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Encyclopedia > Sultanate of Johor
This article is part of
the History of Malaysia series

Langkasuka (2nd-14th century CE)
Pan Pan (3rd-5th century)
Srivijaya (3rd century -1400)
Gangga Negara (?-11th century)
Majapahit (1293-1500)
Sultanate of Malacca (1402 - 1511)
Sultanate of Sulu (1457-19th century)
Sultanate of Johor (1528-current)
White Rajahs (1841-1946)
British Malaya (1874-1957)
Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824
Burney Treaty (1826)
Straits Settlements (1826-1946)
Pangkor Treaty of 1874
Federated Malay States (1895-1946)
Unfederated Malay States (19th century-1946)
Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909
Battle of Penang (1914)
North Borneo (1882-1963)
Mat Salleh Rebellion (1896-1900)
World War II (1942-1945)
Battle of Malaya (1941-42)
Parit Sulong Massarce (1942)
Battle of Singapore (1942)
Syburi (1942-1945)
Sandakan Death Marches (1945)
Malayan Union (1946-1948)
Federation of Malaya (1948-1963)
Malayan Emergency (1948-1960)
Batang Kali massacre (1948)
Independence Day (1957)
Federation of Malaysia (1963-present)
Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation (1962-1966)
Brunei Revolt (1962-1966)
Expulsion of Singapore (1965)
May 13 Incident (1969)
New Economic Policy (1971-1990)
Operation Lalang (1987)
Asian financial crisis (1997-98)

