: 1500 years
  • Balih of Kish: 400 years
  • En-Me-Nuna of Kish: 660 years
  • Melem-Kish of Kish: 900 years
  • Barsal-Nuna of Kish: 1200 years
  • Zamug of Kish: 140 years
  • Tizqar of Kish: 305 years
  • Ilku of Kish: 900 years
  • Iltasadum of Kish: 1200 years
  • En-Men-Barage-Si of Kish, who conquered Elam: 900 years (this is the earliest ruler in the list who is confirmed independently from epigraphical evidence)
  • Aga of Kish: 625 years

Then Kish was defeated and the kingship was taken to E-ana. Kish [kish] (Tall al-Uhaymir) was an ancient city of Sumer, now in central Iraq. ... Ancient Sumerian king. ... Enmebaragesi (Me-Baragesi, En-Men-Barage-Si, Enmebaragisi), according to the Sumerian king list, was a king of Kish who subdued Elam and reigned 900 years, but was captured single handedly by Dumuzid the fisherman of Uruk, predecessor of Gilgamesh. ... Elam (Persian: تمدن ایلام) is one of the oldest recorded civilizations. ...


First Dynasty of Uruk

  • Mesh-ki-ang-gasher of E-ana, son of Utu: 324 years.

Mesh-ki-ang-gasher went into the Sea and disappeared. Uruk (Sumerian Unug, Biblical Erech, Greek Orchoë and Arabic وركاء Warka), was an ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates, on the line of the ancient Nil canal, in a region of marshes, about 140 miles (230 km) SSE from Baghdad. ...

  • Enmerkar, who built Unug: 420 years
  • Lugalbanda of Unug, the shepherd: 1200 years
  • Dumuzid of Unug, the fisherman: 100 years. Captured En-Men-Barage-Si of Kish.
  • Gilgamesh, whose father was a "phantom", lord of Kulaba: 126 years.
  • Ur-Nungal of Unug: 30 years
  • Udul-Kalama of Unug: 15 years
  • La-Ba'shum of Unug: 9 years
  • En-Nun-Tarah-Ana of Unug: 8 years
  • Mesh-He of Unug: 36 years
  • Melem-Ana of Unug: 6 years
  • Lugal-Kitun of Unug: 36 years

Then Uruk was defeated and the kingship was taken to Urim. Enmerkar, according to the Sumerian king list, was the builder of Uruk, and was said to have reigned for 420 years. It adds that he brought the official kingship with him from the city of Eana, after his father Mesh-ki-ag-gasher, son of Utu, had entered the sea... Lugalbanda was a legendary king of Sumeria in the first dynasty of Uruk, best known as the father of Gilgamesh. ... Tammuz or Tamuz (Arabic تمّوز Tammūz; Hebrew תַּמּוּז, Standard Hebrew Tammuz, Tiberian Hebrew Tammûz; Akkadian Duʾzu, Dūzu; all from Sumerian Dumuzid or Dumuzi legal son who was the dying and rising shepherd... Gilgamesh, according to the Sumerian king list, was the fifth king of Uruk (Early Dynastic II, first dynasty of Uruk), the son of Lugalbanda, ruling circa 2650 BC. He is also the central character in the Epic of Gilgamesh, which says that his mother was Ninsun, (whom some call Rimat...


First dynasty of Ur

ca. 25th century BC // The ruined pyramid of Userkaf at Saqqara. ...

  • Mesh-Ane-Pada of Urim: 80 years
  • Mesh-Ki-Ang-Nanna of Urim: 36 years
  • Elulu of Urim: 25 years
  • Balulu of Urim: 36 years

Then Urim was defeated and the kingship was taken to Awan. Mesannepada (or Mesanepada, Mes-Anni-Padda) was the first king in the first dynasty of Ur, in ca. ... Elulu was a Babylonian King from unknown to 2254 BCE. He fought for the power in Akkad after the death of Shar-kali-sharri. ...


