FACTOID # 28: Austin, Texas has more people than Alaska.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Sumer" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Sumer
Ancient Mesopotamia
EuphratesTigris
Cities / Empires
Sumer: EriduKishUrukUrLagashNippur • Ngirsu
Elam: Susa
Akkadian Empire: AkkadMari
Amorites: IsinLarsa
Babylonia: BabylonChaldea
HittitesKassitesHurrians/Mitanni
Assyria: AssurNimrud • Dur-Sharrukin • Nineveh
Chronology
History of Mesopotamia
History of SumerKings of Sumer
Kings of Assyria
Kings of Babylon
Mythology
Enûma ElishGilgamesh
Assyro-Babylonian religion
Language
SumerianElamite
AkkadianAramaic
Hurrian • Hittite

Sumer ( Sumerian: KI-EN-GIR, "Land of the Lords of Brightness"[1], or "land of the Sumerian tongue"[2][3], Akkadian: Šumeru; possibly Biblical Shinar ), located in southern Mesopotamia, is the earliest known civilization in the world. It lasted from the first settlement of Eridu in the Ubaid period (late 6th millennium BC) through the Uruk period (4th millennium BC) and the Dynastic periods (3rd millennium BC) until the rise of Babylon in the early 2nd millennium BC. The term "Sumerian" applies to all speakers of the Sumerian language. Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Image File history File links Babylonlion. ... For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa. ... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... Eridu (or Eridug) was an ancient city seven miles southwest of Ur . ... Kish [kish] (Tall al-Uhaymir) was an ancient city of Sumer, now in central Iraq. ... Uruk (Sumerian Unug, Biblical Erech, Greek Orchoë and Arabic وركاء Warka), was an ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates, on the line of the ancient Nil canal, in a region of marshes, about 140 miles (230 km) SSE from Baghdad. ... For other uses, see Ur (disambiguation). ... At the time of Hammurabi, Lagash was much closer to the gulf. ... The city of Nippur (Sumerian Nibru, Akkadian Nibbur) (now it is in Afak town,Al Qadisyah Governorate) was one of the most ancient (some historians date it back to 5262 B.C. [1][2]) of all the Babylonian cities of which we have any knowledge, the special seat of the... Elam (Persian: تمدن ایلام) is one of the oldest recorded civilizations. ... For other uses, see Susa (disambiguation). ... The Akkadian Empire usually refers to the Semitic speaking state that grew up around the city of Akkad north of Sumer, and reached its greatest extent under Sargon of Akkad. ... For the Egyptian writer, see Abbas Al-Akkad. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the language, see Amorite language. ... An International Securities Identifying Number (ISIN) uniquely identifies a security. ... Larsa (the Biblical Ellasar, Genesis 14:1), was an important city of ancient Babylonia, the site of the worship of the sun-god, Shamash, represented by the ancient ruin mound of Senkereh (Senkera). ... Babylonia was a state in southern Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq, combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Chaldean. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people from KaneÅ¡ who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite... // The Kassites were a Near-Eastern mountain tribe which migrated to the Zagros Mountains and Mesopotamia (present Doroud) in 3000 and 4000 BC.[1] They spoke a non-Indo-European, non-Semitic language. ... For the history of the kingdom of Mitanni (1500–1300 BC), see Mitanni. ... Kingdom of Mitanni Mitanni (cuneiform KUR URUMi-it-ta-ni, also Mittani Mi-ta-an-ni, in Assyrian sources Hanigalbat, Khanigalbat cuneiform Ḫa-ni-gal-bat ) was a Hurrian kingdom in northern Mesopotamia from ca. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Assur (Assyrian: ܐܫܘܪ) also spelled Ashur, from Assyrian AÅ¡Å¡ur, was the capital of ancient Assyria. ... Nimrud is an ancient Assyrian city located south of Nineveh on the river Tigris. ... Human-headed winged bull, found during Bottas excavation. ... , For other uses, see Nineveh (disambiguation). ... // The chronology of the Ancient Near East is divided into three parts 1) A series of rulers and dynasties whose existence is based mostly on the Sumerian King List, later versions of literature such as Gilgamesh, and bits and pieces of archaeological discoveries. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... The history of Sumer, taken to include the prehistoric Ubaid and Uruk periods, spans the 5th to 3rd millennia BC, ending with the downfall of the Third Dynasty of Ur around 2004 BC, followed by a transition period of Amorite states before the rise of Babylonia in the 18th century... The Sumerian king list is an ancient text in the Sumerian language listing kings of Sumer from Sumerian and foreign dynasties. ... This page lists the Kings of Lamestia from the late sixties. ... The following is a list of the Kings of Babylon, a major city of ancient Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq. ... Mesopotamian mythology is the collective name given to Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, and Babylonian mythologies from the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Iraq. ... Enûma EliÅ¡ is the Babylonian creation epic. ... For other uses, see Gilgamesh (disambiguation). ... Assyrian demon Pazuzu. ... Sumerian ( native tongue) was the language of ancient Sumer, spoken in Southern Mesopotamia from at least the 4th millennium BCE. It was gradually replaced by Akkadian as a spoken language in the beginning of the 2nd millenium BCE, but continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial, literary and scientific... Elamite is an extinct language, which was spoken by the ancient Elamites (also known as Ilamids). ... Akkadian (lišānum akkadÄ«tum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... Hurrian is a conventional name for the language of the Hurrians (Khurrites), a people who entered northern Mesopotamia around 2300 BC and had mostly vanished by 1000 BC. Hurrian was the language of the Mitanni kingdom in northern Mesopotamia, and was likely spoken at least initially in Hurrian settlements in... Hittite is the extinct language once spoken by the Hittites, a people who created an empire centered on ancient Hattusas (modern BoÄŸazkale) in north-central Anatolia (modern Turkey). ... Sumerian ( native tongue) was the language of ancient Sumer, spoken in Southern Mesopotamia from at least the 4th millennium BCE. It was gradually replaced by Akkadian as a spoken language in the beginning of the 2nd millenium BCE, but continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial, literary and scientific... Akkadian (lišānum akkadÄ«tum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... Shinar (Hebrew Å in`ar, Septuagint Σεννααρ Sennaar) is a broad designation applied to Mesopotamia, occurring eight times in the Hebrew Bible. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Central New York City. ... Eridu (or Eridug) was an ancient city seven miles southwest of Ur . ... Pottery jar from Late Ubaid Period The tell (mound) of Ubaid near Ur in southern Iraq has given its name to the prehistoric chalcolithic culture which represents the earliest settlement on the alluvial plain of southern Mesopotamia. ... The Uruk period (ca. ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... Sumerian ( native tongue) was the language of ancient Sumer, spoken in Southern Mesopotamia from at least the 4th millennium BCE. It was gradually replaced by Akkadian as a spoken language in the beginning of the 2nd millenium BCE, but continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial, literary and scientific...


Although other cities pre-date Sumer (Jericho, Çatalhöyük and others, either for seasonal protection, or as year-round trading posts) the cities of Sumer were the first to practice intensive, year-round agriculture (from ca. 5300 BC). The surplus of storable foodstuffs created by this economy allowed the population to settle in one place instead of migrating after crops and herds. It also allowed for a much greater population density, and in turn required an extensive labor force and division of labor. This organization led to the necessity of record keeping and the development of writing (ca. 3500 BC). A city is an urban area, differentiated from a town, village, or hamlet by size, population density, importance, or legal status. ... This article is about the city in the West Bank. ... Excavations at the South Area of Çatal Höyük Çatalhöyük (also Çatal Höyük and Çatal Hüyük, or any of the three without diacritics; çatal is Turkish for fork, höyük for mound) was a very large Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlement in southern... Division of labour is the breakdown of labour into specific, circumscribed tasks for maximum efficiency of output in the context of manufacturing. ... Writing systems evolved in the Early Bronze Age (late 4th millennium BC) out of neolithic proto-writing. ...

Contents

Origin of Name

The term "Sumerian" is the common name given to the ancient inhabitants of southern Mesopotamia by their successors, the Semitic Akkadians. The Sumerians called themselves sag-giga, literally meaning "the black-headed people"[4]. The Akkadian word Shumer may represent this name in dialect, but it is unknown why the Akkadians called the southern land Shumeru[5][3]. Biblical Shinar, Egyptian Sngr and Hittite Šanhar(a) could be western variants of Šumer[5]. In linguistics and ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical Shem, Hebrew: שם, translated as name, Arabic: سام) was first used to refer to a language family of largely Middle Eastern origin, now called the Semitic languages. ... Akkad (or Agade) was a city and its region of northern Iraq) between Assyria to the northwest and Sumer to the south. ... Akkadian (lišānum akkadÄ«tum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... Shinar (Hebrew Å in`ar, Septuagint Σεννααρ Sennaar) is a broad designation applied to Mesopotamia, occurring eight times in the Hebrew Bible. ...


City states

Further information: Cities of the Ancient Near East
Map of Sumer
Map of Sumer

By the late 4th millennium BC, Sumer was divided into about a dozen independent city-states, whose limits were defined by canals and boundary stones. Each was centered on a temple dedicated to the particular patron god or goddess of the city and ruled over by a priestly governor (ensi) or by a king (lugal) who was intimately tied to the city's religious rites. Uru was the Sumerian term for a city or city state, written with the cuneiform ideogram URU . ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ... ENSI is a Mesopotamian royal title in various Babylonian city states an abbreviation of Ensign ... LUGAL, Sumerian for great man, has different uses : a title for the ruler of a city-state (and later of the sumerian king), usually reigning alongside a priest. ...

The five "first" cities said to have exercized pre-dynastic kingship:    The Sumerian king list is an ancient text in the Sumerian language listing kings of Sumer from Sumerian and foreign dynasties. ...

