FACTOID # 23: Wisconsin has more metal fabricators per capita than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Sumatra" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Sumatra
Sumatra
Topography of Sumatra
Topography of Sumatra
Geography
Location South East Asia
Coordinates 0°00′N, 102°00′E
Archipelago Greater Sunda Islands
Area 470,000 km²
Highest point Kerinci 3,805 m
Administration
Flag of Indonesia Indonesia
Provinces Aceh, Bengkulu, Jambi, Lampung, Riau, West Sumatra, South Sumatra, North Sumatra
Largest city Medan (2,392,922 (as of 2003))
Demographics
Population 45 million (as of 2005)
Density 96/km²/km²
Indigenous people Acehnese, Batak, Minangkabau, Malay

Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island in the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two larger islands, Borneo and New Guinea, are partially in Indonesia). Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Sumatra may refer to: Sumatra, an island in Indonesia Sumatra, Florida, a town in the United States Sumatra PDF, a Portable Document Format reader Category: ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 591 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,080 × 2,109 pixels, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... The Greater Sunda Islands are a group of islands in the west part of the Malay Archipelago. ... Mount Kerinci is the highest mountain of Sumatra, Indonesia, located in the Kerinci Seblat national park. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Indonesia. ... Aceh (pronounced , generally Anglicized as IPA: ) is a special territory (daerah istimewa) of Indonesia, located on the northern tip of the island of Sumatra. ... Bengkulu is a province of Indonesia. ... For other uses, see Jambi (disambiguation). ... Lampung is a province of Indonesia, located on the southern tip of the island of Sumatra. ... Map of Indonesia showing Riau province Riau is a province of Indonesia, located in the center of Sumatra island along the Strait of Malacca. ... Motto: Tuah Sakato. ... Map of South Sumatra province in Indonesia South Sumatra or Sumatera Selatan is one of the provinces of Indonesia. ... Map of North Sumatra province within Indonesia North Sumatra (Indonesian: Sumatera Utara) is one of the provinces of Indonesia. ... For other uses, see Medan (disambiguation). ... The Achinese (also Acehnese) a people in Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam in Indonesia. ... For other uses, see Batak (disambiguation). ... Languages Minangkabau, Indonesian and Malay. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This is a list of islands in the world ordered by area. ... Borneo is the third largest island in the world and is located at the centre of Maritime Southeast Asia. ...

Contents

Etymology

An ancient name for Sumatra was Swarna Dwipa, (Sanskrit for Isle of Gold), apparently based on the fact that mines in the Sumatran highlands were exporting gold from fairly early times.[citation needed] Arab geographers referred to the island as Lamri (Lamuri, Lambri or Ramni) in the 10-13th centuries, in reference to a kingdom near modern day Banda Aceh which was the first landfall for traders. Late in the 14th century the name Sumatra became popular, in reference to the kingdom of Samudra which was a rising power. European writers in the 19th century found that the indigenous inhabitants did not have a name for the island.[1] Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... Location of Banda Aceh Banda Aceh is the provincial capital and largest city of Aceh, Indonesia, located on the island of Sumatra at , with an elevation of 21 m. ... Map of Pasai. ...


History

With its location in the India-China sea trade route, several trading towns flourished, especially in the eastern coast, and were influenced by Indian religions. The most notable of these were the Srivijaya and the Samudra. Srivijaya was a Buddhist monarchy centered in what is now Palembang. Dominating the region through trade and conquest throughout the 7th–9th century, the kingdom helped spread the Malay culture throughout Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, and western Borneo. The empire was thalassocratic, a maritime power that extended its influence from island to island. Map of Southeast Asia at end of 12th century. ... Samudra is a Sanskrit term for ocean. ... Location of Palembang Palembang is a city in the south of the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The term thalassocracy (from the Greek Θαλασσο-κρατία) refers to a state with primarily maritime realms—an empire at sea, such as the Phoenician network of merchant cities. ...


