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Encyclopedia > Sumatran Rhinoceros
Sumatran Rhinoceros

Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Perissodactyla
Family: Rhinocerotidae
Genus: Dicerorhinus
Gloger, 1841
Species: D. sumatrensis
Binomial name
Dicerorhinus sumatrensis
Fischer, 1814

Sumatran Rhinoceros range
Subspecies

Dicerorhinus sumatrensis harrissoni
Dicerorhinus sumatrensis sumatrensis
Dicerorhinus sumatrensis lasiotis Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1608x1126, 635 KB) Original caption: Rauhohr-Nashorn, Dicerorhinus sumatrensis lasiotis Scl. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. ... Image File history File links Status_iucn2. ... . ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... Families Equidae Tapiridae Rhinocerotidae The odd-toed ungulates or Perissodactyla are large to very large browsing and grazing mammals with relatively simple stomachs and a large middle toe. ... Species Ceratotherium simum Dicerorhinus sumatrensis Diceros bicornis Rhinoceros unicornis A rhinoceros is any of five surviving species of odd-toed ungulate in the family Rhinocerotidae. ... Constantin Wilhelm Lambert Gloger (1803 - 1863) was a German zoologist and ornithologist. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Johann Fischer von Waldheim Johann Gotthelf Fischer von Waldheim (Grigorij Ivanovitsch Fischer von Waldheim in Russian) (October 13, 1771 – October 18, 1853) was a German anatomist, entomologist and paleontologist. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the zoological term. ... Trinomial name Dicerorhinus sumatrensis harrissoni Groves, 1965 The Eastern Sumatran Rhinoceros also known as the Asian Two-Horned Rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis harrissoni) is a critically endangered subspecies of Sumatran Rhino. ... Trinomial name Dicerorhinus sumatrensis sumatrensis Fischer, 1814 The Western Sumatran Rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis sumatrensis) is a subspecies of the Sumatran Rhinoceros. ... Trinomial name Dicerorhinus sumatrensis lasiotis Buckland, 1876 The Northern Sumatran Rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis lasiotis) was a subspecies of the Sumatran Rhinoceros. ...

The Sumatran Rhinoceros, Dicerorhinus sumatrensis is the smallest extant rhinoceros species, as well as the one with the most fur, which allows it to survive at very high altitudes in Borneo and Sumatra. Due to habitat loss and poaching, its numbers have declined and it is one of the world's rarest mammals. The Sumatran Rhinoceros is the last surviving species in the same group as the extinct Woolly Rhinoceros. Black Rhino from Howletts Wild Animal Park For other uses, see Rhinoceros (disambiguation). ... Altitude is the elevation of an object from a known level or datum. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Kalimantan. ... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island in the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two larger islands, Borneo and New Guinea, are partially in Indonesia). ... Binomial name Coelodonta antiquitatis (Blumenbach, 1807) The Woolly Rhinoceros (Coelodonta antiquitatis) is an extinct species of rhinoceros that lived during the Pleistocene epoch, but survived the last ice age. ...

Contents

Range

The Sumatran Rhinoceros once inhabited a continuous distribution as far north as Myanmar and eastern India; however poaching has made it extinct in Thailand and Vietnam, while it has not been seen in Cambodia, Laos or Myanmar for many years. They currently are found primarily in Sumatra and Borneo. Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island in the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two larger islands, Borneo and New Guinea, are partially in Indonesia). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Kalimantan. ...


Thomas C. Jerdon noted the range and abundance of the species in 1874: Thomas Claverhill Jerdon (1811 - 1872) was a British physician, zoologist and botanist. ...

The only other Asiatic rhinoceros is the two-horned one, Rhinoceros sumatranus, which has been shot as high as north latitude 23 or so, near Sandoway, and is suspected by Blyth to extend as far north as Assam. Though with two horns, it is quite of the same type as the one-horned species, having strong incisors, and not like the African two-horned species, which have deciduous incisors. It is the most common rhinoceros in the Indo-Chinese territories, extending to Sumatra only among the islands.