  1. Eridu (Tell Abu Shahrain)
  2. Bad-tibira (Tell al-Madain)
  3. Larsa (Tell as-Senkereh)
  4. Sippar (Tell Abu Habbah)
  5. Shuruppak (Tell Fara)

Other principal cities: Eridu (or Eridug) was an ancient city seven miles southwest of Ur . ... Ancient sumerian city. ... Larsa (the Biblical Ellasar, Genesis 14:1), was an important city of ancient Babylonia, the site of the worship of the sun-god, Shamash, represented by the ancient ruin mound of Senkereh (Senkera). ... Sippara (Zimbir in Sumerian, Sippar in Assyro-Babylonian) was an ancient Babylonian city on the east bank of the Euphrates, north of Babylon. ... Ancient sumerian city. ...

  1. Kish (Tell Uheimir & Ingharra)
  2. Uruk (Warka)
  3. Ur (Tell al-Muqayyar)
  4. Nippur (Afak)
  5. Lagash (Tell al-Hiba)
  6. Ngirsu (Tello or Telloh)
  7. Umma (Tell Jokha)
  8. Hamazi 1
  9. Adab (Tell Bismaya)
  10. Mari (Tell Hariri)
  11. Akshak 1
  12. Akkad 1
  13. Isin (Ishan al-Bahriyat)

(1location uncertain) Kish [kish] (Tall al-Uhaymir) was an ancient city of Sumer, now in central Iraq. ... Uruk (Sumerian Unug, Biblical Erech, Greek Orchoë and Arabic وركاء Warka), was an ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates, on the line of the ancient Nil canal, in a region of marshes, about 140 miles (230 km) SSE from Baghdad. ... For other uses, see Ur (disambiguation). ... The city of Nippur (Sumerian Nibru, Akkadian Nibbur) (now it is in Afak town,Al Qadisyah Governorate) was one of the most ancient (some historians date it back to 5262 B.C. [1][2]) of all the Babylonian cities of which we have any knowledge, the special seat of the... At the time of Hammurabi, Lagash was much closer to the gulf. ... Umma was an ancient city in Sumer. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The city of Adab (modern site Bismaya), between Telloh and Nippur (modern-day Iraq), was important in the Ur III period but declined afterwards. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Akshak was a city of ancient Sumer, situated on the northern boundary of Akkad, sometimes identified with Babylonian Upi (Greek Opis). ... For the Egyptian writer, see Abbas Al-Akkad. ... An International Securities Identifying Number (ISIN) uniquely identifies a security. ...

Minor cities (from south to north):

  1. Kuara (Tell al-Lahm)
  2. Zabala (Tell Ibzeikh)
  3. Kisurra (Tell Abu Hatab)
  4. Marad (Tell Wannat es-Sadum)
  5. Dilbat (Tell ed-Duleim)
  6. Borsippa (Birs Nimrud)
  7. Kutha (Tell Ibrahim)
  8. Der (al-Badra)
  9. Eshnunna (Tell Asmar)
  10. Nagar (Tell Brak)

Apart from Mari, which lies full 330 km northwest of Agade, but which is credited in the king list to have "exercised kingship" in the Early Dynastic II period, and Nagar, an outpost, these cities are all in the Euphrates-Tigris alluvial plain, south of Baghdad in what are now the Bābil, Diyala, Wāsit, Dhi Qar, Al-Muthannā and Al-Qādisiyyah governorates of Iraq. Zabala (modern Tell Ibzeikh) was a city of ancient Sumer in what is now Dhi Qar, Iraq. ... Kissura (also known as Tell Abu Hatab or Abfu Hatab) was an ancient Sumerian city established around 2700 BCE during the Sumerian Early Dynastic II period located in modern day Iraq. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Maritime Administration. ... Dilbat (also know as Tell ed-Duleim or Tell Deylum)[1] was ancient Sumerian minor city located southeast from Babylon on the eastern bank of the Western Euphrates in modern day Al-Qādisiyyah, Iraq. ... Borsippa was an important ancient city of Mesopotamia (Iraq), built on both sides of a lake about eleven km (7. ... Kutha is the name of two places, one factual and one mythical. ... Der was a Sumerian city state positioned east of the Tigris River on the border between Sumer and Elam, now modern day Iraq. ... Eshnunna is the transliteration of the ancient name of a Sumerian city and city-state in lower Mesopotamia. ... Nagar was an ancient pre-Akkadian and Akkadian city on the Khabur River in northeastern Syria which is now represented by the mound named Tell Brak. ... The Sumerian king list is an ancient text in the Sumerian language listing kings of Sumer from Sumerian and foreign dynasties. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Babil (Arabic: ???? ) is a province in Iraq. ... Diyala (Arabic: ديالى) is one of the constituent governorates of the nation of Iraq. ... Wasit is one of the governorates of Iraq. ... д Dhi Qar (Arabic: ذي قار) is a province in Iraq with an area of 12,900 km². In 2003 the estimated population of the governorate was 1,454,200 people. ... Al Muthanna (Arabic: المثنى) is one of the governorates of Iraq. ... Al-Qādisiyyah (in Arabic: القادسية) is one of the provinces of Iraq. ...


History

Main article: History of Sumer

The Sumerian city states rose to power during the prehistorical Ubaid and Uruk periods. Sumerian history reaches back to the 29th century BC and before, but the historical record remains obscure until the Early Dynastic III period, ca. the 26th century BC, when a now deciphered syllabary writing system was developed, which has allowed archaeologists to read contemporary records and inscriptions. Classical Sumer ends with the rise of the Akkadian Empire in the 23rd century. Following the Gutian period, there is a brief "Sumerian renaissance" in the 21st century, cut short in the 20th century BC by Amorite invasions. The Amorite "dynasty of Isin" persisted until ca. 1700 BC, when Mesopotamia was united under Babylonian rule. The history of Sumer, taken to include the prehistoric Ubaid and Uruk periods, spans the 5th to 3rd millennia BC, ending with the downfall of the Third Dynasty of Ur around 2004 BC, followed by a transition period of Amorite states before the rise of Babylonia in the 18th century... Pottery jar from Late Ubaid Period The tell (mound) of Ubaid near Ur in southern Iraq has given its name to the prehistoric chalcolithic culture which represents the earliest settlement on the alluvial plain of southern Mesopotamia. ... The Uruk period (ca. ... The Akkadian Empire usually refers to the Semitic speaking state that grew up around the city of Akkad north of Sumer, and reached its greatest extent under Sargon of Akkad. ... The Gutian kings came to some power in Mesopotamia in ca. ... The third dynasty of Ur reinstalled Sumerian rule after several centuries of Akkadian and Gutian kings (Sumerian Renaissance). ... Amorite (Hebrew ’emōrî, Egyptian Amar, Akkadian Amurrū (corresponding to Sumerian MAR.TU or Martu) refers to a Semitic people who occupied the middle Euphrates area from the second half of the third millennium BC and also appear in the Tanakh. ... An International Securities Identifying Number (ISIN) uniquely identifies a security. ... Babylonia was a state in southern Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq, combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ...

Pottery jar from Late Ubaid Period The tell (mound) of Ubaid near Ur in southern Iraq has given its name to the prehistoric chalcolithic culture which represents the earliest settlement on the alluvial plain of southern Mesopotamia. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... The Chalcolithic (Greek khalkos + lithos copper stone) period, also known as the Eneolithic (Aeneolithic) or Copper Age period, is a phase in the development of human culture in which the use of early metal tools appeared alongside the use of stone tools. ... The Uruk period (ca. ... The Chalcolithic (Greek khalkos + lithos copper stone) period, also known as the Eneolithic (Aeneolithic) or Copper Age period, is a phase in the development of human culture in which the use of early metal tools appeared alongside the use of stone tools. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use) consisted of techniques for smelting copper and tin from naturally occurring outcroppings of ore, and then alloying those metals in order to cast bronze. ... Jemdet Nasr is an archaeological site in modern Iraq. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use) consisted of techniques for smelting copper and tin from naturally occurring outcroppings of ore, and then alloying those metals in order to cast bronze. ... For other uses, see Gilgamesh (disambiguation). ... The Akkadian Empire usually refers to the Semitic speaking state that grew up around the city of Akkad north of Sumer, and reached its greatest extent under Sargon of Akkad. ... Sargon of Akkad, also known as Sargon the Great (Akkadian Å arru-kinu, cuneiform Å AR.RU.KI.IN , meaning the true king or the king is legitimate), was an Akkadian king famous for his conquest of the Sumerian city-states in the 24th and 23rd centuries BC.[1] The founder of... The Gutian kings came to some power in Mesopotamia in ca. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use) consisted of techniques for smelting copper and tin from naturally occurring outcroppings of ore, and then alloying those metals in order to cast bronze. ... ...

Ubaid period

Main article: Ubaid period

The Ubaid period is marked by a distinctive style of fine quality painted pottery which spread throughout Mesopotamia and the Persian Gulf. During this time, the first settlement in southern Mesopotamia was established at Eridu, ca. 5300 BC, by farmers who brought with them the Samarran culture from northern Mesopotamia. It is not known whether or not these were the actual Sumerians who are identified with the later Uruk culture. Eridu remained an important religious center when it was gradually surpassed in size by the nearby city of Uruk. Pottery jar from Late Ubaid Period The tell (mound) of Ubaid near Ur in southern Iraq has given its name to the prehistoric chalcolithic culture which represents the earliest settlement on the alluvial plain of southern Mesopotamia. ... Pottery jar from Late Ubaid Period The tell (mound) of Ubaid near Ur in southern Iraq has given its name to the prehistoric chalcolithic culture which represents the earliest settlement on the alluvial plain of southern Mesopotamia. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... Eridu (or Eridug) was an ancient city seven miles southwest of Ur . ... Map showing Samarra near Baghdad Sāmarrā (سامراء) is a town in Iraq ( ). It stands on the east bank of the Tigris in the Salah ad Din Governorate, 125 km north of Baghdad and, in 2002, had an estimated population of 201,700. ... Uruk (Sumerian Unug, Biblical Erech, Greek Orchoë and Arabic وركاء Warka), was an ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates, on the line of the ancient Nil canal, in a region of marshes, about 140 miles (230 km) SSE from Baghdad. ...