The Sultanate of Johor (or sometimes Johor-Riau) was founded by Malaccan Sultan Mahmud Shah's son, Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah in 1528. Johor was part of the Malaccan Sultanate before the Portuguese conquered Malacca's capital in 1511. At its height, the sultanate controlled modern-day Johor, Riau and some part of southeastern Sumatra. In 1946, it became part of the Malayan Union. Two years later, it joined the Federation of Malaya and subsequently, the Federation of Malaysia in 1963. The history of Malaysia is a relatively recent offshoot of the history of the wider Malay-Indonesian world. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malaysia. ... Langkasuka (-langkha Sanskrit for resplendent land -sukkha of bliss) was apparently the oldest kingdom on the Malay peninsula. ... The Common Era (CE), also known as the Christian Era and sometimes the Current Era, is the period beginning with the year 1 onwards. ... A call of pan-pan is a very urgent message concerning the safety of a ship, aircraft or other vehicle, or persons on board who require immediate assistance. ... Srivijaya (200s-1400) was an ancient Malay kingdom on the island of Sumatra which influenced much of the Malay Archipelago. ... Gangga Negara was believed to be a lost Hindu kingdom somewhere in the state of Perak, Malaysia. ... The Majapahit Empire was based in eastern Java and ruled much of the southern Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, and Bali from about 1293 to around 1500. ... Sultanate of Malacca was a Malay sultanate founded by Parameswara in 1402. ... For the province, see Sulu The Sultanate of Sulu was a muslim state that ruled over much of the islands of the Sulu Sea. ... The White Rajahs is a dynasty that ruled Sarawak from 1842 to 1946. ... The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824, also known as the Treaty of London (one of several), was a treaty signed between the United Kingdom and the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in London on March 17, 1824. ... The Burney Treaty was a treaty signed between Siam and the British in 1826. ... The Straits Settlements were a collection of territories of the British East India Company in Southeast Asia, which were given collective administration in 1826. ... The Pangkor Treaty of 1874 was a treaty signed between the Sir Andrew Clarke on behalf of the British and Raja Abdullah of Perak. ... The Federated Malay States was a federation of four states on the Malay Peninsula - Pahang, Perak, Selangor, and Negeri Sembilan - established by the British government in 1895, and lasted until 1946, when they together with the Straits Settlements and the Unfederated Malay States formed the Malayan Union. ... The Unfederated Malay States was a group of five Malay states, namely Johore, Terengganu, Kelantan, Kedah and Perlis. ... The Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1906 (in which the Malays were not represented) effectively dissected the northern Malay states into two parts: Pattani, Narathiwat, Songkhla, Satun and Yala remained under Siam, but Siam relinquished its claims to sovereignty over Kedah, Kelantan, Perlis, and Terengganu to Great Britain. ... The Battle of Penang occured in 1914, during World War I. It was a naval action. ... North Borneo was a British Protectorate and later Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom, situated in what is now the province of Sabah Malaysia. ... The Matt Salleh Rebellion happened in Sabah. ... During the early morning hours of December 7th/8th, 1941, before the first bombs started falling on the United States Pacific base at Pearl Harbor (time zone differences), World War Two widened in the Pacific with the Battle for Malaya - the Japanase invasion of the British Malaya. ... Parit Sulong is a small village in Johor, Malaysia on the Simpang Kiri River, 30 km east of Muar where on 23 January 1942, the Japanese Imperial Guards tortured and then massacred Australian and Indian prisoners of war. ... The Battle of Singapore was a battle of the South-East Asian theatre of World War II, from February 7, 1942 – February 15, 1942. ... During the Japanese Occupation of Malaya, control of the State of Kedah was given to Thailand by the Japanese. ... The Sandakan Death Marches are the most infamous incident in series of events which resulted in the deaths of more than 6,000 Javanese civilian slave labourers and Allied prisoners of war, held by the Empire of Japan during the Pacific campaign of World War II, at prison camps in... The Malayan Union was formed on April 1, 1946 by the British. ... The Federation of Malaya, or in Malay Persekutuan Tanah Melayu, was formed in 1948 from the British settlements of Penang and Malacca and the nine Malay states and replaced the Malayan Union. ... The Malayan Emergency was an insurrection and guerrilla war of the Malay Races Liberation Army against the British and Malayan administration from 1948-1960 in what is now Malaysia. ... The event dubbed the Batang Kali Massacre took place December 12, 1948. ... Hari Merdeka (Independence Day) is a national day of Malaysia commemorating the independence of the Federation of Malaya from British colonial rule. ... The Federation of Malaysia is a country in Southeast Asia. ... The Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation was an intermittent war over the future of the island of Borneo, between British-backed Malaysia and Indonesia in 1962-1966. ... The Brunei Revolt broke out on the December 8, 1962 and was led by Yassin Affandi and his armed rebels. ... Singapore played a relatively minor role in the history of Southeast Asia until 1819, when the Englishman Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles founded a British port on the island. ... The May 13 Incident is a term for the Chinese-Malay race riots in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia on May 13, 1969 which left at least 184 people dead. ... The Malaysian New Economic Policy (NEP or DEB for Dasar Ekonomi Baru in Malay) was an ambitious, though controversial, socio-economic restructuring program launched by the Malaysian government in 1971 under the then Prime Minister Tun Abdul Razak. ... Operation Lalang (or in English, Weeding Operation) was carried out on 27 October 1987 by the Malaysian police to crackdown on opposition leaders and social activists. ... The Asian financial crisis was a financial crisis that started in July 1997 in Thailand, and affected currencies, stock markets, and other asset prices of several Asian countries, many part of the East Asian Tigers. ... Sultanate of Malacca was a Malay sultanate founded by Parameswara in 1402. ... Events June 19 - Battle of Landriano - A French army in Italy under Marshal St. ... Events Diego Velázquez and Hernán Cortés conquer Cuba; Velázquez appointed Governor. ... State Motto: the state moto as appeared on the coat of arms reads kepada Allah berserah which literally means all hopes is to God (Allah) Capital Johor Bahru Sultan Iskandar Al-haj Chief minister Abdul Ghani Othman Area 19,984 km² Population 2. ... Map of Indonesia showing Riau province Detailed map of Riau Riau is a province of Indonesia, located in the center of Sumatra island along the Strait of Malacca. ... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatara and Sumatera) is the sixth largest island of the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the largest part of Indonesia. ... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... The Malayan Union was formed on April 1, 1946 by the British. ... The Federation of Malaya, or in Malay Persekutuan Tanah Melayu, was formed in 1948 from the British settlements of Penang and Malacca and the nine Malay states and replaced the Malayan Union. ... The Federation of Malaysia is a country in Southeast Asia. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ...

