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Encyclopedia > Sultan

Sultan (Arabic: سلطان‎) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. Originally it was an Arabic language abstract noun meaning "strength", "authority", or "rulership", derived from the Arabic masdar سلطة sulṭah, meaning "authority" or "power". Later, it came to be used as the title of certain Muslim rulers who claimed almost full sovereignty in practical terms (i.e., the lack of dependence on any higher ruler), without claiming the overall Caliphate, or it was used to refer to a powerful governor of a province within the caliphate. It then developed some further meanings in certain contexts. Sultan may refer to: Sultan, an Islamic title with several meanings Al Sultan, one of the 99 Names of Allah Sultan, Ontario, a settlement in the Sudbury District of Ontario Sultan, Washington, a city in Snohomish County, Washington Sultan (ape), a chimpanzee and test subject of Wolfgang Köhler Sultan... Arabic redirects here. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... A verbal noun is a noun formed directly as an inflexion of a verb or a verb stem, sharing at least in part its constructions. ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ...


The dynasty and lands ruled by the Sultan is called (Arabic: سلطنة). Arabic redirects here. ...

Contents

Muslim ruler under the terms of shariah

Image:NabeelSultan.jpg
Nabeel, Sultan of Egypt, 1914-1917.

The title carries moral weight and religious authority, as the ruler's role was defined in the Qur'an. The Sultan however is not a religious teacher himself. Of course in constitutional monarchies, the sultanship can be reduced to a more limited role. The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...


The first to carry the title of 'Sultan' was the Turkmen chief Mahmud of Ghazni (ruled 998 - 1030). Later, 'Sultan' became the usual title of rulers of Seljuk and Ottoman Turks and Ayyubid and Mamluk rulers in Egypt. In the later stages Sultan was used mostly for the wives of the emperor. The religious validation of the title was illustrated by the fact that the shadow Caliph in Cairo bestowed the title "Sultan" on Murad I, the third ruler of the emerging Ottoman Empire in 1383; its earlier sovereigns had been (protocollary 'mere') Beys or Emirs. Mahmud and Ayaz The Sultan is to the right, shaking the hand of the sheykh, with Ayaz standing behind him. ... The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... Ottoman redirects here. ... // Turks and Turkish may refer to: Ethnic Turks Citizens or residents of Turkey in historical contexts, all Turkic peoples collectively Turk one of any of the peoples speaking any of the Turkic languages Turkic peoples A native or inhabitant of Turkey, or a member of Turkic speaking minorities in neighboring... The Ayyubid or Ayyoubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Kurdish[1] origins which ruled Egypt, Syria, Yemen (except for the Northern Mountains), Diyar Bakr, Mecca, Hejaz and northern Iraq in the 12th and 13th centuries. ... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for themselves. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... Sultan Murad I (มู้หลัดที่หนึ่ง) Murad I (nick-named Hüdavendigâr, the God-liked one) (1319 (or 1326) – 1389) was the ruler of the Ottoman Empire from 1359 to 1389. ... Bey is originally a Turkish[1][2] word for chieftain, traditionally applied to the leaders of small tribal groups. ... Entrance to the emirs palace in Bukhara. ...