Uruk period

Main article: Uruk period

The archaeological transition from the Ubaid period to the Uruk period is marked by a gradual shift from painted pottery domestically produced on a slow wheel, to a great variety of unpainted pottery mass-produced by specialists on fast wheels. The Uruk period (ca. ... Classic potters kick-wheel at Erfurt, Germany The potters wheel is a machine used in the shaping of round ceramic wares. ... Classic potters kick-wheel at Erfurt, Germany The potters wheel is a machine used in the shaping of round ceramic wares. ...


By the time of the Uruk period (ca. 4100-2900 BC calibrated), the volume of trade goods transported along the canals and rivers of southern Mesopotamia facilitated the rise of many large stratified, temple-centered cities (with populations of over 10,000 people) where centralized administrations employed specialized workers. It is fairly certain that it was during the Uruk period that Sumerian cities began to make use of slave labor captured from the hill country, and there is ample evidence for captured slaves as workers in the earliest texts. Artifacts, and even colonies of this Uruk civilization have been found over a wide area - from the Taurus Mountains in Turkey, to the Mediterranean Sea in the west, and as far east as Central Iran.[citation needed] Uruk (Sumerian Unug, Biblical Erech, Greek Orchoë and Arabic وركاء Warka), was an ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates, on the line of the ancient Nil canal, in a region of marshes, about 140 miles (230 km) SSE from Baghdad. ... social stratification is the division of people of a particular society on the basis if occupation, income, power, prestige, authority, status, dignity, education, class, castle, gender, race and ethnicity In sociology, social stratification is the hierarchical arrangement of social classes, castes and strata within a society. ... Direktaş, Yedi Göller (Seven Lakes), Ala Dağlar. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ...


The Uruk period civilization, exported by Sumerian traders and colonists (like that found at Tell Brak), had an effect on all surrounding peoples, who gradually evolved their own comparable, competing economies and cultures. The cities of Sumer could not maintain remote, long-distance colonies by military force.[citation needed] Nagar was an ancient pre-Akkadian and Akkadian city on the Khabur River in northeastern Syria which is now represented by the mound named Tell Brak. ...


Sumerian cities during the Uruk period were probably theocratic and were most likely headed by a priest-king (ensi), assisted by a council of elders, including both men and women[6]. It is quite possible that the later Sumerian pantheon was modelled upon this political structure. Look up Pantheon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The ancient Sumerian king list includes the early dynasties of several prominent cities from this period. The first set of names on the list is of kings said to have reigned before a major flood occurred. These early names may be fictional, and include some legendary and mythological figures, such as Alulim and Dumizid.[citation needed] The Sumerian king list is an ancient text in the Sumerian language listing kings of Sumer from Sumerian and foreign dynasties. ... Adapa was an Ancient Sumerian king. ...


The end of the Uruk period coincided with the Piora oscillation, a dry period from c. 3200-2900 BC that marked the end of a long wetter, warmer climate period from about 9,000 to 5,000 years ago, called the Holocene climatic optimum.[citation needed] The Piora Oscillation was an abrupt cold and wet period in the climate history of the Holocene Epoch; it is generally dated to the period of c. ... The Holocene Climate Optimum was a warm period during roughly the interval 7,000 to 5,000 years B.P.. This event has also been known by many other names, including: Hypisthermal, Altithermal, Climatic Optimum, Holocene Optimum, Holocene Thermal Maximum, and Holocene Megathermal. ...


Early Dynastic Period

The Dynastic period begins ca. 2900 BC and includes such legendary figures as Enmerkar and Gilgamesh — who are supposed to have reigned shortly before the historic record opens ca. 2700 BC, when the now decipherable syllabic writing started to develop from the early pictograms. The center of Sumerian culture remained in southern Mesopotamia, even though rulers soon began expanding into neighboring areas, and neighboring Semitic groups adopted much of Sumerian culture for their own. The Sumerian king list is an ancient text in the Sumerian language listing kings of Sumer from Sumerian and foreign dynasties. ... This article is about great floods. ... Adapa was an Ancient Sumerian king. ... Utnapishtim, whose name means he found life or he who saw life, is also known as Atrahasis, meaning the exceptional wise one. In the Akkadian sources, a wise citizen of Shurrupak on the banks of the Euphrates, or Ziusudra in the Sumerian poems. ... Kish [kish] (Tall al-Uhaymir) was an ancient city of Sumer, now in central Iraq. ... See Kug-Baba for the sumerian queen. ... Kish [kish] (Tall al-Uhaymir) was an ancient city of Sumer, now in central Iraq. ... Ancient Sumerian king. ... Enmebaragesi (Me-Baragesi, En-Men-Barage-Si, Enmebaragisi), according to the Sumerian king list, was a king of Kish who subdued Elam and reigned 900 years, but was captured single handedly by Dumuzid the fisherman of Uruk, predecessor of Gilgamesh. ... Uruk (Sumerian Unug, Biblical Erech, Greek Orchoë and Arabic وركاء Warka), was an ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates, on the line of the ancient Nil canal, in a region of marshes, about 140 miles (230 km) SSE from Baghdad. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Uruk (Sumerian Unug, Biblical Erech, Greek Orchoë and Arabic وركاء Warka), was an ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates, on the line of the ancient Nil canal, in a region of marshes, about 140 miles (230 km) SSE from Baghdad. ... Enmerkar, according to the Sumerian king list, was the builder of Uruk, and was said to have reigned for 420 years. It adds that he brought the official kingship with him from the city of Eana, after his father Mesh-ki-ag-gasher, son of Utu, had entered the sea... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Gilgamesh (disambiguation). ... The Akkadian Empire usually refers to the Semitic speaking state that grew up around the city of Akkad north of Sumer, and reached its greatest extent under Sargon of Akkad. ... For the Egyptian writer, see Abbas Al-Akkad. ... Sargon of Akkad, also known as Sargon the Great (Akkadian Å arru-kinu, cuneiform Å AR.RU.KI.IN , meaning the true king or the king is legitimate), was an Akkadian king famous for his conquest of the Sumerian city-states in the 24th and 23rd centuries BC.[1] The founder of... Manishtushu, king of the Akkadian Empire. ... ... Shar-Kali-Sharri was a king of the Akkadian Empire. ... The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ... Shu-turul (Shu-durul) was a king of Akkad from 2233 to 2218 BCE. Categories: People stubs ... For other uses, see Ur (disambiguation). ... Meskalamdug (hero of the good land) was an early king of Ur who is not named on the Sumerian king list. ... Mesannepada (or Mesanepada, Mes-Anni-Padda) was the first king in the first dynasty of Ur, in ca. ... Pu-Abi (Akkadian Word of my Father) was an important personage in the Sumerian city of Ur who lived about 2600-2500 BCE, during the First Dynasty of Ur. ... Uruk (Sumerian Unug, Biblical Erech, Greek Orchoë and Arabic وركاء Warka), was an ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates, on the line of the ancient Nil canal, in a region of marshes, about 140 miles (230 km) SSE from Baghdad. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... At the time of Hammurabi, Lagash was much closer to the gulf. ... Puzer-Mama was a ruler of LagaÅ¡ before Gudea. ... Statue of Gudea, British Museum London Gudea was a ruler (ensi) of the city of Lagash in Southern Mesopotamia who ruled ca. ... At the time of Hammurabi, Lagash was much closer to the gulf. ... Fragmentary stele bearing the inscription Ur-Nanshe, son of Gunidu, to Ningirsu, Louvre Ur-Nanshe (or Ur-Nina) was the first king of the dynasty of Lagash, probably in the first half of the 24th century BC. He ascended after Lugal-Sha-Gen-Sur (Lugal-Suggur), who was the patesi... Eannatum was a Sumerian king of Lagash who established one of the first verifiable empires in history. ... Entemena, son of En-anna-tum I, reestablished Lagash as a power in Sumer. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Uruk (Sumerian Unug, Biblical Erech, Greek Orchoë and Arabic وركاء Warka), was an ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates, on the line of the ancient Nil canal, in a region of marshes, about 140 miles (230 km) SSE from Baghdad. ... Utu-hegal was one of the first King of Sumer after centuries of Akkadian and Gutian rule. ... The city of Adab (modern site Bismaya), between Telloh and Nippur (modern-day Iraq), was important in the Ur III period but declined afterwards. ... The most important king of city-state Adab in Sumeria. ... The Third Dynasty of Ur refers simultaneously to a 21st to 20th century BC (short chronology) Sumerian ruling dynasty based in the city of Ur and a short-lived territorial-political state that some historians regard as a nascent empire. ... For other uses, see Ur (disambiguation). ... Ur-Nammu (or Ur-Namma, Ur-Engur, ca. ... Shulgi of Urim is the second king of the Sumerian Renaissance. He reigned for 48 years, dated to 2047 BC–1999 BC short chronology (also tentatively dated to 2161 BC–2113 BC on the basis of a solar eclipse). ... Amar-Sin (2046-2037 BCE High chronology) was the third ruler of the Ur III Dynasty, son of Shulgi (2094-2047 BCE). ... Shu-sin succeded his brother Amar-Sin as the King of Ur, and he came into conflict with the Amorites. ... Ibbi-Sin, son of Shu-Sin, was king of Sumer and Akkad and last king of the Ur III dynasty, and reigned circa 2028 BC-2004 BC. During his reign, the Sumerian empire was attacked repeatedly by Amorites. ... Enmerkar, according to the Sumerian king list, was the builder of Uruk, and was said to have reigned for 420 years. It adds that he brought the official kingship with him from the city of Eana, after his father Mesh-ki-ag-gasher, son of Utu, had entered the sea... For other uses, see Gilgamesh (disambiguation). ...