Contents


Fall of Malacca and Sultan Mahmud Shah

In 1511, Malacca fell to the Portuguese and Sultan Mahmud Shah was forced to flee Malacca. The sultan made several attempts to retake the capital but his efforts were fruitless. Portuguese then retaliated and forced the sultan to flee to Pahang. Later, the sultan sailed to Bintan and established a new capital there. With a base established, the sultan rallied the disarrayed Malay forces and organized several attacks and blockades against the Portuguese position. Events Diego Velázquez and Hernán Cortés conquer Cuba; Velázquez appointed Governor. ... Malacca Town (Malay: Bandar Melaka) is the capital of the state of Malaysian state of Malacca. ... Sultan Mahmud Shah (Sultan 1488 - 1528) is the son of Paduka Sri Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah. ... State motto: no State motto Capital Kuantan Royal Capital Pekan Sultan Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah Chief Minister Dato Seri Adnan Yaakob Area 35,964 km2 Population  - Est year 2005 1,372,500 State anthem Pahang State Anthem Pahang (Jawi: Ú¨Ù‡Ú ) is the largest state in Peninsular Malaysia, occupying the huge Sungai... Bintan Island or Negeri Segantang Lada is an island of 1,866 square kilometer located about 48 km (30 miles) southeast of Singapore and making part of the Riau Islands province of Indonesia. ... Malays (Dutch, Malayo, ultimately from Malay: Melayu) are a diverse group of people living in the Malay archipelago and Malay peninsula in South East Asia. ...


Frequent raids on Malacca caused the Portuguese severe hardship and it helped to convince the Portuguese to destroy the exiled sultan's forces. A number of attempts were made to suppress the Malay but it wasn't until 1526 that the Portuguese finally razed Bintan to the ground. The sultan then retreated to Kampar in Sumatra and died two years later. He left behind two sons named Muzaffar Shah and Alauddin Riayat Shah. Events January 14 - Treaty of Madrid. ... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatara and Sumatera) is the sixth largest island of the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the largest part of Indonesia. ...


Muzaffar Shah continued on to establish Perak while Alauddin Riayat Shah became the first sultan of Johor. State motto: no State motto Capital Ipoh Royal Capital Kuala Kangsar Sultan Sultan Azlan Muhibbuddin Shah Chief Minister Dato Seri Diraja Tajol Rosli bin Mohd Ghazali Area 21,006 km2 Population  - Est. ...


Triangular war

The new sultan established a new capital by the Johor River and from there, continued to harass the Portuguese in the north. He consistently worked together with his brother in Perak and the sultan of Pahang to retake Malacca, which by this time was protected by Fort A Famosa.


On the northern part of Sumatra around the same period, Aceh was beginning to gain substantial influence over the Straits of Malacca. With the fall of Malacca to Christians' hands, Muslim traders often skipped Malacca in favor of Aceh. Ergo, Malacca and Aceh became direct competitors. Aceh (pronounced Ah-chay) is a special territory (daerah istimewa, or special area) of Indonesia, located on the northern tip of the island of Sumatra. ... The Straits of Malacca is a narrow stretch of water between Peninsular Malaysia (West Malaysia) and the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ... As a noun, Christian is an appellation and moniker deriving from the appellation Christ, which many people associate exclusively with Jesus of Nazareth. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم) (sometimes also pronounced Moslem) is an adherent of Islam. ...


With the Portuguese and Johor frequently locking horns, Aceh launched multiple raids against both sides in order to tighten its grip on the straits. The rise of Aceh encouraged the Portuguese and Johor to sign a truce and divert their attention to Aceh. The truce, however, was short-lived and with Aceh severely weakened, Johor and the Portuguese had each other in their sights again.