Srivijaya influence waned in the 11th century. The island was then subject to conquests from Javanese kingdoms, first Singhasari and subsequently Majapahit. At the same time, Islam made its way to Sumatra, spreading through contacts with Arabs and Indian traders. Singhasari was a kingdom located in east Java between 1222 and 1292. ... The Majapahit Empire was based in eastern Java and ruled much of the southern Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, and Bali from about 1293 to around 1500. ...


By the late 13th century, the monarch of Samudra kingdom (now in Aceh) had converted to Islam. Ibn Battuta, who visited the kingdom during his journey, pronounced the kingdom's name as "Sumatra", hence the name of the island. Samudra was succeeded by the powerful Aceh Sultanate, which survived to the 20th century. With the coming of the Dutch, the many Sumatran princely states gradually fell under their control. Aceh, in the north, was the major obstacle, as the Dutch were involved in the long and costly Aceh War (1870-1905). Aceh (pronounced , generally Anglicized as IPA: ) is a special territory (daerah istimewa) of Indonesia, located on the northern tip of the island of Sumatra. ... It has been suggested that Travelling route of Ibn Batuta be merged into this article or section. ... Aceh was a sultanate in the region of what is today Aceh Province of Indonesia. ... The Aceh War (also Achinese War) took place from 1873-1904 between the Netherlands and the people of Aceh in Sumatra as the Dutch attempted to colonize this independent state on the northern-most tip of Sumatra. ...


On December 26, 2004, the western coast and islands of Sumatra, particularly Aceh province, were devastated by a nearly 15 meter high tsunami following the 9.2-magnitude Indian Ocean earthquake. The death toll surpassed 170,000 in Indonesia alone, primarily in Aceh. is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Aceh (pronounced , generally Anglicized as IPA: ) is a special territory (daerah istimewa) of Indonesia, located on the northern tip of the island of Sumatra. ... For other uses, see Tsunami (disambiguation). ... The moment magnitude scale was introduced in 1979 by Tom Hanks and Hiroo Kanamori as a successor to the Richter scale and is used by seismologists to compare the energy released by earthquakes. ... The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, known by the scientific community as the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake,[1] was a great undersea earthquake that occurred at 00:58:53 UTC (07:58:53 local time) December 26, 2004 with an epicentre off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. ...


In 2005 there was an 8.7 magnitude aftershock of the previous earthquake in December 2004. See 2005 Sumatran Earthquake. In addition to the subduction megathrust earthquake off the west coast, Sunda arc, the Great Sumatran Fault, a transform fault, runs the entire length of the island. The pressure on this fault increased dramatically after the December 2004 earthquake, and seismologists are afraid an earthquake is going to occur soon. The fault ends directly below the devastated city of Banda Aceh. Epicentre map from NOAA USGS image depicting earthquake zones for the Sunda Trench - Damage zones for 1833 and 1861, then 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, and 28 March 2005 Sumatran earthquake. ... Geometry of a subduction zone - insets to show accretionary prism and partial melting of hydrated asthenosphere. ... A megathrust earthquake is an interplate earthquake where one tectonic plate slips beneath (subducts) another. ... A transform fault is a geological fault that is a special case of strike-slip faulting which terminates abruptly, at both ends, at a major transverse geological feature. ... This article is about the natural seismic phenomenon. ... Geologic faults, fault lines or simply faults are planar rock fractures, which show evidence of relative movement. ... Location of Banda Aceh Banda Aceh is the provincial capital and largest city of Aceh, Indonesia, located on the island of Sumatra at , with an elevation of 21 m. ...


Administration

The administrative regions of Sumatra (or the smaller islands nearby) are: The province (Indonesian: provinsi) is the highest tier of local government subnational entity in Indonesia. ...