At later stages, lesser rulers assumed the style "sultan", as was the case for the earlier leaders of today's royal family of Morocco. Today, only the Sultan of Oman, the Sultan of Brunei (both sovereign nations), the Sultans of Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Pahang, Perak, Selangor and Terengganu (of constitutive states of the federation) in Malaysia, and some titular sultans in Insulinde, a few on the southern Philippines and Java (Indonesia) still use the title. The sultan's domain is properly called a sultanate. A feminine form, used by Westerners, is sultana or sultanah; the very styling misconstrues the roles of wives of sultans. In a similar usage, the wife of a German Field-Marshal might be styled Feldmarschallin (in French, similar constructions of the type Madame la Maréchalle are quite common). The Sultan of Brunei is the head of state of Brunei. ... State motto: Kepada Allah Berserah State anthem: Lagu Bangsa Johor Capital Johor Bahru Royal capital Pasir Pelangi1 Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Sultan Sultan Iskandar  - Menteri Besar Abdul Ghani Othman History    - Johor Sultanate 14th century   - British control 1914   - Japanese occupation 1942   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 19,984... State anthem: Allah Selamatkan Sultan Mahkota Capital Alor Star Royal capital Anak Bukit Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Sultan Tuanku Abdul Halim  - Menteri Besar Mahdzir Khalid History    - British control 1909   - Japanese occupation 1942   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 9,426 km² Population  - 2003 estimate 1,778,188  - Density... State motto: Berserah kepada Tuhan Kerajaan Kelantan State anthem: Selamat Sultan Capital (and royal capital) Kota Bharu Ruling party PAS  - Sultan Tuanku Ismail Petra  - Menteri Besar Nik Aziz Nik Mat History    - Siamese control 1603   - British control 1909   - Japanese occupation 1942-1946   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 14... State anthem: Pahang State Anthem Capital Kuantan Royal capital Pekan Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Sultan Sultan Ahmad Shah  - Menteri Besar Adnan Yaakob History    - Federated into FMS 1895   - Japanese occupation 1942   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 35,964 km² Population  - 2005 estimate 1,372,500  - Density 38. ... For other uses, see Perak (disambiguation). ... State motto: Dipelihara Allah State anthem: Duli Yang Maha Mulia Capital Shah Alam Royal capital Klang Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Sultan Sultan Sharafuddin  - Menteri Besar Dr Mohd Khir Toyo History    - Federated into FMS 1895   - Japanese occupation 1942   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 7,956 km² Population  - 2005... State motto: Islam Hadhari Terengganu Bestari State anthem: Terengganu State Anthem Capital (and royal capital) Kuala Terengganu Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Sultan Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin1  - Menteri Besar Idris Jusoh History    - British control 1909   - Japanese occupation 1942   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 12,955 km² Population  - 2005... Mindanao is the second largest and easternmost island in the Philippines. ... View of the Puncak area in West Java Java (Indonesian: Jawa) is the most populous of Indonesias islands, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... The term Sultana is used for a few Muslim women rulers in history. ...


Among those modern hereditary rulers who wish to emphasize their secular authority under the rule of law, the term is gradually being replaced by 'king'. The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The rule of law, in its most basic form, is the principle that no one is above the law. ...


Former Sultans and Sultanates

Middle East & Central Asia

Audhali, Fadhli, Haushabi, Kathiri, Lahej, Lower Aulaqi, Lower Yafa, Mahra, Qu'aiti, Subeihi, Upper Aulaqi, Upper Yafa and the Wahidi sultanates