Early Dynastic III

[The 1st Dynasty of Lagash is not mentioned in the King List, though it is well known from inscriptions.]

Lagash or Sirpurla was one of the oldest cities of Sumer and later Babylonia. ...

Awan

  • Three kings of Awan, ruling for a total of 356 years.

Then Awan was defeated and the kingship was taken to Kish. The Awan Dynasty was the first dynasty of Elam, founded by king Peli at the dawn of history. ...


Second Dynasty Kish

  • Susuda of Kish: 201 years
  • Dadasig of Kish: 81 years
  • Mamagal of Kish, the boatman: 360 years
  • Kalbum of Kish: 195 years
  • Tuge of Kish: 360 years
  • Men-Nuna of Kish: 180 years
  •  ? of Kish: 290 years
  • Lugalngu of Kish: 360 years

Then Kish was defeated and the kingship was taken to Hamazi. Kish [kish] (Tall al-Uhaymir) was an ancient city of Sumer, now in central Iraq. ...


Hamazi

  • Hadanish of Hamazi: 360 years

Then Hamazi was defeated and the kingship was taken to Unug. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Second Dynasty of Uruk

  • En-Shakansha-Ana of Unug: 60 years
  • Lugal-Ure (or Lugal-Kinishe-Dudu) of Unug: 120 years
  • Argandea of Unug: 7 years

Then Unug was defeated and the kingship was taken to Urim. Uruk (Sumerian Unug, Biblical Erech, Greek Orchoë and Arabic وركاء Warka), was an ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates, on the line of the ancient Nil canal, in a region of marshes, about 140 miles (230 km) SSE from Baghdad. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Second Dynasty of Ur

  • Nani of Urim: 120 years
  • Mesh-Ki-Ang-Nanna of Urim: 48 years
  •  ? of Urim: 2 years

Then Urim was defeated and the kingship was taken to Adab. For other uses, see UR. Ur seen across the Royal tombs, with the Great Ziggurat in the background, January 17, 2004 Ur was an ancient city in southern Mesopotamia, located near the mouth (at the time) of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers on the Persian Gulf and close to Eridu. ...


Adab

  • Lugal-Anne-Mundu of Adab: 90 years

Then Adab was defeated and the kingship was taken to Mari. The most important king of city-state Adab in Sumeria. ...


Mari

  • Anbu of Mari: 30 years
  • Anba of Mari: 17 years
  • Bazi of Mari: 30 years
  • Zizi of Mari: 20 years
  • Limer of Mari, the gudu priest: 30 years
  • Sharrum-Iter of Mari: 9 years

Then Mari was defeated and the kingship was taken to Kish. Intendant Ebih-Il, found in the temple of Ishtar at Mari, Archaic Dynasties (ca. ...


Third Dynasty of Kish

  • Kug-Baba of Kish, the woman tavern-keeper, who made firm the foundations of Kish: 100 years
(the only woman in the King Lists)

Then Kish was defeated and the kingship was taken to Akshak. Kish [kish] (Tall al-Uhaymir) was an ancient city of Sumer, now in central Iraq. ... Kug-Baba (or Kubaba) of Kish, called the tavern-keeper is the only female ruler mentioned in the Sumerian king list. ...


Akshak

  • Unzi of Akshak: 30 years
  • Undalulu of Akshak: 6 years
  • Urur of Akshak: 6 years
  • Puzur-Nirah of Akshak: 20 years
  • Ishu-Il of Akshak: 24 years
  • Shu-Sin of Akshak: 7 years

Then Akshak was defeated and the kingship was taken to Kish. Akshak was a city of ancient Sumer, situated on the northern boundary of Akkad, sometimes identified with Babylonian Upi (Greek Opis). ...


Fourth Dynasty of Kish

  • Puzur-Sin of Kish: 25 years
  • Ur-Zababa of Kish: 400 (6?) years
  • Zimudar of Kish: 30 years
  • Ussi-Watar of Kish: 7 years
  • Eshtar-Muti of Kish: 11 years
  • Ishme-Shamash of Kish: 11 years
  • Shu-Ilishu of Kish: 15 years
  • Nanniya of Kish, the jeweller: 7 years.

