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Encyclopedia > Sultanate of Malacca
This article is part of
the History of Malaysia series

Gangga Negara (2nd-11th century CE)
Langkasuka (2nd-14th century)
Pan Pan (3rd-5th century)
Srivijaya (3rd century -1400)
Majapahit (1293-1500)
Sultanate of Malacca (1402 - 1511)
Sultanate of Johor (1528-current)
Jementah Civil War (1879)
White Rajahs (1841-1946)
British Malaya (1874-1946)
Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824
Burney Treaty (1826)
Straits Settlements (1826-1946)
Klang War (1867-1874)
Pangkor Treaty of 1874
Federated Malay States (1895-1946)
Unfederated Malay States (19th century-1946)
Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909
Battle of Penang (1914)
North Borneo (1882-1963)
Mat Salleh Rebellion (1896-1900)
World War II (1941-1945)
Battle of Malaya (1941-42)
Parit Sulong Massacre (1942)
Battle of Singapore (1942)
Syburi (1942-1945)
Sandakan Death Marches (1945)
Malayan Union (1946-1948)
Federation of Malaya (1948-1963)
Malayan Emergency (1948-1960)
Independence Day (1957)
Federation of Malaysia (1963-present)
Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation (1962-1966)
Brunei Revolt (1962-1966)
Expulsion of Singapore (1965)
May 13 Incident (1969)
New Economic Policy (1971-1990)
Operation Lalang (1987)
1988 Malaysian constitutional crisis (1987-88)
Asian financial crisis (1997-98)
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The Sultanate of Malacca was a Malay sultanate founded by Parameswara in 1400. Centered in the town of Malacca, the sultanate stretched from southern Thailand in the north to Sumatra in the southwest. The Portuguese invaded its capital in 1511 and in 1528, the Sultanate of Johor was established to succeed Malacca. The history of Malaysia is a relatively recent offshoot of the history of the wider Malay-Indonesian world. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malaysia. ... Gangga Negara was believed to be a lost Hindu kingdom somewhere in the state of Perak, Malaysia. ... The Common Era (CE), sometimes known as the Christian Era or Current Era, is the period of measured time beginning with the year 1 (the traditional but probably erroneous birthdate of Jesus) to the present. ... Langkasuka (-langkha Sanskrit for resplendent land -sukkha of bliss) was apparently the oldest kingdom on the Malay peninsula. ... A call of pan-pan is a very urgent message concerning the safety of a ship, aircraft or other vehicle, or persons on board who require immediate assistance. ... Srivijaya (200s-1400) was an ancient Malay kingdom on the island of Sumatra which influenced much of the Malay Archipelago. ... The Majapahit Empire was based in eastern Java and ruled much of the southern Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, and Bali from about 1293 to around 1500. ... The Sultanate of Johor (or sometimes Johor-Riau) was founded by Malaccan Sultan Mahmud Shahs son, Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah in 1528. ... Jementah Civil War happened in 1879 in Jementah, Sultanate of Johor when Tengku Alam, the heir of Sultan Ali of Muar refused to give the district of Muar under temporary administration of Sultan Abu Bakar of Johor. ... The White Rajahs refers to a dynasty that ruled Sarawak from 1841 to 1946. ... British Malaya was a set of states that were colonized by the British from the 18th and the 19th until the 20th century. ... The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824, also known as the Treaty of London (one of several), was a treaty signed between the United Kingdom and the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in London on March 17, 1824. ... The Burney Treaty was a treaty signed between Siam and the British in 1826. ... The Straits Settlements were a collection of territories of the British East India Company in Southeast Asia, which were given collective administration in 1826. ... The Klang War or Selangor Civil War took placed in the Malay state of Selangor and was fought between Raja Abdullah bin Raja Jaafar, the administrator of Klang and Raja Mahdi bin Raja Sulaiman from 1867 to 1874. ... The Pangkor Treaty of 1874 was a treaty signed between the Sir Andrew Clarke on behalf of the British and Raja Abdullah of Perak. ... The Federated Malay States (FMS) was a federation of four states on the Malay Peninsula - Pahang, Perak, Selangor, and Negeri Sembilan - established by the British government in 1895, and lasted until 1946, when they together with the Straits Settlements and the Unfederated Malay States formed the Malayan Union. ... The Unfederated Malay States was a group of five Malay states, namely Johore, Terengganu, Kelantan, Kedah and Perlis. ... The Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1906 (in which the Malays were not represented) effectively dissected the northern Malay states into two parts: Pattani, Narathiwat, Songkhla, Satun and Yala remained under Siam, but Siam relinquished its claims to sovereignty over Kedah, Kelantan, Perlis, and Terengganu to Great Britain. ... The Battle of Penang occured in 1914, during World War I. It was a naval action. ... North Borneo was a British Protectorate and later Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom, situated in what is now the province of Sabah Malaysia. ... The Matt Salleh Rebellion happened in Sabah. ... On 1st January 1942, the Japanese army landed on Labuan Island. ... During the early morning hours of December 7th/8th, 1941, before the first bombs started falling on the United States Pacific base at Pearl Harbor (time zone differences), World War Two widened in the Pacific with the Battle for Malaya - the Japanase invasion of the British Malaya. ... Parit Sulong is a small village in Johor, Malaysia on the Simpang Kiri River, 30 km east of Muar. ... Combatants Allied forces: Indian Army; British Army; Australian Army; Malayan forces; Straits Settlements forces Imperial Japanese Army Commanders Arthur Percival Tomoyuki Yamashita Strength 85,000 36,000 Casualties about 5,000 killed; about 80,000 POWs 1,715 dead, 3,500 wounded The Battle of Singapore was a battle fought... During the Japanese Occupation of Malaya, control of the State of Kedah was given to Thailand by the Japanese. ... The Sandakan Death Marches are the most infamous incident in series of events which resulted in the deaths of more than 6,000 Javanese civilian slave labourers and Allied prisoners of war, held by the Empire of Japan during the Pacific campaign of World War II, at prison camps in... The Malayan Union was formed on April 1, 1946 by the British. ... The Federation of Malaya, or in Malay Persekutuan Tanah Melayu, was formed in 1948 from the British settlements of Penang and Malacca and the nine Malay states and replaced the Malayan Union. ... The Malayan Emergency was an insurrection and guerrilla war of the Malay Races Liberation Army against the British and Malayan administration from 1948-1960 in what is now Malaysia. ... Hari Merdeka (Independence Day) is a national day of Malaysia commemorating the independence of the Federation of Malaya from British colonial rule. ... The Federation of Malaysia is a country in Southeast Asia. ... The Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation was an intermittent war over the future of the island of Borneo, between British-backed Malaysia and Indonesia in 1962-1966. ... The Brunei Revolt broke out on the December 8, 1962 and was led by Yassin Affandi and his armed rebels. ... The history of Singapore had a relatively minor role in the greater history of Southeast Asia until 1819, when the Englishman Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles founded a British port on the island. ... The May 13 Incident is a term for the Chinese-Malay race riots in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia on May 13, 1969 which left at least 184 people dead. ... For the Soviet New Economic Policy, see New Economic Policy. ... Operation Lalang (or in English, Weeding Operation; also referred to as Ops Lallang) was carried out on 27 October 1987 by the Malaysian police to crackdown on opposition leaders and social activists. ... The Sultan Abdul Samad Building housed the Supreme Court at the time of the 1988 Malaysian constitutional crisis. ... The Asian financial crisis was a financial crisis that started in July 1997 in Thailand and affected currencies, stock markets, and other asset prices in several Asian countries, many considered East Asian Tigers. ... It has been suggested that Malayan race be merged into this article or section. ... A sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic monarch ruling under the terms of shariah. ... Parameswara (1344-1424) was a Malay Srivijayan prince who escaped the Majapahit capture of Palembang, on Sumatra in the 1390s. ... Events Henry IV quells baron rebellion and executes The Earls of Kent, Huntingdon and Salisbury for their attempt to have Richard II of England restored as King Jean Froissart writes the Chronicles Medici family becomes powerful in Florence, Italy Births December 25 - John Sutton, 1st Baron Dudley, Lord Lieutenant of... Malacca Town (Malay: Bandar Melaka) is the capital of the Malaysian state of Malacca. ... 1511 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Events June 19 - Battle of Landriano - A French army in Italy under Marshal St. ... The Sultanate of Johor (or sometimes Johor-Riau) was founded by Malaccan Sultan Mahmud Shahs son, Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah in 1528. ...