The earliest Dynastic king on the Sumerian king list whose name is known from any other legendary source is Etana, 13th king of the first Dynasty of Kish. The earliest king authenticated through archaeological evidence is Enmebaragesi of Kish (ca. 26th century BC), whose name is also mentioned in the Gilgamesh epic — leading to the suggestion that Gilgamesh himself might have been a historical king of Uruk. The Sumerian king list is an ancient text in the Sumerian language listing kings of Sumer from Sumerian and foreign dynasties. ... Ancient Sumerian king. ... Enmebaragesi (Me-Baragesi, En-Men-Barage-Si, Enmebaragisi), according to the Sumerian king list, was a king of Kish who subdued Elam and reigned 900 years, but was captured single handedly by Dumuzid the fisherman of Uruk, predecessor of Gilgamesh. ... The Deluge tablet of the Gilgamesh epic in Akkadian The Epic of Gilgamesh is from Babylonia, dating from long after the time that king Gilgamesh was supposed to have ruled. ...


1st Dynasty of Lagash

Fragment of Eannatum's Stele of the Vultures
Fragment of Eannatum's Stele of the Vultures
Main article: Lagash

ca. 2500 - 2270 BC Eannatum was a Sumerian king of Lagash who established one of the first verifiable empires in history. ... At the time of Hammurabi, Lagash was much closer to the gulf. ...


The dynasty of Lagash, though omitted from the king list, is well attested through several important monuments and many archaeological finds.


Although short-lived, one of the first empires known to history was that of Eannatum of Lagash, who annexed practically all of Sumer, including Kish, Uruk, Ur, and Larsa, and reduced to tribute the city-state of Umma, arch-rival of Lagash. In addition, his realm extended to parts of Elam and along the Persian Gulf. He seems to have used terror as a matter of policy - his stele of the vultures has been found, showing violent treatment of enemies. His empire collapsed shortly after his death. Eannatum was a Sumerian king of Lagash who established one of the first verifiable empires in history. ... Kish [kish] (Tall al-Uhaymir) was an ancient city of Sumer, now in central Iraq. ... Uruk (Sumerian Unug, Biblical Erech, Greek Orchoë and Arabic وركاء Warka), was an ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates, on the line of the ancient Nil canal, in a region of marshes, about 140 miles (230 km) SSE from Baghdad. ... For other uses, see Ur (disambiguation). ... Larsa (the Biblical Ellasar, Genesis 14:1), was an important city of ancient Babylonia, the site of the worship of the sun-god, Shamash, represented by the ancient ruin mound of Senkereh (Senkera). ... Umma was an ancient city in Sumer. ... Elam (Persian: تمدن ایلام) is one of the oldest recorded civilizations. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ...


Later, Lugal-Zage-Si, the priest-king of Umma, overthrew the primacy of the Lagash dynasty in the area, then conquered Uruk, making it his capital, and claimed an empire extending from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean. He was the last ethnically Sumerian king before the arrival of the Semitic king, Sargon of Akkad. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In linguistics and ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical Shem, Hebrew: שם, translated as name, Arabic: سام) was first used to refer to a language family of largely Middle Eastern origin, now called the Semitic languages. ... Sargon of Akkad, also known as Sargon the Great (Akkadian Šarru-kinu, cuneiform ŠAR.RU.KI.IN , meaning the true king or the king is legitimate), was an Akkadian king famous for his conquest of the Sumerian city-states in the 24th and 23rd centuries BC.[1] The founder of...


Akkadian Empire

Main article: Akkadian Empire

ca. 2270 - 2083 BC (short chronology) The Akkadian Empire usually refers to the Semitic speaking state that grew up around the city of Akkad north of Sumer, and reached its greatest extent under Sargon of Akkad. ... // The chronology of the Ancient Near East is divided into three parts 1) A series of rulers and dynasties whose existence is based mostly on the Sumerian King List, later versions of literature such as Gilgamesh, and bits and pieces of archaeological discoveries. ...


The Semitic Akkadian language is first attested in proper names of the kings of Kish ca. 2800 BC[7], preserved in later king lists. There are texts written entirely in Old Akkadian dating from ca. 2500 BC. Use of Old Akkadian was at its peak during the rule of Sargon the Great (ca. 2270 – 2215 BC), but even then most administrative tablets continued to be written in Sumerian, the language used by the scribes. Gelb and Westenholz differentiate three stages of Old Akkadian: that of the pre-Sargonic era, that of the Akkadian empire, and that of the "Neo-Sumerian Renaissance" that followed it. Speakers of Akkadian and Sumerian coexisted for about one thousand years, until ca. 1800 BC, when Sumerian ceased to be spoken. Thorkild Jacobsen has argued that there is little break in historical continuity between the pre- and post-Sargon periods, and that too much emphasis has been placed on the perception of a "Semitic vs. Sumerian" conflict.[8] However, it is certain that Akkadian was also briefly imposed on neighboring parts of Elam that were conquered by Sargon. Akkadian (lišānum akkadÄ«tum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... Thorkild Jacobsen (Danish pronunciation: [yahkobsen]) was a renowned historian specializing in Assyriology and Sumerian literature. ... Elam (Persian: تمدن ایلام) is one of the oldest recorded civilizations. ...


Gutian period

Main article: Gutian dynasty of Sumer

ca. 2083 - 2050 BC (short chronology) The Gutian dynasty came to power in Mesopotamia around 2150 BC, by destabilising Akkad at the end of the reign of king Melem (Ur-Utu) of Unug. ... // The chronology of the Ancient Near East is divided into three parts 1) A series of rulers and dynasties whose existence is based mostly on the Sumerian King List, later versions of literature such as Gilgamesh, and bits and pieces of archaeological discoveries. ...


2nd Dynasty of Lagash

Main article: Lagash

ca. 2093 - 2046 BC (short chronology) Statue of Gudea, British Museum London Gudea was a ruler (ensi) of the city of Lagash in Southern Mesopotamia who ruled ca. ... At the time of Hammurabi, Lagash was much closer to the gulf. ... At the time of Hammurabi, Lagash was much closer to the gulf. ... // The chronology of the Ancient Near East is divided into three parts 1) A series of rulers and dynasties whose existence is based mostly on the Sumerian King List, later versions of literature such as Gilgamesh, and bits and pieces of archaeological discoveries. ...


Following the downfall of the Akkadian Empire at the hands of Gutians, another native Sumerian ruler, Gudea of Lagash, rose to local prominence and continued the practices of the Sargonid kings' claims to divinity. Like the previous Lagash dynasty, Gudea and his descendents also promoted artistic development and left a large number of archaeological artifacts. The Akkadian Empire usually refers to the Semitic speaking state that grew up around the city of Akkad north of Sumer, and reached its greatest extent under Sargon of Akkad. ... The Gutian dynasty came to power in Mesopotamia around 2150 BC, by destabilising Akkad at the end of the reign of king Melem (Ur-Utu) of Unug. ... Statue of Gudea, British Museum London Gudea was a ruler (ensi) of the city of Lagash in Southern Mesopotamia who ruled ca. ... At the time of Hammurabi, Lagash was much closer to the gulf. ...


Sumerian renaissance

Ziggurat at Ur
Main article: Sumerian renaissance

ca. 2047-1940 BC (short chronology) Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 322 KB)Ur, Photograph 17th January 2004, by Lasse Jensen. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 322 KB)Ur, Photograph 17th January 2004, by Lasse Jensen. ... For other uses, see Ur (disambiguation). ... The third dynasty of Ur reinstalled Sumerian rule after several centuries of Akkadian and Gutian kings (Sumerian Renaissance). ... // The chronology of the Ancient Near East is divided into three parts 1) A series of rulers and dynasties whose existence is based mostly on the Sumerian King List, later versions of literature such as Gilgamesh, and bits and pieces of archaeological discoveries. ...


Later, the 3rd dynasty of Ur under Ur-Nammu and Shulgi, whose power extended as far as northern Mesopotamia, was the last great "Sumerian renaissance", but already the region was becoming more Semitic than Sumerian, with the influx of waves of Martu (Amorites) who were later to found the Babylonian Empire. The Sumerian language, however, remained a sacerdotal language taught in schools, in the same way that Latin was used in the Medieval period, for as long as cuneiform was utilised. The third dynasty of Ur reinstalled Sumerian rule after several centuries of Akkadian and Gutian kings (Sumerian Renaissance). ... Ur-Nammu (or Ur-Namma, Ur-Engur, ca. ... Shulgi of Urim is the second king of the Sumerian Renaissance. He reigned for 48 years, dated to 2047 BC–1999 BC short chronology (also tentatively dated to 2161 BC–2113 BC on the basis of a solar eclipse). ... Amorite (Hebrew ’emōrî, Egyptian Amar, Akkadian Amurrū (corresponding to Sumerian MAR.TU or Martu) refers to a Semitic people who occupied the middle Euphrates area from the second half of the third millennium BC and also appear in the Tanakh. ... Babylonia was a state in southern Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq, combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ...