Aceh (pronounced , generally Anglicized as IPA: ) is a special territory (daerah istimewa) of Indonesia, located on the northern tip of the island of Sumatra. ... Location of Banda Aceh Banda Aceh is the provincial capital and largest city of Aceh, Indonesia, located on the island of Sumatra at , with an elevation of 21 m. ... | This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Pangkal Pinang is the largest town on the Indonesian island of Bangka and the capital of the province of Bangka-Belitung. ... Bengkulu is a province of Indonesia. ... Bengkulu is a city on the west coast of Sumatra island. ... For other uses, see Jambi (disambiguation). ... Jambi is a city in Indonesia, capital of Jambi province, on the island of Sumatra. ... Lampung is a province of Indonesia, located on the southern tip of the island of Sumatra. ... Bandar Lampung (also Tanjungkarang-Telukbetung) is the capital province of Lampung, Indonesia. ... Map of Indonesia showing Riau province Riau is a province of Indonesia, located in the center of Sumatra island along the Strait of Malacca. ... Pekanbaru is the capital of Riau, a province in Indonesia on the island of Sumatra. ... The Riau Islands (Kepulauan Riau (Kepri for short) or sometimes Riau Kepulauan in Bahasa Indonesia) are a province and a group of islands in Indonesia, located south of Singapore, off the eastern coast of Riau province on Sumatra island. ... Tanjung Pinang is the capital of the Indonesian province of Riau Islands. ... Motto: Tuah Sakato. ... Padang is the capital and largest city of West Sumatra, Indonesia. ... Map of South Sumatra province in Indonesia South Sumatra or Sumatera Selatan is one of the provinces of Indonesia. ... Location of Palembang Palembang is a city in the south of the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ... Map of North Sumatra province within Indonesia North Sumatra (Indonesian: Sumatera Utara) is one of the provinces of Indonesia. ... Location of Medan in Indonesia. ...

Geography

Map of geological formation of Sumatra island.
Map of geological formation of Sumatra island.

The longest axis of the island runs approximately 1,790 km (1,100 miles) northwest - southeast, crossing the equator near the center. At its widest point the island spans 435 km (270 miles). The interior of the island is dominated by two geographical regions: the Barisan Mountains in the west and swampy plains in the east. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... World map showing the equator in red In tourist areas, the equator is often marked on the sides of roads The equator marked as it crosses Ilhéu das Rolas, in São Tomé and Príncipe. ... The Barisan Mountains are a mountain range on the western side of Sumatra, Indonesia, covering nearly 1,700 km (1,050 mi) of the island. ...


To the southeast is Java, separated by the Sunda Strait. To the north is the Malay Peninsula, separated by the Straits of Malacca. To the east is Borneo, across the Karimata Strait. West of the island is the Indian Ocean. Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... The Sunda Strait The Sunda Strait is the strait between the Indonesian islands of Java and Sumatra. ... The Malay Peninsula (Malay: Semenanjung Tanah Melayu) is a major peninsula located in Southeast Asia. ... The Straits of Malacca is a narrow stretch of water between Peninsular Malaysia (West Malaysia) and the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ... Borneo is the third largest island in the world and is located at the centre of Maritime Southeast Asia. ... The Karimata Strait is the wide strait that connects the South China Sea to the Java Sea, between the islands of Sumatra and Borneo in Indonesia. ...


The backbone of the island is the Barisan mountains chain, with the active volcano Mount Kerinci's 3,805 m (12,467 feet) the highest point, located at about the midpoint of the range. The volcanic activity of this region endowed the region with fertile land and beautiful sceneries, for instance around the Lake Toba. It also contains deposits of coal and gold. Mount Kerinci is the highest mountain of Sumatra, Indonesia, located in the Kerinci Seblat national park. ... Lake Toba (Indonesian: Danau Toba) is a lake, 100 km long and 30 km wide, and 505 m. ...


To the east, big rivers carry silt from the mountain, forming the vast lowland interspersed by swamps. Even if mostly unsuitable for farming, the area is currently of great economic importance for Indonesia. It produces oil from both above and below the soil—palm oil and petroleum. Synthetic motor oil For other uses, see Oil (disambiguation). ... Species Elaeis guineensis Elaeis oleifera The oil palms (Elaeis) coomprise two species of the Arecaceae, or palm family. ... Petro redirects here. ...