The Ghaznavid Empire (سلسله غزنویان in Persian) was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 962 to 1187. ... The Seljuk Turks (Turkish: Selçuk; Arabic: سلجوق Saljūq, السلاجقة al-Salājiqa; Persian: سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that occupied parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th centuries. ... The Sultanate of Rûm was a Seljuk sultanate in Anatolia from 1077 to 1307. ... The Ottoman Dynasty (or the Imperial House of Osman) ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1281 to 1923, beginning with Osman I (not counting his father, ErtuÄŸrul), though the dynasty was not proclaimed until 1383 when Murad I declared himself sultan. ... Padishah, Padshah, Padeshah, Badishah or Badshah (Persian پادشاه Pādishāh) is a very prestigious title, which is composed from the Persian words Pati master and the better-known title Shāh King, which was adopted by several Islamic monarchies claiming the highest rank, roughly equivalent to Christian Emperors or the... Ottoman redirects here. ... House of Osman is the name to the administrative structure of the Ottoman Dynasty, which is part of state organization of the Ottoman Empire, however directly linked to dynasty. ... The Ayyubid or Ayyoubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Kurdish[1] origins which ruled Egypt, Syria, Yemen (except for the Northern Mountains), Diyar Bakr, Mecca, Hejaz and northern Iraq in the 12th and 13th centuries. ... Aden Protectorate (Arabic: عدن حماية []) (ca. ... The Federation of South Arabia was an organization of colonies under British rule. ... Map of the Federation of South Arabia Audhali (Arabic: ‎ [] or العواذل []), or the Audhali Sultanate (Arabic: سلطنة العوذلي []), was a state in the British Aden Protectorate. ... Map of the Federation of South Arabia Fadhli (Arabic: ‎ []), or the Fadhli Sultanate (Arabic: سلطنة الفضلي []), was one of the original Nine Cantons that signed protection argreements with Great Britain in the late 19th century and became part of the British Aden Protectorate. ... Map of the Federation of South Arabia Haushabi (Arabic: ‎ [] or Arabic: ‎ []), or the Haushabi Sultanate (Arabic: ‎ []), was one of the original Nine Cantons that signed protection argreements with Great Britain in the late 19th century and became part of the British Aden Protectorate. ... A postage stamp of 1942 depicts the sultan and the capital city. ... Lahej (Arabic: لحج []), the Sultanate of Lahej (Arabic: سلطنة لحج []), or, sometimes, the Abdali Sultanate (Arabic: سلطنة العب دلي []), was a state in the British Aden Protectorate and the Federation of South Arabia. ... Lower Aulaqi (Arabic: ‎ []), or the Lower Aulaqi Sultanate (Arabic: سلطنة العوالق السفلى []), was a state in the Aden Protectorate, the Federation of Arab Emirates of the South, and its successor, the Federation of South Arabia. ... Map of the Federation of South Arabia Lower Yafa, Lower Yafai (Arabic: []), or the Sultanate of Lower Yafa (Arabic: سلطنة يافع السفلى []), was a state in the British Aden Protectorate. ... Map of the Protectorate of South Arabia in 1965 Map of contemporary Yemen showing Al Mahrah governorate. ... Quaiti (Arabic: قعيطي), officially the Quaiti State in Hadhramaut or the Quaiti State of Shihr and Mukalla (Arabic: سلطنة القعيطي في الشحر Ùˆ المكلا), was a sultanate in the southern Arabian Peninsula, in what is now Yemen. ... Map of the Federation of South Arabia showing Subeihi within Lahej Subeihi or Subayhi (Arabic: ‎ ), or the Subeihi Sultanate (Arabic: سلطنة الصبيحي or Arabic: سلطنة الصبيحة ), was a state in the western Aden Protectorate. ... The Upper Aulaqi Sultanate (Arabic: ‎ []) was a state in the British Aden Protectorate and the Federation of South Arabia. ... Map of the Federation of South Arabia Upper Yafa, Upper Yafai (Arabic: يافع العليا []), or the Sultanate of Upper Yafa (Arabic: سلطنة يافع العليا []), was a state in the Aden Protectorate. ... Wahidi (Arabic: ‎ []) was a former sultanate in South Arabia, now part of Yemen. ... Najd (Nejd) is a region in central Saudi Arabia and the location of the nations capital, Riyadh. ... Map with the region outlined in red and the 1923 Kingdom in green “Hedjaz” redirects here. ...

Hami

This was the authentic style, commonly rendered as sultan, of the Islamic monarchs of the ruling house of Oman, in both its realms:

  • OmanSultan of Oman, on the southern coast of the Arabian peninsula, still an independent sultanate, since 1784, two years before the imamate lost temporal power in 1786 (assumed the formal style of Sultan in 1861)
  • Sultanate of Zanzibar two incumbents (from the Omani dynasty) since the de facto separation from Oman in 1806, the last assumed the style Sultan in 1861 at the formal separation under British auspices; since 1964 union with Tanganyika part of Tanzania)

In 1698 Zanzibar became part of the overseas holdings of Oman, falling under the control of the Sultan of Oman. ...

North Africa

Touggourt, also called Tuggurt, is a city in southern Algeria, built around an oasis in the Sahara. ... The Ayyubid or Ayyoubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Kurdish[1] origins which ruled Egypt, Syria, Yemen (except for the Northern Mountains), Diyar Bakr, Mecca, Hejaz and northern Iraq in the 12th and 13th centuries. ... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for themselves. ... Sultan Mohammed V of Morocco visiting Lawrence Livermore Lab, United States, in 1957 Mohammed V (August 10, 1909–February 26, 1961) was Sultan of Morocco from 1927 to 1953 and 1955 to 1961. ... Malik (Arabic: ملك ) is an Arabic word meaning king. It has been adopted in various other, mainly Asian languages, and it is sometimes used in derived meanings. ... In some Muslim countries, Amir al-Muminin (Arabic أمير المؤمنين) meaning Commander of the Faithful or Prince of the Faithful, has been the title of the ruler and/or supreme religious leader. ... For other uses, see Darfur (disambiguation). ... The Funj sultanate of Sennar, or Sinnar, was a sultanate in the north of Sudan, named Funj after the ethnic group of its dynasty or Sinnar (or Sennar) after its capital, which ruled a substantial area of northeast Africa between 1504 and 1821. ... Sennar is a town on the Blue Nile in Sudan that is the capital of the state of Sennar. ... Kordofan is a former province of central Sudan. ... The Baguirmi or Bagirmi Kingdom was an Islamic kingdom or sultanate that existed in the 16th and 17th centuries southeast of Lake Chad in what is now the country of Chad. ... Territory located in present-day Chad Chad Heads of State of Chad Heads of Government of Chad Colonial Heads of Chad Lists of Incumbents Categories: | | ... The Ouaddai Kingdom was an originally non-Muslim kingdom, located to the east of Lake Chad in present-day Chad. ... Kolak is an Indonesian dessert made by boiling mung beans with palm sugar and coconut milk, with a pandanus leaf for flavour. ... Dar Sila is the name of the wandering sultanate of the Dar Sila Daju, a multi-tribal ethnic group in Chad and Sudan. ...