Then Kish was defeated and the kingship was taken to Unug. Kish [kish] (Tall al-Uhaymir) was an ancient city of Sumer, now in central Iraq. ...


Third Dynasty of Uruk

  • Lugal-Zage-Si of Unug: 25 years
(2259 BC–2235 BC short chronology) defeated Lagash.

Uruk (Sumerian Unug, Biblical Erech, Greek Orchoë and Arabic وركاء Warka), was an ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates, on the line of the ancient Nil canal, in a region of marshes, about 140 miles (230 km) SSE from Baghdad. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... (24th century BC - 23rd century BC - 22nd century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2334 - 2279 BC (short chronology) Sargon of Akkads conquest of Mesopotamia 2217 - 2193 BC - Nomadic invasions of Akkad 2205 BC - Foundation of the Xia Dynasty of China by... The Chronology of the Ancient Orient deals with the notoriously difficult task of assigning years of the Common Era to various events, rulers and dynasties of the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC. The chronology of this region is based on five sets of primary materials. ... Lagash or Sirpurla was one of the oldest cities of Sumer and later Babylonia. ...

Akkad

  • Sargon, whose father was a gardener, the cupbearer of Ur-Zababa, the king (first emperor) of Agade, who built Agade: 40 years
(ca. 2235 BC short chronology)
  • Rimush, younger son of Sargon: 9 years
  • Man-Ishtishu, older son of Sargon: 15 years
  • Naram-Sin, son of Man-Ishtishu: 56 years
  • Shar-Kali-Sharri, son of Naram-Sin: 25 years

Then who was king? Who was the king? The Akkadian Empire usually refers to the Semitic speaking state that grew up around the city of Akkad north of Sumer, and reached its greatest extent under Sargon of Akkad. ... Sargon of Akkad, or Sargon the Great (Akkadian Å arukinu, the true king, reigned 2334 BC - 2279 BC, short chronology), founder of the Dynasty of Akkad. ... Akkad (or Agade) was a city and its region of northern Iraq) between Assyria to the northwest and Sumer to the south. ... (24th century BC - 23rd century BC - 22nd century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2334 - 2279 BC (short chronology) Sargon of Akkads conquest of Mesopotamia 2217 - 2193 BC - Nomadic invasions of Akkad 2205 BC - Foundation of the Xia Dynasty of China by... The Chronology of the Ancient Orient deals with the notoriously difficult task of assigning years of the Common Era to various events, rulers and dynasties of the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC. The chronology of this region is based on five sets of primary materials. ... Rimush was the second king of the Akkadian Empire. ... Manishtushu, king of the Akkadian Empire. ... ... Shar-Kali-Sharri was a king of the Akkadian Empire. ...

  • Irgigi, Imi, Nanum, Ilulu: four of them ruled for only 3 years
  • Dudu: 21 years
  • Shu-Durul, son of Dudu: 15 years

Then Agade was defeated and the kingship was taken to Unug. Igigi was a Babylonian King who ruled from 2257 to (unknown) BCE. He fought for the power in Akkad after the death of Shar-kali-sharri. ... IMI is a three letter acronym. ... Nanum or Nanium was a Babylonian King from 2257 BC. He fought for the power in Akkad after the death of Shar-kali-sharri. ... The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ... Shu-turul (Shu-durul) was a king of Akkad from 2233 to 2218 BCE. Categories: People stubs ...


Fourth Dynasty of Uruk

(Possibly rulers of lower Mesopotamia contemporary with the dynasty of Akkad) Uruk (Sumerian Unug, Biblical Erech, Greek Orchoë and Arabic وركاء Warka), was an ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates, on the line of the ancient Nil canal, in a region of marshes, about 140 miles (230 km) SSE from Baghdad. ...