Dutch Malacca

Sultan of Johor Reign
Alauddin Riayat Shah II 1528 - 1564
Muzaffar Shah II 1564 - 1570
Abdul Jalil Shah I 1570 - 1571
Ali Jalla Abdul Jalil Shah II 1571 - 1597
Alauddin Riayat Shah III 1597 - 1615
Abdullah Ma'ayat Shah 1615 - 1623
Abdul Jalil Shah III 1623 - 1677
Ibrahim Shah 1677 - 1685
Mahmud Shah II 1685 - 1699
Abdul Jalil IV (Bendahara Abdul Jalil) 1699 - 1720
Abdul Jalil Rahmat Shah (Raja Kecil) 1718 - 1722
Sulaiman Badrul Alam Shah 1722 - 1760
Abdul Jalil Muazzam Shah 1760 - 1761
Ahmad Riayat Shah 1761 - 1761
Mahmud Shah III 1761 - 1812
Abdul Rahman Muazzam Shah 1812 - 1819
Hussein Shah (Tengku Long) 1819 - 1835
Ali 1835 - 1877
Raja Temenggung Tun Ibrahim 1855 - 1862
Abu Bakar 1862 - 1895
Ibrahim 1895 - 1959
Ismail 1959 - 1981
Mahmud Iskandar Al-Haj 1981 - current

In the 17th century, the Dutch reached Southeast Asia. The Dutch were no friend of the Portuguese and allied themselves with Johor. Finally in 1641, the Dutch and Johor defeated the Portuguese. Malacca hence became a Dutch territory and remained so until the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 was signed. (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Events The Long Parliament passes a series of legislation designed to contain Charles Is absolutist tendencies. ... The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824, also known as the Treaty of London (one of several), was a treaty signed between the United Kingdom and the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in London on March 17, 1824. ...


Johor-Jambi war

During the triangular war, within the Johor empire, Jambi emerged as a regional economic and political power. Soon in 1666, it tried to break free from Johor and between 1666 and 1673, a civil war erupted between Johor and Sumatran state. The war was disastrous for Johor as Johor's capital, Batu Sawar, was sacked by Jambi. After the sack, the capital of Johor was frequently moved to avoid the threat from Jambi. Map showing Jambi province in Indonesia Map of Jambi Jambi is a province of Indonesia located on the east coast of central Sumatra, which contains a city also named Jambi, located at 1°35′ S 103°37′ E. The population of the province is 2,400,940 (2000 census). ... Events September 2 - Great Fire of London: A large fire breaks out in London in the house of Charles IIs baker on Pudding Lane near London Bridge. ... Events The English Test Act was passed. ...


Throughout the decade, Jambi continued to exert extraordinary influence on Johor. In 1679 however, Laksamana Tun Abdul Jalil paid Bugis mercenaries to fight along side Johor against Jambi. Soon afterward, Jambi was brought to its knees. Events January 24 - King Charles II of England disbands Parliament August 7 - The brigantine Le Griffon, which was commissioned by René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, is towed to the southern end of the Niagara River, to become the first ship to sail the upper Great Lakes. ... The Bugis are a people from the island of Sulawesi or Celebes in Indonesia. ...


Bugis infiltration

Sultan Mahmud II of Johor died in 1699 without an heir. The problem was quickly solved when the viceroy Bendahara Abdul Jalil declared himself the new sultan and called himself Sultan Abdul Jalil IV. Many however felt that the declaration was illegal. Events January 26 - Treaty of Karlowitz signed March 30 - the tenth Sikh Master, Guru Gobind Singh created the Khalsa. ...


The Bugis, which played an important role in defeating Jambi two decades earlier, had a huge influence in Johor. Apart from the Malays, another influential faction in Johor at that time was the Minangkabau. Both the Bugis and the Minangkabau realized how the death of Sultan Mahmud II had provided them with the chance to exert power in Johor. The Minangkabau introduced a Minangkabau prince, Raja Kecil from Siak who claimed he was the posthumous son of Sultan Mahmud II. The prince met with the Bugis and promised the Bugis wealth and political power if they helped the prince to win the throne. However, Raja Kecil broke his promise and installed himself as the new sultan of Johor (Sultan Abdul Jalil Rahmat Shah) without the knowledge of the Bugis. Sultan Abdul Jalil IV fled to Pahang where he was later killed by a hitman hired by Raja Kecil. Pagaruyung Palace The Minangkabau ethnic group is indigenous to the highlands of West Sumatra, in Indonesia. ...