Contents


Establishment of Malacca

Modern Malacca's coat of arms features two mouse-deers supporting a crest.
Modern Malacca's coat of arms features two mouse-deers supporting a crest.

Parameswara was a Hindu Srivijayan prince allegedly descendant of Macedonian King Alexander the Great. He escaped the Majapahit capture of Palembang, then settled on Temasek island - now Singapore - where he briefly instituted himself as the regent there after killing a Siam representative, Temagi. However, his rule in Temasek didn't last long as native Malays later chased him out. From the island, he fled to Muar before deciding to make Malacca his new capital in 1402. File links The following pages link to this file: Malacca ... File links The following pages link to this file: Malacca ... People by name Parameshwara: The fourteenth century Indian mathematician. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Srivijaya (200s-1400) was an ancient Malay kingdom on the island of Sumatra which influenced much of the Malay Archipelago. ... The Majapahit Empire was based in eastern Java and ruled much of the southern Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, and Bali from about 1293 to around 1500. ... Location of Palembang Palembang is a city in the south of the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ... Temasek (淡马锡), or Sea Town in Javanese, was probably the name of an early city on the site of modern Singapore. ... For the country formerly called Siam see Thailand SIAM is an acronym for Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. ... It has been suggested that Malayan race be merged into this article or section. ... District Muar District Area  - Total (District) 2346. ...


In 1414, Parameswara converted to Islam after marrying a princess from Pasai. After his conversion, he assumed the title Sultan Megat Iskandar Shah. His conversion also encouraged his subjects to embrace Islam and this is how Malacca became a sultanate. // Events Council of Constance begins. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ) is a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the Quran. ... Pasai, also known as Samudera and Samudera-Pasai sometimes called Samudera Darussalam was a Muslim harbour kingdom on the north coast of Sumatra from the 13th to the 15th centuries BCE. Pasai exported its culture, and most importantly its language — an early form of Bahasa written in the Jawi alphabet...


According to the Malay Annals, legend has it the king saw a mouse deer outwit a fox in Malacca. He took what he saw as a good omen and decided to establish a capital for his kingdom there. Today, the mouse deer is part of modern Malacca's coat of arms. Sejarah Melayu or The Malay Annals is a historical literary Malay work that chronicles the establishment of the Malacca Sultanate and spans over 600 years of the history of the Malay Peninsula. ... The four species of chevrotain, also known as mouse deer, make up the family Tragulidae. ... // A Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes) A fox is a member of any of 27 species of small omnivorous canids. ... State motto: Bersatu Teguh Capital Malacca Town Governor Tun Datuk Seri Utama Mohd. ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ...


Administration

Further information: Malaysian legal history

Malacca had a well-defined government with a set of laws. On top of the sultanate's hierarchy sat the sultan and he was an absolute monarch. Below him was a bendahara, a position similar to that of a prime minister. Most of all, a bendahara was an adviser to the sultan. A bendahara is a common person appointed by the sultan and it was the highest ranking officer that could be held by any common people. After bendahara, a laksamana's authority is paramount. A laksamana is an admiral and was resposible for the state and the sultan's security. He commanded the army. Later comes the temenggung which more or less a chief of public police. At the bottom of this nobility structure are penghulu bendahari, which was the treasurer of the state and the shahbandars of whom were responsible to matters of trade and ports. Malaysia’s legal history has been determined by events spanning a period of some six hundred years. ... A sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... Officials in the Malaccas Sultanate (1402 - 1511) Bendahara is an ancient senior position in Malay community. ... Sir Robert Walpole, the first Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Shahbandar (Shahbunder, Shahbundar, Shāhbandar) (Urdu: شاہ بندر ) is located in Thatta District, Sindh, Pakistan. ...


The most famous Malaccan bendahara is Tun Perak. Under his advise, he managed to expand Malacca to its greatest extent. Hang Tuah is an example of Malaccan laksamana. Tun Perak was the most famous prime minister of the Sultanate of Malacca, having served under 4 Sultans from 1456 to 1498. ... Hang Tuah was a legendary Malay hero during the Sultanate of Malacca in the 14th century. ...


The sultanate was governed with several set of laws. The formal legal text of traditional Melaka consisted of the Undang-Undang Melaka (Laws of Melaka), variously called the Hukum Kanun Melaka and Risalat Hukum Kanun, and the Undang-Undang Laut Melaka (the Maritime Laws of Melaka). The laws as written in the legal digests went through an evolutionary process. The legal rules that eventually evolved were shaped by three main influences, namely the early non-indigenous Hindu/Buddhist tradition, Islam and the indigenous "adat".


Factors for growth

The Sultanate thrived on entrepĂ´t trade and became the most important port in Southeast Asia during the 15th and the early 16th century. Furthermore, Malacca was as a major player in the spice trade, serving as a gateway between the Spice Islands and high-paying Eurasian markets. This is reflected by the Portuguese writer Duarte Barbosa who wrote "He who is lord of Malacca has his hand on the throat of Venice". Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Spice Islands most commonly refers to the Maluku Islands (formerly the Moluccas), which lie on the equator, between the Celebes and the New Guinea islands in what is now Indonesia. ... Duarte Barbosa was a Portuguese writer and trader. ...