Jerdon, 1874. The mammals of India

Anatomy

Typically a mature Sumatran rhino stands about 130 cm high at the shoulder, a body length of 240-315 cm and weighs around 700 kg, though the largest individuals have been known to weigh as much as 1,000 kilograms. Like the African species, it has two horns, the largest is the front (25-79 cm) and the smaller being the second which is usually less than 10 cm long. The males have much larger horns than the females. Hair can range from dense (the most dense hair in young calves) to scarce and the color of these rhinos are reddish brown. Bodies are short and has stubby legs. They also have a prehensile lip. A centimetre (American spelling centimeter, symbol cm) is a unit of length that is equal to one hundredth of a metre, the current SI base unit of length. ... “Kg” redirects here. ... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ...


Habitat

The Sumatran Rhinoceros live in lowland secondary rainforest, swamps and moss forests. It likes hilly areas close to water, particularly steep upper valleys with alot of undergrowth. Also secondary forest where the upper canopy is broken by smaller shrubs and vines where there is plenty of food. Although the Sumatran Rhinoceros have been pushed into higher altitudes because of humans.


Behavor & Ecology

Sumatran Rhinoceros are solitary creatures. Indiviuals have home ranges, bulls are around 30 square km whereas females range from 10 to 15 square km. Salt licks are essential for their home territory. Marking their territory is done by soil scrapes, bent saplings, and excrement. They eat and are most active at dawn and just after dusk. But meanwhile during the day they wallow in mudbaths to cool down and rest. These rhinos can swin very well and can easily handle steep hills. During the rainy season they go up to higher elevations and down to the valleys in the cooler months.


Feeding does occur just before nightfall and in the morning. They are browsers and have a diet of young saplings, leaves, fruits, twigs and shoots. The rhinos usually consume up to 50 kg of food a day. Salt licks are very important to these animals. Essential nutrients are obtained from these.


Reproduction

Females become sexually mature at the age of 4-6 years, while males become sexually mature at 10 years old. Females only come into estrus when a male is nearby. The gestation period is around 400 days and the calf is weaned at 16-18 months and stays with the mother for 2-3 years. The birth interval for this species is 3-4 years.


Population & Threats

Sumatran Rhinoceros in Bronx Zoo
Sumatran Rhinoceros in Bronx Zoo

Sumatran Rhinoceroses were once quite numerous throughout southeast Asia. Now only an estimated 300 individuals remain, almost all in Sundaland. It is critically endangered due to destruction of its rainforest habitat and illegal and unchecked poaching. In the past decade its population has dropped 50%. Most remaining habitat is in inaccessible mountainous areas of Indonesia, where the government has shown no inclination to discourage clearing of rhino habitat for the benefit of the timber industry. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... The Bronx Zoo is a world-famous zoo located within the Bronx Park, in the Bronx borough of New York City. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Sundaland is a biogeographical region of Southeast Asia that comprises the Malay Peninsula and the Indonesian islands of Sumatra, Java, Bali, Borneo, and surrounding smaller islands. ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests of the world Amazon river rain forest in Brazil Tropical rainforests are rainforests generally found near the equator. ... A decidous beech forest in Slovenia. ...


Poaching of Sumatran Rhinoceros, though less of a problem than with African Rhinoceros (at least in terms of number of animals killed), is particularly insidious because dealers who stock Sumatran Rhinoceros horn (whose price is unknown but is probably at least $200 per gram), know that once the species becomes extinct, the price of its horn will likely dramatically increase. The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... BIC pen cap, about 1 gram. ...


Attempts to replenish the population by breeding them in captivity have proved difficult. However, there have been three recent births of Sumatran Rhinoceros calves, and all three to the same mother and father named "Emi" and "Ipuh" at the Cincinnati Zoo in Cincinnati, Ohio: Located in Cincinnati, Ohio, the Cincinnati Zoo and Botanical Garden is the second-oldest zoo in the United States, opened in 1875. ... “Cincinnati” redirects here. ... Official language(s) English de facto Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ...