West & Central Africa

  • in Cameroon:
    • Bamoun (Bamun, 17th cent. founded uniting 17 chieftancies) 1918 becomes a Sultanate, but in 1923 re-divided into the 17 original chieftancies.
    • Bibemi 1770 founded- Rulers first style Lamido to ...., then Sultan
    • Mandara Sultanate since 1715 (replacing Wandala kingdom); 1902 Part of Cameroon
    • Rey Bouba Sultanate founded 1804
  • in the Central African Republic:
    • Bangassou created ca.1878; 14 June 1890 under Congo Free State protectorate, 1894 under French protectorate; 1917 Sultanate suppressed by the French.
    • Dar al-Kuti - French protectorate since December 12, 1897
    • Rafai ca.1875 Sultanate, 8 April 8, 1892 under Congo Free State protectorate, March 31 1909 under French protectorate; 1939 Sultanate suppressed
    • Zemio ca.1872 established; December 11 1894 under Congo Free State protectorate, April 12 1909 under French protectorate; 1923 Sultanate suppressed
  • in Niger: Arabic alternative title of the following autochthonous rulers:
    • the Amenokal of the Aïr confederation of Tuareg
    • the Sarkin Damagaram since the 1731 founding of the Damagaram state (later capital Zinder)
  • in Nigeria most monarchies has a native title; when most in the north converted to Islam, Muslim titles were generally adopted, such as Emir- Sultan has been used in
    • Borno (alongside the native title Mai)
    • since 1817 in Sokoto, the suzerain (also styled Amir al-Mu´minin and Sarkin Musulmi) of all Fulbe jihad states and premier traditiobal Muslim leader in the Sahel (according to some once a Caliph)

Bamum, also spelled Bamoum, Bamun, or Bamoun, may refer to: The Bamum language The Bamum people Category: ... Lamido (plural Lamibe) is a corruption in local languages (Fulbe?) of the Arabic title Emir, used by the traditional leaders of certain Islamic communities in West Africa, originally as head of (often vassal) states, nowadays persisting within post-colonial republics. ... The Mandara Kingdom (sometimes called Wandala) was a West African kingdom in the Mandara Mountains of what is today Cameroon. ... Bangassou is a city in the south eastern Central African Republic, lying on the north bank of the Oubangui River. ... Capital Boma Government Monarchy Ruler and owner Leopold II of Belgium Historical era New Imperialism  - Established 1885  - Annexation by Belgium 15 November, 1908 The Congo Free State was a corporate state privately controlled by Leopold II, King of the Belgians through a dummy non-governmental organization, the Association Internationale Africaine. ... This article is about states protected and/or dominated by a foreign power. ... Rafaï is a town on the Mbomou River, located in the Central African Republic prefecture of Mbomou at . ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Amenokal is the Tuareg traditional chief. ... The Aïr Mountains (also known as the Air Massif or Azbine) is a triangular massif, located in northern Niger, within the Sahara desert. ... For other senses of this name, see Tuareg (disambiguation). ... Zinder (which is locally called Damagaram) is the second largest city in Niger, with a population of 170,574 (2001 census) now it is about 200,000. ... Entrance to the emirs palace in Bukhara. ... The Sayfawa dynasty is the name of the kings (or mai, as they called themselves) of the Kanem-Bornu Empire, centered first in Kanem in western Chad, and then, after 1396, in Borno (today Nigeria). ... Location of Sokoto in Nigeria, Sokoto is a city located in the extreme northwest of Nigeria, near to where the Sokoto River and Rima River meet. ... In some Muslim countries, Amir al-Muminin (Arabic أمير المؤمنين) meaning Commander of the Faithful or Prince of the Faithful, has been the title of the ruler and/or supreme religious leader. ... The Fula is an ethnic group of people spread over many countries in West Africa, from Mauritania in the northwest to Cameroon in the east. ...