One of the factors that contributed to the rise of Malacca was the monsoon winds that enabled Arab and Indian traders from the west to travel to China in the east and vice versa. At the height of its power, the Sultanate encompassed most of modern day Peninsula Malaysia, the site of modern day Singapore and a great portion of eastern Sumatra. It was also the center of Islam in the eastern sphere, where imams and ustazes came to discuss religion and the like. Muslim missionaries were also sent by the Sultan to spread Islam to other communities in the Malay Archipelago, such as in Java, Borneo, and the Philippines. Most of South East Asia at that time was Hindu. Monsoon in the Vindhya, a mountain chain in central India A monsoon is a (wind) pattern that reverses direction on a seasonal basis. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ) are a large and heterogeneous ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatara and Sumatera) is the sixth largest island of the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the 3rd largest island of Indonesia after Kalimantan and New Guinea. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ) is a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the Quran. ... Imam (Arabic: إمام , Persian: امام ) is an Arabic word meaning Leader. The ruler of a country might be called the Imam, for example. ... Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... Borneo and Sulawesi. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The Sultanate's most important regional rivals were Siam in the north and the declining Majapahit Empire in the south. Majapahit was not able to control or effectively compete with Malacca within the archipelago, and came to an end during the later 15th century. Siam on the other hand attacked Malacca three times, but all attacks were repelled. For the country formerly called Siam see Thailand SIAM is an acronym for Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. ... The Majapahit Empire was based in eastern Java and ruled much of the southern Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, and Bali from about 1293 to around 1500. ...


At the same time, Malacca had a good relationship with the Ming government of China, resulting in Zheng He's visits. Parameswara had met the Chinese emperor in China to receive a Letter of Friendship, hence making Malacca the first foreign kingdom to attain such treatment. In 1409, the sultan paid tribute to the Chinese emperor to ask for protection against Siam. Moreover, one of the sultans, Mansur Shah even married a Chinese princess named Hang Li Po. This Sino-Malacca relationship helped deter Siam from further threatening Malacca. The Ming Dynasty (Chinese: 明朝; Pinyin: míng cháo) was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644, though claims to the Ming throne (now collectively called the Southern Ming) survived until 1662. ... Zheng He wearing formal official dress Zheng He (Traditional Chinese: é„­å’Œ; Simplified Chinese: 郑和; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Cheng Ho; Birth name: 馬三寶 / 马三宝; pinyin: MÇŽ SānbÇŽo; Arabic name: Hajji Mahmud) (1371–1433), is the most well-known Chinese mariner and explorer who made the voyages collectively referred to as the travels... Events January 1 - The Welsh surrender Harlech Castle to the English. ... An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. ... For the country formerly called Siam see Thailand SIAM is an acronym for Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. ... Hang Li Po (汉丽宝; pinyin: Hàn LìbÇŽo) was the third wife of Malaccas Sultan Mansur Shah (reigning from 1456 to 1477). ...


Portuguese invasion and its effects

Sultan of Malacca Reign
Parameswara 1402 - 1424
Muhammad Shah 1424 - 1444
Muzaffar Shah 1444 - 1459
Mansur Shah 1459 - 1477
Alauddin Riayat Shah 1477 - 1488
Mahmud Shah 1488 - 1528

It was in 1509, during the reign of the last Sultan of Malacca, Sultan Mahmud Shah that the Portuguese became the first European power to reach Malacca and Southeast Asia in general. The Portuguese delegation was led by Admiral Lopez de Sequira. Trouble however ensued after the general feeling of rivalry between Islam and Christianity was invoked by a group of Goa Muslims in the sultan's court after the Portuguese had captured Goa. Soon, the Portuguese fleet was attacked by Malacca and was forced to flee. Map of Parameswaras empire. ... Events September 14 - Battle of Homildon Hill. ... Events August 17 - Battle of Verneuil - An English force under John, Duke of Bedford defeats a larger French army under the Duke of Alençon, John Stuart, and Earl Archibald of Douglas. ... Events March 2 - Gjergj Kastriot Skanderbeg proclaimed commander of the Albanian resistance April 16 - Truce of Tours. ... Events September 23 - Battle of Blore Heath. ... Events January 5 - Battle of Nancy - Charles the Bold of Burgundy is again defeated, and this time is killed. ... // Events February 3 - Bartolomeu Dias of Portugal lands in Mossel Bay after rounding the Cape of Good Hope, at the tip of Africa becoming the first known European to travel this far south. ... Sultan Mahmud Shah (Sultan 1488 - 1528) is the son of Paduka Sri Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah. ... Events June 19 - Battle of Landriano - A French army in Italy under Marshal St. ... 1509 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sultan Mahmud Shah (Sultan 1488 - 1528) is the son of Paduka Sri Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah. ... Admiral is a word from the Arabic term Amir-al-bahr (commander of the sea). ...