  • A male calf, named "Andalas", in September 2001 [1], which has since been returned to the Indonesian government and the island of Sumatra to take part in further breeding programs [2];
  • A female calf, named "Suci", on July 30, 2004 [3], which continues to remain with its parents in Cincinnati;
  • And the newest addition, a second male calf named "Harapan" or "Harry", on April 29, 2007 [4].
  • (In the Malaysian language, 'Andalas', mean sprouting or healty plant, 'Suci', means pure, and 'Harapan', means hope.)

Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island in the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two larger islands, Borneo and New Guinea, are partially in Indonesia). ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Cincinnati, Ohio viewed from the SW, across the Ohio River from Kentucky. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...

Subspecies

There are three subspecies: This article is about the zoological term. ...

  • Eastern Sumatran Rhinoceros, Dicerorhinus sumatrensis harrissoni Once common throughout Borneo. Now only 50 indiviuals remain and all live in Sabah, Borneo. There are unconfirmed reports of animals surviving in Sarawak and Kalimantan. Logging and illegal poaching are responsible for its demise.
  • Western Sumatran Rhinoceros, Dicerorhinus sumatrensis sumatrensis Only 300 animals are alive, mostly in Sumatra. The main threats against them are habitat loss and illegal poaching. There is a slight genetic difference between the Western and Eastern Sumatran Rhinos.
  • Northern Sumatran Rhinoceros, Dicerorhinus sumatrensis lasiotis Once it roamed in India and Bangledesh but now are believed extinct. However unconfirmed reports suggest that there may be a very small population still surviving in Myanmar.

Trinomial name Dicerorhinus sumatrensis harrissoni Groves, 1965 The Eastern Sumatran Rhinoceros also known as the Asian Two-Horned Rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis harrissoni) is a critically endangered subspecies of Sumatran Rhino. ... For other uses, see Sabah (disambiguation). ... State motto: Bersatu, Berusaha, Berbakti State anthem: Ibu Pertiwiku Capital Kuching Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Yang di-Pertua Negeri Abang Muhammad Salahuddin  - Ketua Menteri Abdul Taib Mahmud History    - Brunei Sultanate 19th century   - Brooke dynasty 1841   - Japanese occupation 1941-1945   - British control 1946   - Accession into Malaysia 1963  Area  - Total 124,450... Kalimantan is the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. ... Trinomial name Dicerorhinus sumatrensis sumatrensis Fischer, 1814 The Western Sumatran Rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis sumatrensis) is a subspecies of the Sumatran Rhinoceros. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... Trinomial name Dicerorhinus sumatrensis lasiotis Buckland, 1876 The Northern Sumatran Rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis lasiotis) was a subspecies of the Sumatran Rhinoceros. ...

Sumatran Rhino on Television

The rarest and most extensive footage of the Sumatran Rhinoceros in its natural habitat, can be found in the 47min Asia Geographic documentary produced by James Reynolds and Mike Cabarles featuring 7 Sumatran Rhinos in West Malaysia and 2 in Sepilok, Sabah. NHNZ showed about one minute of a Sumatran rhino, shot by freelance Indonesian based cameraman Alain Compost, in their 2001 documentary The Forgotten Rhino, which featured mainly Javan and Indian rhinos. The BBC's Natural History Unit also showed some Sumatran rhino in their 2003 documentary The Natural World:Indonesia Fire Islands. There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ...