East Africa & Indian Ocean

Sultan

Adal was a sixteenth century province-cum-sultanate located in East Africa north of Ethiopia, in modern Eritrea and Djibouti. ... For other territories formerly called Somaliland, see Somaliland (disambiguation). ... Aussa redirects here. ... The Angoche Sultanate was established in 1485 along an achepeligo off the Northern Mozambique coastline. ... Harar (sometimes spelled Harrar, Hārer, or Harer) is an eastern city in Ethiopia, and the capital of the modern Harari ethno-political division (or kilil) of Ethiopia. ... Ifat was a Muslim state of eastern Shewa, located in modern day Ethiopia. ... Map of Somalia including the self-proclaimed boundary of Somaliland. ... Shewa (also spelled Shoa) is a historical region of Ethiopia. ... Several Sultanates on the Comoros, an archipelago in the Indian Ocean with an ethnically complex mix, were founded after the introduction of Islam into the area in the 15th century. ... Several Sultanates on the Comoros, an archipelago in the Indian Ocean with an ethnically complex mix, were founded after the introduction of Islam into the area in the 15th century. ... Several Sultanates on the Comoros, an archipelago in the Indian Ocean with an ethnically complex mix, were founded after the introduction of Islam into the area in the 15th century. ... Several Sultanates on the Comoros, an archipelago in the Indian Ocean with an ethnically complex mix, were founded after the introduction of Islam into the area in the 15th century. ...

Maliki

This was the alternative native style (apparently derived from Malik, the Arabic word for King) of the Sultans of the Kilwa Sultanate, in Tanganyika (presently the continental part of Tanzania) Malik (Arabic: ملك ) is an Arabic word meaning king. It has been adopted in various other, mainly Asian languages, and it is sometimes used in derived meanings. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Kilwa was a sultanate in East Africa. ... Flag of Deutsch-Ostafrika (1885-1919) Flag of Tanganyika (1919-1961) Flag of the Republic of Tanganyika 1962–64 Tanganyika is the name of an East African territory lying between the largest of the African great lakes: Lake Victoria, Lake Malawi and Lake Tanganyika, after which it was named. ...


Swahili sultan

Mfalume is the (Ki)Swahili title of various native Muslim rulers, generally rendered in Arabic and in western languages as Sultan: Swahili (also called Kiswahili; see Kiswahili for a discussion of the nomenclature) is an agglutinative Bantu language widely spoken in East Africa. ...

List of Rulers of Pate Located at Pate Island, Kenya ... Pate Island is located in the Indian Ocean close to the northern coast of Kenya, to which it belongs. ... The Lamu Islands are located in the Indian Ocean close to the northern coast of Kenya, to which they belongs. ... Wituland (also Witu or Swahililand) was an approximately 3000 km² territory in East Africa centered on the town of Witu just inland from Indian Ocean port of Lamu north of the mouth of the Tana River in what is now Kenya. ... This article is about states protected and/or dominated by a foreign power. ... Flag of Deutsch-Ostafrika (1885-1919) Flag of Tanganyika (1919-1961) Flag of the Republic of Tanganyika 1962–64 Tanganyika is the name of an East African territory lying between the largest of the African great lakes: Lake Victoria, Lake Malawi and Lake Tanganyika, after which it was named. ...

Sultani

This was the native ruler's title in the Tanzanian state of Uhehe


Southern Asia

In India:

In the Maldives: The Bahmani Sultanate was a Muslim state of the Deccan in southern India. ... , For other uses, see Mysore (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bengal (disambiguation). ... The Deccan sultanates were five Muslim-ruled kingdoms–-Bijapur, Golconda, Ahmednagar, Bidar, and Berar of south-central India. ... Berar was one of the Deccan sultanates. ... Bidar was one of the Deccan sultanates. ... Bijapur is a district in the Indian state of Karnataka. ... Golconda was one of the Deccan sultanates. ... The Nizam Shahi dynasty of Ahmednagar or Ahmednagar Sultnate was established in 1490 by Malik Ahmad Shah. ... The Delhi Sultanate (دلی سلطنت), or Sulthanath-e-Hind (سلطنتِ ہند) / Sulthanath-e-Dilli (سلطنتِ دلی) refers to the various Muslim dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. ... This article is for the Indian state. ... Jaunpur is a city in Jaunpur District in Uttar Pradesh state of India. ... Kandesh (also Khandesh) is a region of central India, which forms the northwestern portion of Maharashtra state. ... Malwa (Malvi:माळवा) is a region in western India occupying a plateau of volcanic origin in the western part of Madhya Pradesh state and the south-eastern part of Rajasthan. ...

Motto vision 2020 Anthem Gavmii mi ekuverikan matii tibegen kuriime salaam In National Unity Do We Salute Our Nation Capital Malé Largest city Hulhumalé Official languages Dhivehi Government Republic  -  President Maumoon Abdul Gayyoom Independence  -  from the UK 26 July 1965  Area  -  Total 298 km² (204th) 115 sq mi   -  Water (%) negligible...

Southeast & East Asia

In Brunei:

In China: The Sultan of Brunei is the head of state of Brunei. ...

Furthermore, the Qa´id Jami al-Muslimin (Leader of the Community of Muslims) of Pingnan Guo ("Pacified South State", a major Islamic rebellious polity in western Yunnan province) is usually referred to in foreign sources as Sultan Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture Old City gate Night View of Dali Ancient Walled Downtown The Three Pagodas of Chong Sheng Temple Dali (Chinese: 大理; Pinyin: ; Bai: Darl•lit) is a city in Yunnan province in the south of the Peoples Republic of China, located on a fertile plateau between the... The Panthay Rebellion (known in Chinese as the Du Wenxiu Qiyi 杜文秀起义 (1856 - 1873) was a separatist movement of the Hui people, Chinese Muslims, against the imperial Qing Dynasty in southwestern Yunnan Province, China. ... The Panthay Rebellion (known in Chinese as the Du Wenxiu Qiyi 杜文秀起义, 1856 - 1873) was a separatist movement of the Hui people and Chinese Muslims, against the imperial Qing Dynasty in southwestern Yunnan Province, China, as part of a wave of Hui-led multi-ethnic unrest. ...


In Indonesia (formerly in the Dutch East Indies): This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

  • many on Sumatra, including
    • Sultanate of Aceh (full style Sultan Berdaulat Zillullah fil-Alam) , which had many vassal states
    • Asahan
    • Awak Sungai, established 17th entury at the split in four of Minangkabau, in 1816 extinguished by Netherlands East Indies colonial government
    • Deli (sultanate) since 1814, earlier Aceh's vassal Aru
    • Indragiri
    • Langkat since 1817 (previous style Rajah)
    • Palembang Darussalam, also holding the higher title of Susuhunan
    • Serdang
    • Siak Seri Indrapura
  • some of the many states on populous Java, including
    • Banten
    • the rulers in three of the four palaces (kraton) from which fractioned Cirebon was ruled: Kraton Kasepuhan, Kraton Kanoman and Kraton Kacirebonan (only in Kraton Kaprabonan the rulers title was Panembahan)
    • Sultanate of Mataram,
  • in the Moluccan archipelago:
  • on Madura island: Pamekasan
  • on the Riau archipelago: sultanate of Lingga-Riau by secession in 1818 under the expelled sultan of Johore (on Malaya) Sultan Abdul Rahman Muadzam Syah ibni al-Marhum Sultan Mahmud
  • on Sumbawa: Bima sultanate