Most of Sumatra used to be covered by tropical rainforest, but economic development coupled with corruption and illegal logging has severely threatened its existence. Conservation areas have not been spared from destruction, either. Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests of the world Amazon river rain forest in Peru Amazon river rain forest in Brazil Tropical rainforests are rainforests generally found near the equator. ...


The island is the world's 5th highest island, although only the third highest in the Indonesian archipelago. This is a list of islands in the world ordered by their highest point. ...

See also: Islands of Indonesia and Riau islands

Indonesia is an archipelago made of 18,108 islands, according to satellite images. ... The Riau Islands (Kepulauan Riau (Kepri for short) or sometimes Riau Kepulauan in Bahasa Indonesia) are a province and a group of islands in Indonesia, located south of Singapore, off the eastern coast of Riau province on Sumatra island. ...

Flora and fauna

The island is home to a host of species including: Sumatran Pine, Rafflesia arnoldii (world's largest individual flower), Titan arum (world's tallest and largest inflorescence flower), Sumatran Tiger, Sumatran Orangutan, Sumatran Rhinoceros, Sumatran Elephant, Sumatran Striped Rabbit, Malayan Tapir, Malayan Sun Bear, Bornean Clouded Leopard, and many birds and butterflies. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x681, 630 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sumatra Rafflesia Rafflesia arnoldii Flora of Indonesia ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x681, 630 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sumatra Rafflesia Rafflesia arnoldii Flora of Indonesia ... Binomial name R.Br. ... Binomial name Pinus merkusii The Sumatran Pine (Pinus merkusii) is a pine native to southeast Asia, mainly in the mountains of northern Sumatra, and with two outlying populations, on Gunung (Mt. ... Binomial name R.Br. ... Binomial name Amorphophallus titanum (Becc. ... Red clover inflorescence (spike) An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers on a branch of a plant. ... Trinomial name Panthera tigris sumatrae Pocock, 1929 Distribution map The Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) is found only on the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ... Binomial name Lesson, 1827 The Sumatran Orangutan (Pongo abelii) is the rarer of the two species of orangutans. ... Binomial name Fischer, 1814 Sumatran Rhinoceros range Subspecies Dicerorhinus sumatrensis harrissoni Dicerorhinus sumatrensis sumatrensis †Dicerorhinus sumatrensis lasiotis The Sumatran Rhinoceros, Dicerorhinus sumatrensis is the smallest extant rhinoceros species, as well as the one with the most fur, which allows it to survive at very high altitudes in Borneo and Sumatra. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Binomial name (Schlegel, 1880) The Sumatran Striped Rabbit (Nesolagus netscheri), also known as the Sumatra Short-eared Rabbit or Sumatran Rabbit, is a rabbit found only in forest in the Barisan Mountains in western Sumatra, Indonesia. ... Binomial name (Desmarest, 1819) The Malayan Tapir (Tapirus indicus), also called the Asian Tapir, is the largest of the four species of tapir and the only one native to Asia. ... Binomial name (Raffles, 1821) Synonyms Ursus malayanus Raffles, 1821 Helarctos euryspilus Horsfield, 1825 Helarctos malayanus Horsfield, 1825 Helarctos anmamiticus Heude, 1901 The Sun Bear (Helarctos malayanus) is a bear found primarily in the tropical rainforests of Southeast Asia. ... Binomial name Neofelis diardi (G. Cuvier, 1823) Range Synonyms Felis diardii Felis macrocelis Felis marmota Neofelis nebulosa diardi Neofelis diardi is a medium-sized wild cat found on Borneo, Sumatra and the Batu Islands in the Malay Archipelago and publicised under the name Bornean Clouded Leopard by the World Wide...


The major threats to Sumatran forest are the pulp and paper industry and expansion of palm oil plantations. An International Paper mill in South Carolina The global pulp and paper industry is dominated by North American (United States, Canada), northern European (Finland, Sweden) and East Asian countries (such as Japan). ... Palm oil from Ghana with its natural dark color visible, 2 litres Palm oil block showing the lighter color that results from boiling. ...