Dissatisfied with Raja Kecil's accession, the son of Sultan Abdul Jalil IV, Raja Sulaiman, asked Daeng Parani of the Bugis to aid him in his quest to reclaim the throne. In 1722, Raja Kecil was dethroned by Raja Sulaiman's supporters with Bugis assistance. Raja Sulaiman became the new Sultan of Johore, but he was a weak ruler and became a puppet of the Bugis. Daeng Parani's brother, Daeng Merewah, who was made Yam Tuan Muda (crown prince) was the man who actually controlled Johor. Events Abraham De Moivre states De Moivres theorem connecting trigonometric functions and complex numbers Publication of the first book of Bachs Well-Tempered Clavier Fall of Persias Safavid dynasty during a bloody revolt of the Afghani people. ...


Singapore and the British

In 1818, Sir Stamford Raffles was appointed as the governor of Bencoolen on western Sumatra. However, he was convinced that the British needed to establish a new base in Southeast Asia in order to compete with the Dutch. Though many in the British East India Company opposed such idea, Raffles managed to convince Lord Hastings of Company, then Governor General of British India, to side with him. With the governor general's consent, he and his expedition was set to search for a new base. 1818 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Sir Thomas Stamford Bingley Raffles (born 6 July 1781 on the ship Ann off the coast of Jamaica – died 5 July 1826 in London, England) was the founder of the city (now country) of Singapore, and is one of the best-known of the many Britons who created the largest... Categories: Indonesia geography stubs | Provinces of Indonesia ... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatara and Sumatera) is the sixth largest island of the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the largest part of Indonesia. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was a joint-stock company of investors, which was granted a Royal Charter by Elizabeth I on December 31, 1600, with the intent to favour trade privileges in India. ... The title Baron Hastings is an ancient one in the Peerage of England. ... The British Raj is an informal term for the period of British rule of most of the Indian subcontinent, or present-day India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka (previously known as Ceylon). ...


Raffles' expedition arrived in Singapore on January 29, 1819. He discovered a small Malay settlement at the mouth of Singapore River headed by a Temenggung (governor) of Johor. Though the island was nominally ruled by the sultanate, the political situation there was extremely murky. The current sultan, Tengku Abdul Rahman, was under the influence of the Dutch and the Bugis. Hence, he would never agree to a British base in Singapore. January 29 is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1819 common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The Singapore River is a small river in terms of physical attributes, but of extreme historical importance to the country of Singapore, the political entity which shares its name. ...


However, Tengku Abdul Rahman was ruler only because his older brother, Tengku Hussein or Tengku Long, had been away in Penang getting married when their father died in 1812. According to Malay culture, a person has to be by the dying sultan's in order to be considered as the new ruler. The older brother wasn't happy with the development. Furthermore, the Temenggung preferred Tengku Hussien to the younger brother. 1812 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Upon learning Johor political scenario, Raffles made a deal with Tengku Hussein. The agreement states that the British would acknowledge Tengku Hussien as the legitimate ruler of Johor. Tengku Hussein and the Temenggung would receive yearly stipend from the British. In return, Tengku Hussein would allow Raffles to establish a trading post in Singapore. The treaty was ratified on February 6, 1819. February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ...


With the Temenggung's help, Raffles managed to smuggle Hussein, then living in exile on one of the Riau Islands, back into Singapore.


The Dutch was extremely displeased with Raffles' action. However, with the signing of Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824, the Dutch receded its opposition to British's presence in Singapore. The treaty also divided the Sultanate of Johor into modern Johor and the new Sultanate of Riau. The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824, also known as the Treaty of London (one of several), was a treaty signed between the United Kingdom and the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in London on March 17, 1824. ... Map of Indonesia showing Riau province Detailed map of Riau Riau is a province of Indonesia, located in the center of Sumatra island along the Strait of Malacca. ...


In the new Johor, though Tengku Hussein was the sultan, the Temenggung was the one that run Johor. The Bugis on the other hand controlled Riau.