In 1511, a larger Portuguese fleet from Cochin, India led by Viceroy Alfonso d'Albuquerque came back to Malacca. The Viceroy made a number of demands - one of which was for permission to establish a Portuguese trading post near the city. All the demands were refused by the Sultan. Conflict was unavoidable, and after 40 days of fighting, Malacca fell to the Portuguese on August 24. 1511 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Kochi (Malayalam: കൊച്ചി []), formerly known as Cochin, is the largest city in the state of Kerala, India, and one of the principal seaports in the country. ... For the butterfly, see viceroy butterfly. ... Afonso de Albuquerque Afonso de Albuquerque, Afonso dAlbuquerque or Alfonso de Albuquerque (1453 - December 16, 1515) was a noted Portuguese naval general whose activities helped establish the Portuguese colonial empire in India. ... August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. ...


Sultan Mahmud Shah was forced to flee Malacca. The sultan made several attempts to retake the capital but his efforts were fruitless. The Portuguese retaliated and forced the sultan to flee to Pahang. Later, the sultan sailed to Bintan and established a new capital there. With a base established, the sultan rallied the disarrayed Malay forces and organized several attacks and blockades against the Portuguese's position. State motto: no State motto Capital Kuantan Royal Capital Pekan Sultan Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah Chief Minister Dato Seri Adnan Yaakob Area 35,964 km2 Population  - Est year 2005 1,372,500 State anthem Pahang State Anthem Pahang (Jawi: Ú¨Ù‡Ú ) is the largest state in Peninsular Malaysia, occupying the huge Sungai... Bintan Island or Negeri Segantang Lada is an island of 1,866 square kilometer located about 48 km (30 miles) southeast of Singapore and making part of the Riau Islands province of Indonesia. ...


Frequent raids on Malacca caused the Portuguese severe hardship. The raids helped convince the Portuguese that the exiled sultan's forces must be silenced. A number of attempts were made to suppress the Malay forces, but it wasn't until 1526 that the Portuguese finally razed Bintan to the ground. The sultan then retreated to Kampar in Sumatra where he died two years later. He left behind two sons named Muzaffar Shah and Alauddin Riayat Shah. Events January 14 - Treaty of Madrid. ... Kampar can refer to: Kampar, Perak - a town in Perak, Malaysia. ...


Muzaffar Shah was invited by the people in the north of the peninsula to become their ruler, establishing the Sultanate of Perak. Meanwhile, Mahmud's other son, Alauddin succeeded his father and made a new capital in the south and established the Sultanate of Johore, the successor of Malacca. The Sultanate of Johor was founded by Malaccan Sultan Mahmud Shahs son, Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah in 1528. ...


Malacca was later conquered by the Dutch in 1641. Through the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824, Malacca became a colony of the United Kingdom. In 1957, Malacca joined other Malay states to form Malaya and in 1963, together with Sarawak, Sabah and Singapore formed Malaysia. Events The Long Parliament passes a series of legislation designed to contain Charles Is absolutist tendencies. ... The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824, also known as the Treaty of London (one of several), was a treaty signed between the United Kingdom and the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in London on March 17, 1824. ... 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Malay states are a group of nine states of Malaysia (all located in West Malaysia) which have hereditary Rulers. ... The Federation of Malaya, or in Malay Persekutuan Tanah Melayu, was formed in 1948 from the British settlements of Penang and Malacca and the nine Malay states and replaced the Malayan Union. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... State motto: United, Industrious, Dedicated (Malay: Bersatu, Berusaha, Berbakti ) Capital Kuching Governor T.Y.T Tun Datuk Patinggi Abang Muhammad Salahuddin Chief Minister Y.A.B. Datuk Patinggi Tan Sri Haji Abdul Taib Bin Mahmud / Pehin Sri Dr. Hj. ... State motto: Sabah Maju Jaya Capital Kota Kinabalu Governor Ahmadshah Abdullah Chief Minister Hj. ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Geneology of Malacca Sultanate (1973 words)
Almarhum Sultan Muzzaffar Shah, (3rd.Sultan of Malacca) (s/o Raja Tua).
a) Raja Abdullah Ibni Almarhum Sultan Munawar Shah, Raja of Kampar.
Sultan Ala'uddin Ri'ayat Shah, (6th.Sultan of Malacca) and Sultan of Johore.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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