Decline

This period is generally taken to coincide with a major shift in population from southern Iraq toward the north. Ecologically, the agricultural productivity of the Sumerian lands was being compromised as a result of rising salinity. Soil salinity in this region had been long recognised as a major problem. Poorly drained irrigated soils, in an arid climate with high levels of evaporation, led to the buildup of dissalved salts in the soil, eventually reducing agricultural yields severely. During the Akkadian and Ur III phases, there was a shift from the cultivation of wheat to the more salt-tolerant barley, but this was insufficient, and during the period from 2100 BC to 1700 BC, it is estimated that the population in this area declined by nearly 3/5ths.[9] This greatly weakened the balance of power within the region, weakening the areas where Sumerian was spoken, and comparatively strengthening those where Akkadian was the major language. Henceforth Sumerian would remain only a literary and liturgical language, similar to the position occupied by Latin in medieval Europe. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with soil salination. ... For the Egyptian writer, see Abbas Al-Akkad. ... The third dynasty of Ur reinstalled Sumerian rule after several centuries of Akkadian and Gutian kings (Sumerian Renaissance). ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... For other uses, see Barley (disambiguation). ... A literary language is a register of a language that is used in writing, and which often differs in lexicon and syntax from the language used in speech. ... A liturgy is the customary public worship of a religious group, according to their particular traditions. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


Following an Elamite invasion and sack of Ur during the rule of Ibbi-Sin (ca. 1940 BC), Sumer came under Amorite rule (taken to introduce the Middle Bronze Age). The independent Amorite states of the 20th to 18th centuries are summarized as the "Dynasty of Isin" in the Sumerian king list, ending with the rise of Babylonia under Hammurabi ca. 1700 BC. Elam (Persian: تمدن ایلام) is one of the oldest recorded civilizations. ... For other uses, see Ur (disambiguation). ... Ibbi-Sin, son of Shu-Sin, was king of Sumer and Akkad and last king of the Ur III dynasty, and reigned circa 2028 BC-2004 BC. During his reign, the Sumerian empire was attacked repeatedly by Amorites. ... Amorite (Hebrew ’emōrî, Egyptian Amar, Akkadian Amurrū (corresponding to Sumerian MAR.TU or Martu) refers to a Semitic people who occupied the middle Euphrates area from the second half of the third millennium BC and also appear in the Tanakh. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use) consisted of techniques for smelting copper and tin from naturally occurring outcroppings of ore, and then alloying those metals in order to cast bronze. ... The Sumerian king list is an ancient text in the Sumerian language listing kings of Sumer from Sumerian and foreign dynasties. ... The Sumerian king list is an ancient text in the Sumerian language listing kings of Sumer from Sumerian and foreign dynasties. ... Babylonia was a state in southern Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq, combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... For the computer game, see Hamurabi. ...


Population

First farmers from Samarra arrive in Sumer, and build shrine and settlement at Eridu
First farmers from Samarra arrive in Sumer, and build shrine and settlement at Eridu

The Sumerians were a non-Semitic people and were at one time believed to have been invaders, as a number of linguists believed they could detect a substrate language beneath Sumerian. However, the archaeological record shows clear uninterrupted cultural continuity from the time of the Early Ubaid period (5300-4700 BC C-14) settlements in southern Mesopotamia. The Sumerian people who settled here farmed the lands in this region that were made fertile by silt deposited by the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (960x720, 133 KB)Self made map and text File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (960x720, 133 KB)Self made map and text File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Map showing Samarra near Baghdad Sāmarrā (سامراء) is a town in Iraq ( ). It stands on the east bank of the Tigris in the Salah ad Din Governorate, 125 km north of Baghdad and, in 2002, had an estimated population of 201,700. ... Eridu (or Eridug) was an ancient city seven miles southwest of Ur . ... In linguistics, a substratum (lat. ... The archaeological record is a term used in archaeology to denote the physical remains of past human activities which archaeologists seek out and record in an attempt to analyise and reconstruct the past. ... Pottery jar from Late Ubaid Period The tell (mound) of Ubaid near Ur in southern Iraq has given its name to the prehistoric chalcolithic culture which represents the earliest settlement on the alluvial plain of southern Mesopotamia. ... Radiocarbon dating is a radiometric dating method that uses the naturally occurring isotope carbon-14 (14C) to determine the age of carbonaceous materials up to about 60,000 years. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa. ...


Despite the lack of corroborating written records, it is generally agreed that Sumerian speakers were farmers who moved down from the north, after perfecting irrigation agriculture there. The Ubaid pottery of southern Mesopotamia has been connected via Choga Mami Transitional ware to the pottery of the Samarra period culture (c. 5700-4900 BC C-14) in the north, who were the first to practice a primitive form of irrigation agriculture along the middle Tigris River and its tributaries. The connection is most clearly seen at Tell Awayli (Oueilli, Oueili) near Larsa, excavated by the French in the 1980s, where 8 levels yielded pre-Ubaid pottery resembling Samarran ware. Farming peoples spread down into southern Mesopotamia because they had developed a temple-centered social organization for mobilizing labor and technology for water control, enabling them to survive and prosper in a difficult environment. The tell (mound) of Ubaid near Ur in southern Iraq has given its name to the prehistoric culture which represents the earliest settlement on the alluvial plain of southern Mesopotamia. ... Map showing Samarra near Baghdad Sāmarrā (سامراء) is a town in Iraq ( ). It stands on the east bank of the Tigris in the Salah ad Din Governorate, 125 km north of Baghdad and, in 2002, had an estimated population of 201,700. ... Radiocarbon dating is a radiometric dating method that uses the naturally occurring isotope carbon-14 (14C) to determine the age of carbonaceous materials up to about 60,000 years. ... Larsa (the Biblical Ellasar, Genesis 14:1), was an important city of ancient Babylonia, the site of the worship of the sun-god, Shamash, represented by the ancient ruin mound of Senkereh (Senkera). ...


Alternatively, the Sumerians may have been an indigenous culture of hunter-fishers who lived in the reedy marshlands at the mouth of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, as the Marsh Arabs do today. This culture contributed to a cultural fusion with northern agriculturists, creating Sumerian language and civilisation.[citation needed] The Marsh Arabs are the inhabitants of the lowlands of southern Iraq, the former Mesopotamia, whose families have lived in the area for thousands of years. ...


Culture

Sumerian culture may be traced to two main centers, Eridu in the south and Nippur in the north may be regarded as a contrasting poles of Sumerian religion. Eridu (or Eridug) was an ancient city seven miles southwest of Ur . ... The city of Nippur (Sumerian Nibru, Akkadian Nibbur) (now it is in Afak town,Al Qadisyah Governorate) was one of the most ancient (some historians date it back to 5262 B.C. [1][2]) of all the Babylonian cities of which we have any knowledge, the special seat of the...


The deity Enlil, around whose sanctuary Nippur had grown up, was considered lord of the ghost-land, and his gifts to mankind were said to be the spells and incantations that the spirits of good or evil were compelled to obey. The world he governed was a mountain (E-kur from E=house and Kur=Mountain); the creatures that he had made lived underground. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Eridu, on the other hand, was the home of the culture god Enki (absorbed into Babylonian mythology as the god Ea), the god of beneficence, ruler of the freshwater depths beneath the earth (the Abzu from Ab=water and Zu=far), a healer and friend to humanity who was thought to have given us the arts and sciences, the industries and manners of civilization; the first law-book was considered his creation. Eridu had once been a seaport, and it was doubtless its foreign trade and intercourse with other lands that influenced the development of its culture. Its cosmology was the result of its geographical position: the earth, it was believed, had grown out of the waters of the deep, like the ever widening coast at the mouth of the Euphrates. Long before history is recorded, however, the cultures of Eridu and Nippur had coalesced. While Babylon seems to have been a colony of Eridu, Eridu's immediate neighbor, Ur, may have been a colony of Nippur, since its moon god was said to be the son of Enlil of Nippur. However, in the admixture of the two cultures, the influence of Eridu was predominant. Enki (DEN.KI(G)) was a deity in Sumerian mythology, later known as Ea in Babylonian mythology, originally chief god of the city of Eridu. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Mesopotamian mythology. ... Enki ( DEN.KI lord of the earth) was a deity in Sumerian mythology, later known as Ea in Babylonian mythology, originally chief God of the city of Eridu. ... The apsû (also known as abzu or engur) was the name for the mythological underground freshwater ocean in Sumerian and Akkadian mythology. ... For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa. ... For other uses, see Ur (disambiguation). ...


Historian Alan Marcus has been quoted as saying that "Sumerians held a rather dour perspective on life." One Sumerian wrote: "Tears, lament, anguish, and depression are within me. Suffering overwhelms me. Evil fate holds me and carries off my life. Malignant sickness bathes me." Another wrote, "Why am I counted among the ignorant? Food is all about, yet my food is hunger. On the day shares were allotted, my allotted share was suffering."[10] Alan I. Marcus is the author of Building Western Civilization: From the Advent of Writing to the Age of Steam (1998) and is no longer aprofessor of history at Iowa State University. ...


There is much evidence that the Sumerians loved music. It seemed to be an important part of religious and civic life in Sumer. Lyres were popular in Sumer; see Sumerian music. Religious is a term with both a technical definition and folk use. ... A Lyre is a stringed musical instrument well known for its use in Classical Antiquity. ... The discovery of numerous musical instruments in royal burial sites and illustrations of musicians in Sumerian art show how music seemed to play an important part of religious and civic life in Sumer. ...


According to inscriptions describing the reforms of king Urukagina of Lagash (ca. 2300 BC), he is said to have abolished the former custom of polyandry in his country, on pain of the woman taking multiple husbands being stoned with rocks upon which her crime is written[11]. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... At the time of Hammurabi, Lagash was much closer to the gulf. ...


Though women were protected by late Sumerian law and were able to achieve a higher status in Sumer than in other contemporary civilizations, the culture was male-dominated. The Code of Ur-Nammu, the oldest such codification yet discovered, dating to the Ur-III "Sumerian Renaissance", reveals a glimpse at societal structure in late Sumerian law. Beneath the lu-gal ("great man" or king), all members of society belonged to one of two basic strata: The "lu" or free person, and the slave (male, arad; female geme). The son of a lu was called a dumu-nita until he married. A woman (munus) went from being a daughter (dumu-mi), to a wife (dam), then if she outlived her husband, a widow (numasu) who could remarry. Cuneiform Law was the system of law invented by ancient Sumerians and used through-out the ancient Middle East written in cuneiform script. ... The Code of Ur-Nammu is the oldest known tablet containing a law code surviving today. ...


