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Encyclopedia > Sumac
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Sumac
Winged Sumac leaves and flowers
Winged Sumac leaves and flowers
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Sapindales
Family: Anacardiaceae
Genus: Rhus
L.
Species
About 250 species; see text

Rhus is a genus approximately 250 species of woody shrubs and small trees in the family Anacardiaceae. They are commonly called sumac or sumach. Some species (including poison-ivy, poison-oak, and poison sumac), often placed in this genus, are here treated in the genus Toxicodendron, which differs in highly allergenic foliage and grayish-white fruit but is not genetically distinct. The name derives from the Greek name for sumac, rhous. Sumac - USGS photo [1] File links The following pages link to this file: Sumac Categories: USGS images ... Scientific classification or biological classification is how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms (as opposed to folk taxonomy). ... Divisions Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongues Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering plants Adiantum pedatum (a fern... Classes Magnoliopsida- Dicots Liliopsida- Monocots The flowering plants (also called angiosperms) are a major group of land plants. ... Young castor oil plant showing its prominent two embryonic leaves (cotyledons), that differ from the adult leaves Dicotyledons or dicots is a name for a group of flowering plants whose seed typically contains two embryonic leaves or cotyledons. ... Families See text The Sapindales is an order of flowering plants included among the rosid subgroup of dicotyledons. ... Genera See text Anacardiaceae is a family of flowering plants bearing fruits that are drupes. ... Carolus Linnaeus Carl Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as , (May 23, 1707 – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[1] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... A broom shrub in flower A shrub or bush is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of woody plant, distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and lower height, usually less than 6 m tall. ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... Genera See text Anacardiaceae is a family of flowering plants bearing fruits that are drupes. ... Binomial name Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntze Poisonivy (Toxicodendron radicans or Rhus toxicodendron), in the family Anacardiaceae, is a woody vine that is well-known for its ability to produce urushiol, a skin irritant which for most people will cause an agonizing, itching rash. ... Binomial name Toxicodendron diversilobum (Torr. ... Binomial name Toxicodendron vernix Poison Sumac (Toxicodendron vernix or Rhus vernix) is a woody shrub growing to 3 m tall. ... Species See text. ... An allergen is any substance (antigen), most often eaten or inhaled, that is recognized by the immune system and causes an allergic reaction. ... Genetics (from the Greek genno γεννώ= give birth) is the science of genes, heredity, and the variation of organisms. ...

A young branch of Staghorn Sumac.
A young branch of Staghorn Sumac.

The leaves are spirally arranged; they are usually pinnately compound, though some species have trifoliate or simple leaves. The flowers are in dense panicles or spikes 5-30 cm long, each flower very small, creamy white, greenish or red, with five petals. The fruit form dense clusters of reddish drupes. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1521x1140, 299 KB) Rhus typhina (Staghorn sumac), young branch showing dense purple hair. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1521x1140, 299 KB) Rhus typhina (Staghorn sumac), young branch showing dense purple hair. ... In botany, a leaf is an above-ground plant organ specialized for photosynthesis. ... Clivia miniata bears bright orange flowers. ... Fruit stall in Barcelona, Catalonia. ... The peach is a typical drupe (stone fruit) In botany, a drupe is a type of fruit in which an outer fleshy part (exocarp or skin and mesocarp or flesh) surrounds a shell (the pit or stone) of hardened endocarp with a seed inside. ...


The genus is found in subtropical and warm temperate regions throughout the world, with the highest diversity in southern Africa. A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second-most populous continent, after Asia. ...

Contents


Cultivation and uses

The hairy covering of the drupes is harvested and used as a spice (a deep red powder with a sour taste) in some Middle Eastern countries. In North America, the smooth sumac, Rhus glabra, and the staghorn sumac, Rhus typhina, are sometimes used to make a beverage, termed "sumac-ade" or "Indian lemonade" or "rhus juice". This drink is made by soaking the drupes in cool water, rubbing the active principle off the drupes, then straining the liquid through a cotton cloth and sweetening it. Native Americans also used the leaves and berries of the smooth and staghorn sumacs combined with tobacco in traditional smoking mixtures. Screen shot of Spice OPUS, a fork of Berkeley SPICE SPICE (Simulation Program with Integrated Circuits Emphasis) is a general purpose analog circuit simulator. ... Species N. glauca N. longiflora N. rustica N. sylvestris N. tabacum Ref: ITIS 30562 as of August 26, 2005 Tobacco (, L.) refers to a genus of broad-leafed plants of the nightshade family indigenous to North and South America, or to the dried and cured leaves of such plants. ...