On April 24, 2007 it was announced that in the jungles of Malaysian Borneo cameras had captured night time footage of a Sumatran rhino eating, peering through jungle foliage, and sniffing the film equipment. The rhino in the two-minute footage is a rare Bornean subspecies of which only 25 to 50 are believed to be left on the island scientists estimate, mostly found in the dense interior jungles of Sabah, a state located on the northern portion of the island of Borneo. Although found in a commercial forest where logging is commonplace the video will be used to convince local governments to turn the area into a rhino conservation zone. This is the first-ever footage that shows the elusive Borneo rhino's natural behaviour in the wild. [5] is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... East Malaysia contains Sabah and Sarawak East Malaysia consists of the Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak, located on the island of Borneo to the east, across the South China Sea from West Malaysia which is located on the Malay Peninsula. ... For other uses, see Sabah (disambiguation). ...


References

  • Asian Rhino Specialist Group (1996). Dicerorhinus sumatrensis. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. Retrieved on 11 May 2006. Listed as Critically Endangered (CR A1bcd, C2a v2.3)
  • Rabinowitz, Alan (June 1995) "Helping a Species Go Extinct: The Sumatran Rhino in Borneo" Conservation Biology 9(3): pp. 482-488
  • Khan, M.K.M. 1986. Asian Rhinoceros Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Asian Rhino Specialist Group Gland, Switzerland.
  • Vidyadaran MK, Rozyati TH, Richard XM, Zainal-Zahari Z, Abdullah MT. 1992. The cervical vertebrae of the Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis sumatrensis). Malayan Nature Journal 46:53-63.
  • Zainal-Zahari Z, Abdullah MT, Suri MSM. 1990. The husbandry and veterinary care of captive Sumatran rhinoceros at Zoo Melaka. Malayan Nature Journal 44: 1-19.
  • Zainal-Zahari Z, Vidyadran MK, Abdullah MT, Rozyati TH, Peng BT. 1990. Observation on the skeleton of the Sumatran rhinoceros. Jurnal Veterinar Malaysia 2(1): 59-61.
  • Abdullah MT, Zainal-Zahari Z, Shukor MD, Norliah B, Zainun AB. 1987. Notes on the birth of a Sumatran rhinoceros at Malacca Zoo. J. Wildlife and Parks 6:39-42.
  • Flynn RW, Abdullah MT. 1983. Distribution and number of Sumatran rhinoceros in the Endau-Rompin region of Peninsular Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal 36: 219-247.
  • Zainal-Zahari Z, Abdullah MT, and Mohd Samsuddin MS. 1990. Precopulatory behaviour in Sumatran rhinoceros at Zoo Melaka. Proceeding of the Third Conference of Southeast Asia Zoos, Bogor.
  • Zainuddin ZZ, Abdullah MT, Suri MSM, and Marid-Hassan ARK. 1990. Milk composition of the Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis). Proceedings of the 2nd Congress of Veterinary Association of Malaysia. pp 121-122.
  • Richard XM, Zainuddin ZZ, Vidyadran MK, and Abdullah MT. 1990. Some aspects on the behaviour of the Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis). Proceedings of the 2nd Congress of Veterinary Association of Malaysia. pp 118-120
  • Zainuddin ZZ, Sheikh-Omar AR, and Abdullah MT. 1989. Severe necrotizing enteritis in a Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis). First Congress of the Veterinary Association of Malaysia.
  • Abdullah MT, Zainuddin ZZ, and Suri MSM. 1989. A review of the Sumatran rhinoceros conservation programme and assessment of management alternatives for the future. In Proceedings of the International Conference on National Parks and Protected areas. Kuala Lumpur, pp 191-205.
  • Abdullah MT and Abidin ZZ. 1986. Konservasi hidupan liar di Malaysia. Seminar Zoologi Kebangsaan, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur.
  • Abdullah MT. 1977. Hutan kita akan pupus menjelang 1990. Utusan Malaysia 25 Oktober 1997.
  • Abdullah MT. 1977. Maka runtuhlah satu lagi keagungan kita. Utusan Malaysia. 24 Oktober 1977.

The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ...

Video Clips

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The two African species are the white rhinoceros, a relatively placid animal that is the largest of all rhino species, reaching a weight of over 3 metric tons, and the fl rhinoceros, which is about half as heavy as the white rhinoceros but much more aggressive.
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