Language and writing

Main article: Sumerian language

The most important archaeological discoveries in Sumer are a large number of tablets written in Sumerian. Sumerian pre-cuneiform script has been discovered on tablets dating to around 3500 BC. Sumerian ( native tongue) was the language of ancient Sumer, spoken in Southern Mesopotamia from at least the 4th millennium BCE. It was gradually replaced by Akkadian as a spoken language in the beginning of the 2nd millenium BCE, but continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial, literary and scientific... Cuneiform script The Cuneiform script is one of the earliest known forms of written expression. ...


The Sumerian language is generally regarded as a language isolate in linguistics because it belongs to no known language family; Akkadian belongs to the Afro-Asiatic languages. There have been many failed attempts to connect Sumerian to other language groups. It is an agglutinative language; in other words, morphemes ("units of meaning") are added together to create words. A language isolate, in the absolute sense, is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or genetic) relationship with other living languages; that is, one that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor common to any other language. ... For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ... Akkadian (lišānum akkadītum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... The Afro-Asiatic languages constitute a language family (Languages of Africa) with about 375 languages (SIL estimate) and more than 300 million speakers spread throughout North Africa, East Africa, West Africa, Central Africa, and Southwest Asia (including some 200 million speakers of Arabic). ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... It has been suggested that Agglutination be merged into this article or section. ... In morpheme-based morphology, a morpheme is the smallest lingual unit that carries a semantic interpretation. ...


Sumerians invented picture-hieroglyphs that developed into later cuneiform, and their language vies with Ancient Egyptian for credit as the oldest known written human language. An extremely large body of hundreds of thousands of texts in the Sumerian language has survived, the great majority of these on clay tablets. Known Sumerian texts include personal and business letters and transactions, receipts, lexical lists, laws, hymns and prayers, magical incantations, and scientific texts including mathematics, astronomy, and medicine. Monumental inscriptions and texts on different objects like statues or bricks are also very common. Many texts survive in multiple copies because they were repeatedly transcribed by scribes-in-training. Sumerian continued to be the language of religion and law in Mesopotamia long after Semitic speakers had become the ruling race. Egyptian hieroglyphs, which have their origins as logograms. ... Cuneiform redirects here. ... Map of Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was the civilization of the Nile Valley between about 3000 BC and the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great in 332 BC. As a civilization based on irrigation it is the quintessential example of an hydraulic empire. ... Writing systems of the world today. ...


Understanding Sumerian texts today can be problematic even for experts. Most difficult are the earliest texts, which in many cases don't give the full grammatical structure of the language.


Religion

Main article: Sumerian mythology
Sumerian religion was based on a series of sacred marriages between divine couples

Like other cities of Asia Minor and the Mediterranean, Sumer was a polytheistic, or henotheistic, society. Their lives were spent serving the gods in the form of man-made statues. There was no organized set of gods, with each city-state having its own patrons, temples, and priest-kings; but the Sumerians were probably the first to write down their beliefs. Sumerian beliefs were also the inspiration for much of later Mesopotamian mythology, religion, and astrology. Chaldean mythology is the collective name given to Sumerian, Assyrian and Babylonian mythologies, although Chaldea did not comprehend the whole territory inhabited by those peoples. ... Polytheism is belief in or worship of multiple gods or deities. ... Henotheism (Greek heis theos one god) is a term coined by Max Müller, to mean devotion to a single God while accepting the existence of other gods. ... Mesopotamian mythology is the collective name given to Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, and Babylonian mythologies from the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Iraq. ... Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut (1888). ...


The Sumerians worshipped An as the full time god, equivalent to "heaven"-- indeed, the word "an" in Sumerian means "sky." His consort Ki, means "Earth". Collectively the gods were known as Anunna ((d)an-unna = "offspring of the lord"). An's closest cohorts were Enki in the south at the E'abzu temple in Eridu, Enlil in the north at the E'kur temple of Nippur and Inanna, the deification of Venus, the morning (eastern) and evening (western) star, at the E'anna temple (shared with An) at Uruk. The sun-god Utu was worshipped at Sippar, the moon god Nanna, was worshipped at Ur and Nammu or Namma was one of the names of the Mother Goddess, probably considered to be the original matrix; there were hundreds of minor deities. The Sumerian gods (Sumerian dingir, plural dingir-dingir or dingir-re-ne) thus had associations with different cities, and their religious importance often waxed and waned with the political power of the associated cities. The gods were said to have created human beings from clay for the purpose of serving them. If the temples/gods ruled each city it was for their mutual survival and benefit - the temples organized the mass labor projects needed for irrigation agriculture. Citizens had a labor duty to the temple which only towards the end of the third millennium were they able to avoid by a payment of silver instead. The temple-centered farming communities of Sumer had a social stability that enabled them to survive for four millennia. Look up AN on Wiktionary, the free dictionary AN may mean: NATO country code for Andorra IATA code for Ansett Australia (now defunct) a prefix in Army-Navy Equipment Code Designators the AAR reporting mark for Apalachicola Northern Railroad ISO country code for the Netherlands Antilles An may mean: an... Ki (earth) in Sumerian mythology was the goddess and personification of the earth and underworld, chief consort of An (heaven) the sky god. ... Enki (DEN.KI(G)) was a deity in Sumerian mythology, later known as Ea in Babylonian mythology, originally chief god of the city of Eridu. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Inanna (DINANNA ) is the Sumerian goddess of sexual love, fertility, and warfare. ... In Sumerian mythology, Utu is the offspring of Nanna and Ningal and is the god of the sun and of justice. ... Mesopotamian mythology is the collective name given to Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, and Babylonian mythologies from the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Iraq. ... In Sumerian mythology, Nammu is probably the first of the ancient deities of Sumer — at least in the process of creation, if not in actual chronology. ... A Cucuteni culture statuette, 4th millennium BC. A mother goddess is a goddess, often portrayed as the Earth Mother, who serves as a general fertility deity, the bountiful embodiment of the earth. ... This article is about the term Deity in the context of mysticism and theology. ... This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ...


Sumerians believed that the universe consisted of a flat disk enclosed by a tin dome. The Sumerian afterlife involved a descent into a gloomy netherworld to spend eternity in a wretched existence as a Gidim (ghost). For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dome (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Afterlife (disambiguation). ... The Sumerian nether world was a place for the bodies of the dead to exist after death. ... For the philosophical movement, see Existentialism. ... Gidim are the Sumerian equivalent of ghosts; they were the spirits of dead people living in the Underworld. ...


Ziggurats (Sumerian temples) consisted of a forecourt, with a central pond for purification.[citation needed] The temple itself had a central nave with aisles along either side. Flanking the aisles would be rooms for the priests. At one end would stand the podium and a mudbrick table for animal and vegetable sacrifices. Granaries and storehouses were usually located near the temples. After a time the Sumerians began to place the temples on top of multi-layered square constructions built as a series of rising terraces, giving rise to the later Ziggurat style. Dur-Untash, or Choqa Zanbil, built in 13th century BC by Untash Napirisha and located near Susa, Iran is one of the worlds best-preserved ziggurats. ... Links to full descriptions of the elements of a Gothic floorplan are also found at the entry Cathedral diagram. ... A podium is a platform that is used to raise something to a short distance above its surroundings. ... Mudbrick was used for the outer contruction of Sumerian ziggurats — some of the worlds largest and oldest constructions. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Vegetable (disambiguation). ... Marcus Aurelius and members of the Imperial family offer sacrifice in gratitude for success against Germanic tribes: contemporary bas-relief, Capitoline Museum, Rome For other uses, see Sacrifice (disambiguation). ... Inside Green Logistics Co. ...


Agriculture and hunting

The Sumerians adopted the agricultural mode of life which had been introduced into Lower Mesopotamia and practiced the same irrigation techniques as those used in Egypt.[12] Adams says that irrigation development was associated with urbanization,[13] and that 89% of the population lived in the cities [1]. Robert McCormick Adams Jr. ...


They grew barley, chickpeas, lentils, wheat, dates, onions, garlic, lettuce, leeks and mustard. They also raised cattle, sheep, goats, and pigs. They used oxen as their primary beasts of burden and donkeys or equids as their primary transport animal. Sumerians caught many fish and hunted fowl and gazelle. For other uses, see Barley (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Cicer arietinum L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... This article is about the species Lens culinaris. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... Binomial name Phoenix dactylifera L. The Date Palm Phoenix dactylifera is a palm, extensively cultivated for its edible fruit. ... For other uses, see Onion (disambiguation). ... Binomial name L. Allium sativum L., commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. ... Binomial name L. Lettuce and chicory output in 2005 Vit. ... Binomial name Allium ampeloprasum (Linnaeus) J. Gay The Leek (Allium ampeloprasum var. ... Species See text. ... Species See text. ... This article is about the domestic species. ... For other uses, see Pig (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Cattle are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 For other uses, see Donkey (disambiguation). ... Species - Donkey - Domestic Horse - Grevys Zebra - Onager - Przewalskis Horse - Plains Zebra - Mountain Zebra Equidae is the family of horse-like animals, order Perissodactyla. ... For other uses, see Fowl (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Sumerian agriculture depended heavily on irrigation. The irrigation was accomplished by the use of shadufs, canals, channels, dykes, weirs, and reservoirs. The frequent violent floods of the Tigris, and less so, of the Euphrates, meant that canals required frequent repair and continual removal of silt, and survey markers and boundary stones continually replaced. The government required individuals to work on the canals in a corvee, although the rich were able to exempt themselves. Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ... Shadoof in Hortobágy (1890s) Shaduf. ... For other uses, see Canal (disambiguation). ... In physical geography, a channel is the physical confine of a river, slough or ocean strait consisting of a bed and banks. ... A dyke (or dike) is a stone or earthen wall constructed as a defence or as a boundary. ... The bridge and weir mechanism at Sturminster Newton on the River Stour, Dorset. ... A reservoir (French: réservoir) is an artificial lake created by flooding land behind a dam. ... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa. ... For other uses, see Silt (disambiguation). ... Corvée, or corvée labor, is a term used in feudal societies. ...