Species including the fragrant sumac Rhus aromatica, the littleleaf sumac, R. microphylla, the skunkbush sumac, R. trilobata, the smooth sumac, and the staghorn sumac are grown for ornament, either as the wild type or as cultivars. This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ...


The berries of certain sumacs native to Japan and China, such as Rhus verniciflua (Japanese sumac tree) and Rhus succedanea (Japanese wax tree), are used to make japan wax. This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ...


Propagation

Sumac propagates both by seeds, which are spread by birds and other animals through feces, and new sprouts from rhizomes, forming large clonal colonies. Mowing of sumac is not a good control measure as the wood is springy resulting in jagged, sharp pointed stumps when mowed. The plant will quickly recover with new growth after mowing. See Nebraska Extension Service publication G97-1319 for suggestions as to control. Rabbit feces are usually 8-10 mm in diameter and dry to the touch. ... A clonal colony is a group of plants (or fungi) that have grown in a given location, all originating vegetatively, not sexually, from a given single ancestor. ...


Species

Species in Africa:

Species in Asia: Binomial name Rhus dentata Thunb. ... Binomial name Rhus lancea L. Rhus lancea Karee (English and Afrikaans) inHlokoshiyne (isiZulu) Umhlakotshane (amaXhosa) Mokalaabata (North Sotho). ... Binomial name Rhus leptodictya Diels Rhus leptodictya Mountain Karee (English) Bergkaree (Afrikaans) Mohlwehlwe (Sotho. ... Binomial name Rhus lucida L. Rhus lucida, Varnished Kuni-Rhus (English) Blinktaaibos (Afrikaans). ... Binomial name Rhus pendulina Jacq. ... Binomial name Rhus pyroides Burch. ... Binomial name Rhus pendulina Jacq. ...

  • Rhus chinensis (Chinese Sumac)
  • Rhus hypoleuca
  • Rhus javanica
  • Rhus punjabensis (Punjab Sumac)

Species in Australia:

  • Rhus taitensis

Species in the Mediterranean region:

  • Rhus coriaria (Tanner's Sumac)
  • Rhus pentaphylla
  • Rhus tripartita

Species in eastern North America:

  • Rhus aromatica (Fragrant Sumac)
  • Rhus copallina (Winged Sumac or Shining Sumac)
  • Rhus glabra (Smooth Sumac)
  • Rhus lanceolata (Prairie Sumac)
  • Rhus michauxii (Michaux's Sumac) Conservation status: Endangered
  • Rhus typhina (Staghorn Sumac)
  • (Rhus toxicodendron = Toxicodendron radicans)

Species in western North America include: Binomial name Rhus glabra L. Rhus glabra (Smooth Sumac) is a species of sumac in the family Anacardiaceae, native to North America, from southern Quebec west to southern British Columbia in Canada, and south to northern Florida and Arizona in the United States and Tamaulipas in northeastern Mexico. ... Binomial name Rhus typhina (L.) Staghorn Sumac (Rhus typhina), is a deciduous shrub to small tree in the Anacardiaceae or Cashew family, native to eastern North America, from Ontario and Quebec south to northern Georgia and Mississippi [1]. It grows to 3-10 m tall, and has alternate, pinnately compound... Binomial name Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntze Poisonivy (Toxicodendron radicans or Rhus toxicodendron), in the family Anacardiaceae, is a woody vine that is well-known for its ability to produce urushiol, a skin irritant which for most people will cause an agonizing, itching rash. ...

  • Rhus choriophylla
  • Rhus laurina (Laurel Sumac)
  • Rhus integrifolia (Lemonade Sumac)
  • Rhus microphylla (Desert Sumac), Littleleaf sumac
  • Rhus ovata (Sugar Sumac)
  • Rhus trilobata (Skunkbush Sumac)
  • Rhus virens (Evergreen Sumac)

Species in Mexico and Central America include:

  • Rhus muelleri (Müller's Sumac; northeast Mexico) Conservation status: Endangered

Species in the Pacific (Oceania):

  • Rhus sandwicensis A. Gray is an endemic species from the Hawaiian Islands called Neleau.

In biology and ecology endemic means exclusively native to a place or biota, in contrast to cosmopolitan or introduced. ... Map of the Hawaiian Islands, a chain of islands that stretches 2,400 km in a northwesterly direction from the southern tip of the Island of Hawai‘i. ...

External links

  • UVSC Herbarium - Rhus

  Results from FactBites:
 
Sumac - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (364 words)
trilobata, the smooth sumac, and the staghorn sumac are grown for ornament, either as the wild type or as cultivars.
Sumac propagates both by seeds, which are spread by birds and other animals through feces, and new sprouts from roots, forming large clonal colonies.
Mowing of sumac is not a good control measure as the wood is springy resulting in jagged, sharp pointed stumps when mowed.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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