  • Ur-Ningin of Unug: 7 years
  • Ur-Gigir of Unug: 6 years
  • Kuda of Unug: 6 years
  • Puzur-Ili of Unug: 5 years
  • Ur-Utu (or Lugal-Melem) of Unug: 25 years

Unug was defeated and the kingship was taken to the army of Gutium.


Gutian period

In the army of Gutium, at first no king was famous; they were their own kings and ruled thus for 3 years The Gutian kings came to some power in Mesopotamia in ca. ...

  • Inkishush of Gutium: 6 years
  • Zarlagab of Gutium: 6 years
  • Shulme (or Yarlagash) of Gutium: 6 years
  • Silulumesh (or Silulu) of Gutium: 6 years
  • Inimabakesh (or Duga) of Gutium: 5 years
  • Igeshaush (or Ilu-An) of Gutium: 6 years
  • Yarlagab of Gutium: 3 years
  • Ibate of Gutium: 3 years
  • Yarla of Gutium: 3 years
  • Kurum of Gutium: 1 year
  • Apil-Kin of Gutium: 3 years
  • La-Erabum of Gutium: 2 years
  • Irarum of Gutium: 2 years
  • Ibranum of Gutium: 1 year
  • Hablum of Gutium: 2 years
  • Puzur-Sin of Gutium: 7 years
  • Yarlaganda of Gutium: 7 years
  •  ? of Gutium: 7 years
  • Tiriga of Gutium: 40 days

Uruk

  • Utu-hegal of Unug: conflicting dates (427 years / 26 years / 7 years)
drives out the Gutians

Utu-hegal was one of the first King of Sumer after centuries of Akkadian and Gutian rule. ...

Third dynasty of Ur

"Sumerian Renaissance" The Third Dynasty of Ur refers simultaneously to a 21st to 20th century BC (short chronology) Sumerian ruling dynasty based in the city of Ur and a short-lived territorial-political state that some historians regard as a nascent empire. ...

  • Ur-Nammu of Urim: 18 years
ruled ca. 2065 BC–2047 BC short chronology.
ruled ca. 2047 BC–1999 BC short chronology.
  • Amar-Sina of Urim: 9 years
  • Shu-Sin of Urim: 9 years
  • Ibbi-Sin of Urim: 24 years

Then Urim was defeated. The very foundation of Sumer was torn out (?). The kingship was taken to Isin. Ur-Nammu (or Urnamma) was an ancient Sumerian king of Ur, fl. ... (22nd century BC - 21st century BC - 20th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2130 - 2080 BC -- Ninth Dynasty wars in Egypt 2112 - 2095 BC -- Sumerian campaigns of Ur-Nammu 2091 -- beginning of the Patriarchal Age is traditionally set in this year 2064... The Chronology of the Ancient Orient deals with the notoriously difficult task of assigning years of the Common Era to various events, rulers and dynasties of the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC. The chronology of this region is based on five sets of primary materials. ... Shulgi of Urim is the second king of the Sumerian Renaissance. He reigned for 48 years, dated to 2047 BC–1999 BC short chronology (also tentatively dated to 2161 BC–2113 BC on the basis of a solar eclipse). ... (22nd century BC - 21st century BC - 20th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2130 - 2080 BC -- Ninth Dynasty wars in Egypt 2112 - 2095 BC -- Sumerian campaigns of Ur-Nammu 2091 -- beginning of the Patriarchal Age is traditionally set in this year 2064... The Chronology of the Ancient Orient deals with the notoriously difficult task of assigning years of the Common Era to various events, rulers and dynasties of the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC. The chronology of this region is based on five sets of primary materials. ... Amar-Sin (2046-2037 BCE High chronology) was the third ruler of the Ur III Dynasty, son of Shulgi (2094-2047 BCE). ... Shu-sin succeded his brother Amar-Sin as the King of Ur, and he came into conflict with the Amorites. ... Ibbi-Sin, son of Shu-Sin, was king of Sumer and Akkad and last king of the Ur III dynasty, and reigned circa 2028 BC-2004 BC. During his reign, the Sumerian empire was attacked repeatedly by Amorites. ...