After the flood season and after the Spring Equinox and the Akitu or New Year Festival, using the canals, farmers would flood their fields and then drain the water. Next they let oxen stomp the ground and kill weeds. They then dragged the fields with pickaxes. After drying, they plowed, harrowed, and raked the ground three times, and pulverized it with a mattock, before planting seed. Unfortunately the high evaporation rate resulted in a gradual increase in the salinity of the fields. By the Ur III period, farmers had switched from wheat to the more salt-tolerant barley as their principal crop. Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Pickhandle redirects here. ... For the constellation known as The Plough see Ursa Major. ... Crumbler roller, commonly used to compact soil after it has been loosened by a harrow In agriculture, a harrow is an implement for cultivating the surface of the soil, in this way it is distinct in its effect from the plough, which is used for deeper cultivation. ... A heavy-duty rake for soil and rocks A light-duty rake for grass and leaves A double-sided rake A Rake better known as Kiran Buckman in various parts of Australia (Old English raca, cognate with Dutch raak, German Rechen, from a root meaning to scrape together, heap up... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Sumerians harvested during the dry fall season in three-person teams consisting of a reaper, a binder, and a sheaf arranger. The farmers would use threshing wagons to separate the cereal heads from the stalks and then use threshing sleds to disengage the grain. They then winnowed the grain/chaff mixture. This article is about the temperate season. ... For other uses, see Reaper (disambiguation). ... New Reaper McCormick Harvester and Binder A modern compact binder For other uses, see Binder (disambiguation). ... Grain redirects here. ... Look up stem in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Wind winnowing is a method developed by ancient cultures for agricultural purposes. ...


Architecture

Main article: Sumerian architecture

The Tigris-Euphrates plain lacked minerals and trees. Sumerian structures were made of plano-convex mudbrick, not fixed with mortar or cement. Mud-brick buildings eventually deteriorate, and so they were periodically destroyed, leveled, and rebuilt on the same spot. This constant rebuilding gradually raised the level of cities, so that they came to be elevated above the surrounding plain. The resultant hills are known as tells, and are found throughout the ancient Near East. The Tigris-Euphrates plain lacked minerals and trees. ... Mudbrick was used for the outer contruction of Sumerian ziggurats — some of the worlds largest and oldest constructions. ... Mortar holding weathered bricks. ... For other uses, see Cement (disambiguation). ... Tell Mar Elias, North Jordan in 2005 Tell or tall (Arabic: ‎, tall, and Hebrew: , tel), meaning hill or mound, is an archaeological site in the form of an earthen mound that results from the accumulation and subsequent erosion of material deposited by human occupation over long periods of time. ...


The most impressive and famous of Sumerian buildings are the ziggurats, large layered platforms which supported temples. Some scholars have theorized that these structures might have been the basis of the Tower of Babel described in Genesis. Sumerian cylinder seals also depict houses built from reeds not unlike those built by the Marsh Arabs of Southern Iraq until as recently as A.D. 400. The Sumerians also developed the arch. With this structure, they were able to develop a strong type of roof called a dome. They built this by constructing several arches. Dur-Untash, or Choqa Zanbil, built in 13th century BC by Untash Napirisha and located near Susa, Iran is one of the worlds best-preserved ziggurats. ... This article is about the Biblical story. ... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... Gilgamesh and Enkidu, cylinder seal impression from Ur III, with oldest type of pictographic cuneiform The Cylinder seals in ancient times, were used to put an impression in clay. ... This article is about the authentication means. ... The Marsh Arabs are the inhabitants of the lowlands of southern Iraq, the former Mesopotamia, whose families have lived in the area for thousands of years. ...


Sumerian temples and palaces made use of more advanced materials and techniques, such as buttresses, recesses, half columns, and clay nails. A buttress (and mostly concealed, a flying buttress) supporting walls at the Palace of Westminster Three different types of buttress: diagonal, on the statues plinth; an ordinary buttress supporting a flying buttress, to the right of the statue; a small ordinary buttress to the right side of the picture... Children can be found playing on playhouses such as this during recess. ... Used by Sumerians and other Mesopotamian cultures beginning in the third millennium BC, clay nails, also referred to as dedication or foundation nails, were inscribed with cuneiform and embedded into walls to serve as evidence that the temple or building was the divine property of the god to whom it...


Economy and trade

Discoveries of obsidian from far-away locations in Anatolia and lapis lazuli from northeastern Afghanistan, beads from Dilmun (modern Bahrain), and several seals inscribed with the Indus Valley script suggest a remarkably wide-ranging network of ancient trade centered around the Persian Gulf. This article is about a type of volcanic glass. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... A block of lapis lazuli Lapis lazuli is one of the oldest of all gems, with a history of use stretching back 7,000 years. ... Dilmun (sometimes transliterated Telmun) is associated with ancient sites on the islands of Bahrain in the Persian Gulf. ... Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ...   An Indus Valley seal with the seated figure termed pashupati. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ...


The Epic of Gilgamesh refers to trade with far lands for goods such as wood that were scarce in Mesopotamia. In particular, cedar from Lebanon was prized. The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from Babylonia and is among the earliest known literary works. ...


The Sumerians used slaves, although they were not a major part of the economy. Slave women worked as weavers, pressers, millers, and porters. Image of a woman on the Pioneer plaque sent to outer space. ... Tweed loom, Harris, 2004 Woven sheet Weaving is an ancient textile art and craft that involves placing two sets of threads or yarn called the warp and weft of the loom and turning them into cloth. ... For other uses, see Miller (disambiguation). ... This article discusses human bearers of burdens. ...


Sumerian potters decorated pots with cedar oil paints. The potters used a bow drill to produce the fire needed for baking the pottery. Sumerian masons and jewelers knew and made use of alabaster (calcite), ivory, gold, silver, carnelian and lapis lazuli. Unfired green ware pottery on a traditional drying rack at Conner Prairie living history museum. ... Cedar oil was used as the base for paints by the ancient Sumerians. ... For other uses, see Paint (disambiguation). ... The bow drill is an ancient tool. ... For other uses, see Fire (disambiguation). ... This article refers to the building structure component; for the fraternal organization, see Freemasonry. ... Jewelry (the American spelling; spelled jewellery in Commonwealth English) consists of ornamental devices worn by persons, typically made with gems and precious metals. ... A modern uplighter lamp made completely from Italian alabaster (white and brown types). ... Doubly refracting Calcite from Iceberg claim, Dixon, New Mexico. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... A block of lapis lazuli Lapis lazuli is one of the oldest of all gems, with a history of use stretching back 7,000 years. ...


Military

Early chariots on the Standard of Ur, ca. 2600 BC.
Early chariots on the Standard of Ur, ca. 2600 BC.

The almost constant wars among the Sumerian city-states for 2000 years helped to develop the military technology and techniques of Sumer to a high level. The first war recorded was between Lagash and Umma in ca. 2525 BC on a stele called the Stele of Vultures. It shows the king of Lagash leading a Sumerian army consisting mostly of infantry. The infantrymen carried spears, wore copper helmets and carried leather or wicker shields [2]. The spearmen are shown arranged in what resembles the phalanx formation, which requires training and discipline; this implies that the Sumerians may have made use of professional soldiers. Image File history File links Standard_of_Ur_chariots. ... the War panel Peace, detail showing lyrist. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize... Spears were one of the most common personal weapons from the late Bronze Age until the advent of firearms. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... A person wearing a helmet. ... For other uses, see Leather (disambiguation). ... A wickerwork scratching post A wicker balloon basket capable of holding 16 passengers. ... This article is about the defensive device. ... For other uses, see phalanx. ... This article is about people called professionals. ...

Battle formations on a fragment of the Stele of Vultures.
Battle formations on a fragment of the Stele of Vultures.

The Sumerian military used carts harnessed to onagers. These early chariots functioned less effectively in combat than did later designs, and some have suggested that these chariots served primarily as transports, though the crew carried battle-axes and lances. The Sumerian chariot comprised a four or two-wheeled device manned by a crew of two and harnessed to four onagers. The cart was composed of a woven basket and the wheels had a solid three-piece design. Binomial name Equus hemionus Pallas, 1775 The onager (Equus hemionus) is a large mammal belonging to the horse family and native to the deserts of Syria, Iran, Pakistan, India, Israel, and Tibet (China). ... For other uses, see Chariot (disambiguation). ... The term lance has become a catchall for a variety of different pole weapons based on the spear. ... For other uses, see Wheel (disambiguation). ... Four styles of household basket. ...


Sumerian cities were surrounded by defensive walls. The Sumerians engaged in siege warfare between their cities, but the mudbrick walls failed to deter some foes. The defensive wall of Braşov, Romania. ... A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... Mudbrick was used for the outer contruction of Sumerian ziggurats — some of the worlds largest and oldest constructions. ...