The island includes more than 10 National Parks, including 3 which are listed as the Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra World Heritage SiteGunung Leuser National Park, Kerinci Seblat National Park and Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park. The UNESCO Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra World Heritage site was listed in 2004 and comprises the three Indonesian National Parks on the island of Sumatra - Gunung Leuser National Park, Kerinci Seblat National Park and the Southern Hills National Park. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Gunung Leuser National Park is a large national park covered 950,000 hectares in northern Sumatra, Indonesia, straddling the border of the provinces of North Sumatra and Aceh. ... Kerinci Seblat National Park is the largest national park in Sumatra. ... Kerinci Seblat National Park is the largest national park in Sumatra; it park has a total area of 13,750 km², and spans four provinces: West Sumatra, Jambi, Bengkulu and South Sumatra. ...

See also: List of national parks of Indonesia

// Bali Barat National Park Gunung Rinjani National Park Kelimutu National Park Komodo National Park Manupeu Tanah Daru National Park Laiwangi Wanggameti National Park Alas Purwo National Park Baluran National Park Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park Gunung Ciremai National Park Gunung Gede Pangrango National Park Gunung Halimun National Park Gunung Merapi...

Demographics

Minangkabau women carrying platters of food to a ceremony
Minangkabau women carrying platters of food to a ceremony

Sumatra is not very densely populated, about 96 people per km²—more than 45 million people in total. It is nonetheless the fourth most populous island in the world. The most populous regions include most of North Sumatra and central highlands in West Sumatra, while the major urban centers are Medan and Palembang. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 398 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (700 × 1054 pixel, file size: 243 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sumatra Minangkabau ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 398 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (700 × 1054 pixel, file size: 243 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sumatra Minangkabau ... Languages Minangkabau, Indonesian and Malay. ... This is a list of islands in the world ordered by population. ...


The people composed of many different ethnic groups, speaking 52 different languages. Most of these groups, however, share many similar traditions and the different tongues are closely related. Malay-speaking people dominate the eastern coast, while people in the southern and central interior speak languages related to Malay, such as the Lampung and Minangkabau people. The highland of northern Sumatra is inhabited by the Bataks, while the northernmost coast is dominated by Acehs. Ethnic Chinese minorities are also present in urban centers. Not to be confused with the Malayalam language, spoken in India. ... Languages Minangkabau, Indonesian and Malay. ... For other uses, see Batak (disambiguation). ... ...


A majority of people in Sumatra are Muslims (90%). Most central Bataks, meanwhile, are Protestant Christians—a religion introduced by the Dutch. The rest follow Hinduism, Buddhism, Catholicism, and Chinese traditional beliefs. There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages)[1] is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ...


See also

Sumatra is a part of Indonesia; its best-known musical output is probably dangdut, a rabab/saluang instrumental style. ...

References

  1. ^ Reid, Anthony (2005). An Indonesian Frontier: Acehnese and Other Histories of Sumatra. National University of Singapore Press. ISBN 9971692988. 

External links

  • Sumatra travel guide from Wikitravel
  • William Marsden, The History of Sumatra, (1783); 3rd ed. (1811) on line.
Indonesia Portal

  Results from FactBites:
 
Sumatra PDF Portable | PortableApps.com - Portable software for USB drives (163 words)
Sumatra PDF Portable is the lightweight Sumatra PDF packaged as a portable app, so you can view PDF files on the go.
Sumatra PDF Portable easily integrates with the PortableApps.com Suite™.
Sumatra PDF is a slim, free, open-source PDF viewer for Windows.
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Prefecture Apostolic of Sumatra (229 words)
Sumatra, erected by a Decree of 30 June, 1911, and entrusted to the Dutch Capuchins.
Sumatra and the surrounding islands, including Bangka (area, 4888 sq.
Sumatra, — at Medan, Padang, Koata Radja, and Tandjeong-Sakti, — and sixteen
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m