Dynasty of Isin

Independent Amorite states in lower Mesopotamia. The dynasty ends at ca. 1730 BC short chronology. An International Securities Identifying Number (ISIN) uniquely identifies a security. ... Amorite (Hebrew ’emōrî, Egyptian Amar, Akkadian Tidnum or Amurrūm (corresponding to Sumerian MAR.TU or Martu) refers to a Semitic people who occupied the country west of the Euphrates from the second half of the third millennium BC, and also the god they worshipped (see Amurru). ... (19th century BC - 18th century BC - 17th century BC - other centuries) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) // Events 1787 - 1784 BC -- Amorite conquests of Uruk and Isin 1786 BC -- Egypt: End of Twelfth Dynasty, start of Thirteenth Dynasty, start of Fourteenth Dynasty 1766 BC -- Shang conquest of... The Chronology of the Ancient Orient deals with the notoriously difficult task of assigning years of the Common Era to various events, rulers and dynasties of the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC. The chronology of this region is based on five sets of primary materials. ...

  • Ishbi-Erra of Isin: 33 years
  • Shu-ilishu of Isin: 20 years
  • Iddin-Dagan of Isin: 20 years
  • Ishme-Dagan of Isin: 20 years
  • Lipit-Eshtar of Isin 11 years
  • Ur-Ninurta of Isin (the son of Ishkur, may he have years of abundance, a good reign, and a sweet life): 28 years
  • Bur-Sin of Isin: 5 years
  • Lipit-Enlil of Isin: 5 years
  • Erra-Imitti of Isin: 8 years
  • Enlil-Bani of Isin: 24 years (the king's gardener, to celebrate the New Year was named 'king for a day' then sacrificed, the king died during the celebration. Enlil-Bani remained on the throne.)
  • Zambiya of Isin: 3 years
  • Iter-Pisha of Isin: 4 years
  • Ur-Dul-Kuga of Isin: 4 years
  • Suen-magir of Isin: 11 years
  • Damiq-ilicu of Isin: 23 years

There are 11 cities, cities in which the kingship was exercised. A total of 134 kings, who altogether ruled for 28876 + X years. Ishme-Dagan was the son of the Amorite king Shamshi-Adad I, put on throne of Ekallatum by his father after a successful military attack. ... Adad in Akkadian and Ishkur in Sumerian are the names of the storm-god in the Babylonian-Assyrian pantheon, both usually written by the logogram dIM. The Akkadian god Adad is cognate in name and functions with northwest Semitic god Hadad. ...


See also

(The Sumerian king list contains a traditional list of the early dynasties; however much of it is probably mythical, and only a few of the names have been authenticated through archaeology. ... This page lists the Kings of Lamestia from the late sixties. ... The Chronology of the Ancient Orient deals with the notoriously difficult task of assigning years of the Common Era to various events, rulers and dynasties of the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC. The chronology of this region is based on five sets of primary materials. ...

External links and references

  • List of a wide selection of variant copies of the antediluvian part of the list
  • The Sumerian king list: translation, as of July 28, 2002
  • Another translation
  • Vincente, Claudine-Adrienne, "The Tall Leilan Recension of the Sumerian King List", Zeitschrift für Assyriologie 50 (1995), 234–270
  • Black, J.A., Cunningham, G., Fluckiger-Hawker, E, Robson, E., and Zólyomi, G., The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature (http://www-etcsl.orient.ox.ac.uk/), Oxford 1998.
  • The Sumerians and the Akkadians from The Encyclopedia of World History Sixth Edition, Peter N. Stearns (general editor), © 2001 The Houghton Mifflin Company, at Bartleby.com.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Sumerian king list (221 words)
The Sumerian king list is an ancient text in the Sumerian language listing kings of Sumer from Sumerian and foreign dynasties.
The later Babylonian king list and Assyrian king list were similar.
The list records the location of the "official" kingship and the rulers, with the lengths of their rule.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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