Technology

Examples of Sumerian technology include: the wheel, cuneiform, arithmetic and geometry, irrigation systems, Sumerian boats, lunisolar calendar, bronze, leather, saws, chisels, hammers, braces, bits, nails, pins, rings, hoes, axes, knives, lancepoints, arrowheads, swords, glue, daggers, waterskins, bags, harnesses, armor, quivers, war chariots, scabbards, boots, sandals and harpoons. This article is about the metal alloy. ... This article is about the tool. ... For other uses, see Hammer (disambiguation). ... Tack is a term used to describe any of the various equipment and accessories worn by horses in the course of their use as domesticated animals. ... A pile of nails. ... Look up pin in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Jewellery (spelled jewelry in American English) consists of ornamental devices worn by persons, typically made with gems and precious metals. ... Agricultural square bladed hoe. ... Axe For other uses, see Axe (disambiguation). ... This article is about the tool. ... The term lance has become a catchall for a variety of different pole weapons based on the spear. ... An arrow is a pointed projectile that is shot with a bow. ... Swiss longsword, 15th or 16th century Look up Sword in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the band, see Adhesive (band). ... Bold text This article is about the weapon. ... Paper bag redirects here. ... The term harness has been used for many centuries for part of the collection of equipment known as horse tack, essential in the domestic, military, and agrarian use of horses. ... Armor or armour (see spelling differences) is protective clothing intended to defend its wearer from intentional harm in combat and military engagements, typically associated with soldiers. ... For other uses, see Quiver (disambiguation). ... For the torpedo-shaped underwater vehicle ridden by two frogmen, sometimes referred to as a chariot, see Human torpedo. ... A scabbard is a sheath for holding a sword or other large blade. ... For other senses of this word, see boot (disambiguation). ... Modern multi-colored Sandalette Yoga sandals In some parts of the United States, this type of sandal is referred to in slang as the mandal in that it is worn primarily by men. ... For other uses, see Harpoon (disambiguation) harpoon gun redirects here. ...


The Sumerians had three main types of boats:

  • skin boats comprising of animal skins and reeds
  • clinker-built sailboats stitched together with hair, featuring bitumen waterproofing
  • wooden-oared ships, sometimes pulled upstream by people and animals walking along the nearby banks

Ewer from Iran, dated 1180-1210CE. Composed of brass worked in repoussé and inlaid with silver and bitumen. ...

Legacy

Most authorities credit the Sumerians with the invention of the wheel, initially in the form of the potter's wheel. The new concept quickly led to wheeled vehicles and mill wheels. The Sumerians' cuneiform writing system is the oldest there is evidence of (with the exception of proto-writing such as the Vinča signs and the even older Jiahu signs). The Sumerians were among the first astronomers, mapping the stars into sets of constellations, many of which constellations survived in the zodiac and in the constellations known to the ancient Greeks[14]. The five planets that are visible to the naked eye also have Sumerian names[15]. For other uses, see Wheel (disambiguation). ... Classic potters kick-wheel at Erfurt, Germany The potters wheel is a machine used in the shaping of round ceramic wares. ... Vehicles are non-living means of transport. ... Cuneiform script The Cuneiform script is one of the earliest known forms of written expression. ... A drawing of a clay vessel unearthed in Vinča, found at depth of 8. ... Jiahu script refers the markings on prehistoric artifacts found in Jiahu, a neolithic culture found in Henan, China. ...


They invented and developed arithmetic using several different number systems including a Mixed radix system with an alternating base 10 and base 6. This sexagesimal system became the standard number system in Sumer and Babylonia. They may have invented military formations and introduced the basic divisions between infantry, cavalry and archers. They developed the first known codified legal and administrative systems, complete with courts, jails, and government records. The first true city states arose in Sumer, roughly contemporaneously with similar entities in what is now Syria and Israel. Several centuries after their invention of cuneiform, the practice of writing expanded beyond debt/payment certificates and inventory lists and was applied for the first time about 2600 BC to written messages and mail delivery, history, legend, mathematics, astronomical records and other pursuits generally corresponding to the fields occupying teachers and students ever since. Accordingly, the first formal schools were established, usually under the auspices of a city-state's primary temple. Mixed radix numeral systems are more general than the usual ones in that the numerical base may vary from position to position. ... The sexagesimal (base-sixty) is a numeral system with sixty as the base. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... Archery is the practice of using a bow to shoot arrows. ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ...


Finally, the Sumerians ushered in the age of intensive agriculture and irrigation. Emmer wheat, barley, sheep (starting as moufflon) and cattle (starting as aurochs) were foremost among the species cultivated and raised for the first time on a grand scale. These inventions and innovations easily place the Sumerians among the most creative cultures in human pre-history. Binomial name triticum dicoccoides Emmer Grain is an ancient grain officially known as Triticum dicoccoides. ... For other uses, see Barley (disambiguation). ... Moufflon are a type wild sheep (Ovis orientalis and O. musimon) native to the mountains of Sardinia, Corsica and western Asia (especially Turkey and southern Iran). ... Binomial name Subspecies Bos primigenius primigenius   (Bojanus, 1827) Bos primigenius namadicus   (Falconer, 1859) Bos primigenius mauretanicus   (Thomas, 1881) See Ur (rune) for the rune. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Sumer

Sumerian ( native tongue) was the language of ancient Sumer, spoken in Southern Mesopotamia from at least the 4th millennium BCE. It was gradually replaced by Akkadian as a spoken language in the beginning of the 2nd millenium BCE, but continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial, literary and scientific... The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from Babylonia and is among the earliest known literary works. ... The history of Sumer, taken to include the prehistoric Ubaid and Uruk periods, spans the 5th to 3rd millennia BC, ending with the downfall of the Third Dynasty of Ur around 2004 BC, followed by a transition period of Amorite states before the rise of Babylonia in the 18th century... The Sumerian king list is an ancient text in the Sumerian language listing kings of Sumer from Sumerian and foreign dynasties. ... The Tigris-Euphrates plain lacked minerals and trees. ... Pre-history Tallies carved from wood, bone, and stone have been used since prehistoric times. ... The Marsh Arabs are the inhabitants of the lowlands of southern Iraq, the former Mesopotamia, whose families have lived in the area for thousands of years. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ...

References

  1. ^ William Stiebing, Ancient Near Eastern History and Culture
  2. ^ John Nicholas Postgate (1994). Early Mesopotamia: Society and Economy at the Dawn of History. Routledge (UK).  where Dr. Postgate believes it likely that eme, 'tongue', became en, 'lord', through consonantal assimilation.
  3. ^ a b Sumerian Questions and Answers
  4. ^ W. Hallo, W. Simpson (1971). The Ancient Near East. New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 28. 
  5. ^ a b K. van der Toorn, P. W. van der Horst (Jan 1990). "Nimrod before and after the Bible". The Harvard Theological Review 83 (1). 
  6. ^ Jacobsen, Thorkild (Ed) (1939),"The Sumerian King List" (Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago; Assyriological Studies, No. 11.)
  7. ^ Roux, Georges "Ancient Iraq" (Penguin Harmondsworth)
  8. ^ See Toward the Image of Tammuz and Other Essays on Mesopotamian History and Culture by T. Jacobsen
  9. ^ Thompson, William R. (2004). "Complexity, Diminishing Marginal Returns and Serial Mesopotamian Fragmentation" (pdf). Journal of World Systems Research. 
  10. ^ The Wisdom Fest BY KATHLEEN L. BRUCE, D. MISS.
  11. ^ Gender and the Journal: Diaries and Academic Discourse p. 62 by Cinthia Gannett, 1992
  12. ^ Mackenzie, Donald Alexander (1927). Footprints of Early Man. Blackie & Son Limited. 
  13. ^ Adams, R. McC. (1981). Heartland of Cities. University of Chicago Press. 
  14. ^ History of Constellation and Star Names
  15. ^ Sumerian Questions and Answers

Further reading

  • Ascalone, Enrico. Mesopotamia: Assyrians, Sumerians, Babylonians (Dictionaries of Civilizations; 1). Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007 (paperback, ISBN 0520252667).
  • Bottéro, Jean. Everyday Life in Ancient Mesopotamia.
  • Crawford, Harriet. Sumer and the Sumerians.
  • Leick, Gwendolyn. Mesopotamia.
  • Lloyd, Seton. The Archaeology of Mesopotamia: From the Old Stone Age to the Persian Conquest.
  • Nemet-Nejat, Karen Rhea. Daily Life in Ancient Mesopotamia.
  • Kramer, Samuel Noah. Sumerian Mythology: A Study of Spiritual and Literary Achievement in the Third Millennium BC.
  • Kramer, Samuel Noah. The Sumerians : Their History, Culture, and Character.
  • Roux, Georges. Ancient Iraq.
  • Schomp, Virginia. Ancient Mesopotamia: The Sumerians, Babylonians, And Assyrians.
  • Sumer: Cities of Eden (Timelife Lost Civilizations). Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books, 1993 (hardcover, ISBN 0809498871).
  • Woolley, C. Leonard. The Sumerians.

Samuel Noah Kramer (1897 - 1990) was one of the worlds leading Assyriologists and a world renowned expert in Sumerian history and Sumerian language. ... Sir Charles Leonard Woolley (17 April 1880–20 February 1960) was a British archaeologist, best known for his excavations at Ur in Sumerancient Mesopotamia. ...

External links

Geography

Language


  Results from FactBites:
 
Sumer's Radiology Site (2729 words)
The brainstem, cranial nerves, and the lower portion of the cerebellum may be stretched or compressed.The blockage of CSF flow may also cause a syrinx to form, eventually leading to syringomyelia.
Since ligaments and menisci demonstrate a hypointense signal with all pulse sequences, the displaced fragment will mimic a second PCL that is anterior and inferior to the true ligament, hence the name "double PCL sign" Discussion is from Radiology 2004;233:503-504.
Sumer Sethi is the author of very popular handbook "Review of Radiology"for medical students.
Sumer (944 words)
Sumer represented one half of Mesopotamia, where Akkad, to the north, represented the other half.
From early on, Sumer consisted of 12 city-states: Adab, Akshak, Bad-tibira Erech, Kish, Lagash, Larak, Larsa, Nippur, Sippar, Umma and Ur.
Around 2500: King Lugalanemundu of Adab extends Sumer to cover the area from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean Sea, bordering the Taurus mountains in the north, and the Zagros mountains in the east.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m