Modernization

In 1855, under a treaty between the British in Singapore and Sultan Ali of Johor, the control over the state was formally ceded to Temenggung Ibrahim, with the exception of Muar. Muar was later handed over to the Temenggung's control in 1877. Temenggung Ibrahim opened up Bandar Tanjung Puteri in southern Johor as a major city. Bandar Tanjung Puteri would later be known as Johor Bahru. 1855 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... District Muar District Area  - Total (District) 2346. ... 1877 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... District Johor Bahru District Area  - Total (City) 185 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan Approx. ...


Temenggung Ibrahim was succeeded by his son, Temenggung Abu Bakar, who later took the title Seri Maharaja Johor. In 1866, he was formally crowned the Sultan of Johor. Sultan Abu Bakar introduced a constitution and developed an efficient administration system. He also ordered the constrution of Istana Besar, the official residence of the sultan. Due to these achievements, Sultan Abu Bakar is known by the title "Father of Modern Johor". 1866 is a common year starting on Monday. ... Sultan Abu Bakar ibni Almarhum Temmenggong Ibrahim (1833–1895) was the first sultan of modern Johor in Malaysia. ...


Johor also enjoyed economic prosperity. An increased demand for black pepper and gambier in the nineteenth century lead to the opening up of farmlands to the influx of Chinese immigrants, creating Johor's initial economic base. The Kangchu system was put in place. Binomial name Piper nigrum L. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ... Species = Harpagophytum procumbens Ref: ARS-GRIN 2002-06-01 Uncaria is a genus of plants known colloquially as Gambier, Cats Claw or Uña de Gato, which are found in Asia, Africa, and South America. ...


In 1914, Sultan Ibrahim, Sultan Abu Bakar's successor, was forced to accept a British Resident and effectively became a crown colony of the Britain. D.G. Campbell was dispatched as the first British advisor to Johor. 1914 (MCMXIV) is a common year starting on Thursday. ... A British Resident or British Resident Minister was a British colonial official who lived and worked in smaller self-governing colonies or protectorates as a political advisor to the leader and as an ambassador of the British Government. ...


World War II and Malaysia

The Second World War broke out in 1939 and invaded British Malaya in December 1941. The British, who were responsible for Johor's defense, were swiftly defeated by the Japanese and retreated to Singapore to make a stand. Japan occupied Johor from 1942 to 1945. Singapore fell February 15 1942. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... // Events January-March January 2 - End of term for Frank Finley Merriam, 28th Governor of California. ... The Federation of Malaya, or in Malay Persekutuan Tanah Melayu, was formed in 1948 from the British settlements of Penang and Malacca and the nine Malay states and replaced the Malayan Union. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... This article is about the year. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Battle of Singapore was a battle of the South-East Asian theatre of World War II, from February 7, 1942 – February 15, 1942. ... February 15 is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ...


With the end of the war, the British came back and in 1946, Johor became part of Malayan Union. Malay nationalism led by Dato' Onn Jaafar however forced the desolution of Union and in 1948, the state joined a new federation called Malaya. It achieved independence in 1957 and later in 1963, it was one of the fourteen states that formed Malaysia. 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Dato Onn bin Jaafar(born 1895in Johor Baru) is the founder of United Malays National Organization (UMNO) and also the father of Tun Hussein Onn. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Johor - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography (3176 words)
Johor, formerly Johore (Jawi:جوهور), is a state of Malaysia between 1°20"N and 2°35"N. The capital and royal seat of Johor is Johor Bahru, formerly Tanjung Puteri.
Sultan Abu Bakar of Johor(1864 - 1895) was the one who gave Johor its own constitution and developed its efficient administration system and constructed the Istana Besar, the official residence of the Sultan.
Dishes and cuisine in Johor are influenced by Arabs and the surrounding Malay archipelago.
ooBdoo (3541 words)
Johor, formerly Johore (Jawi:جوهر), is a state of Malaysia between 1°20"N and 2°35"N. It is one of the most developed states in Malaysia.
Sultan Abu Bakar of Johor (1864 - 1895) was the one who gave Johor its own constitution and developed its efficient administration system and constructed the Istana Besar, the official residence of the Sultan.
Tun Sri Lanang, the writer of 'Sejarah Melayu' or Malay Annals was born in Bukit Seluyut, Johor in 1565.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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