In Malaysia, 9 states out of 13 states are sultanates: For other uses, see Sumatra (disambiguation). ... Aceh (pronounced , generally Anglicized as IPA: ) is a special territory (daerah istimewa) of Indonesia, located on the northern tip of the island of Sumatra. ... The Sultanate of Asahan was a Malay sultanate from approximately 1630 CE until 1946 CE. It was located in the north-east of the island of Sumatra, in what is now Indonesia and covered what is now the Kabupaten (district) Asahan. ... Languages Minangkabau, Indonesian and Malay. ... Vindyagiri (Kannada:ವಿಂಧ್ಯಗಿರಿ) is one of the two hills in Shravanabelagola in the Indian state of Karnataka. ... Location of Palembang in Indonesia Coordinates: , Country Province Area  - Total 400. ... Susuhunan A title use for the rulers of Surakarta, Indonesia in joint usage with Pakubuwono Specifically used by rulers of Surakarta; the rulers of Yogyakarta have the title Sultan. ... The state of Serdang was an ancient Indonesian monarchy, neighbouring the sultanate of Deli, to which it even at the time lost some territory. ... Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... For the Banten meteorite of 1933, see Meteorite falls. ... Cirebon (formerly Cheribon) is a city on north coast of the Indonesian island of Java. ... Mataram was the last major independent Javanese empire on Java before the island was colonized by the Dutch. ... Maluku redirects here. ... A 1720 depiction of Ternate. ... Categories: Indonesia geography stubs | Provinces of Indonesia ... Tidore is an island and town in the Maluku Islands of eastern Indonesia, just west of the larger island of Halmahera. ... For other uses, see Madura (disambiguation). ... Pamekasan is a regency (kabupaten) of East Java, Indonesia. ... The Riau Islands (Kepulauan Riau (Kepri for short) or sometimes Riau Kepulauan in Bahasa Indonesia) are a province and a group of islands in Indonesia, located south of Singapore, off the eastern coast of Riau province on Sumatra island. ... State Motto: the state moto as appeared on the coat of arms reads kepada Allah berserah which literally means all hopes is to God (Allah) Capital Johor Bahru Bandar DiRaja Bandar Maharani Sultan Iskandar Al-haj Chief minister Abdul Ghani Othman Area 19,984 km² Population 2. ... Sumbawa is an Indonesian island, located in the middle of the Lesser Sunda Islands chain, with Lombok to the west, Flores to the east, and Sumba further to the southeast. ... Bima (Indonesia) Bima is a city on the eastern coast of the island Sumbawa in Indonesia. ...

In the Philippines: This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Sultanate of Johor (or sometimes Johor-Riau) was founded by Malaccan Sultan Mahmud Shahs son, Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah in 1528. ... Sultanate of Kedah is possibly the oldest sultanate in the Malay Peninsula and King Phra Ong Mahawangsa is possibly the first Malay ruler to convert to Islam, he ruled Kedah from 1136 to 1179, known as Sultan Mudzafar Shah. ... Sultan of Perak is one of the oldest hereditary seats among the Malay states. ... Sultan of Selangor is the title of the constitutional ruler of Selangor, Malaysia. ... Sultan of Terengganu is the title of the constitutional head of Terengganu state in Malaysia. ... Jelebu is one of the largest districts in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia, consisting more than 100,000 in population. ... State anthem: Berkatlah Yang DiPertuan Besar Negeri Sembilan Capital Seremban Royal capital Seri Menanti Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Yang di-Pertuan Besar Tuanku Jaafar  - Menteri Besar Mohamad Haji Hassan History    - Federated into FMS 1895   - Japanese occupation 1942   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 6,645 km² Population  - 2007...

In Thailand (Siam): Rajah Buayan is a municipality in the province of Maguindanao, Philippines. ... The Sultanate of Maguindanao was a Muslim state that ruled parts of the island of Mindanao, in southern Philippines. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Contemporary sultanates

Yogyakarta (also Jogjakarta in pre-1972 spelling or Jogja) is a city and province on the island of Java, Indonesia. ... State motto: Kepada Allah Berserah State anthem: Lagu Bangsa Johor Capital Johor Bahru Royal capital Pasir Pelangi1 Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Sultan Sultan Iskandar  - Menteri Besar Abdul Ghani Othman History    - Johor Sultanate 14th century   - British control 1914   - Japanese occupation 1942   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 19,984... State anthem: Allah Selamatkan Sultan Mahkota Capital Alor Star Royal capital Anak Bukit Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Sultan Tuanku Abdul Halim  - Menteri Besar Mahdzir Khalid History    - British control 1909   - Japanese occupation 1942   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 9,426 km² Population  - 2003 estimate 1,778,188  - Density... State motto: Berserah kepada Tuhan Kerajaan Kelantan State anthem: Selamat Sultan Capital (and royal capital) Kota Bharu Ruling party PAS  - Sultan Tuanku Ismail Petra  - Menteri Besar Nik Aziz Nik Mat History    - Siamese control 1603   - British control 1909   - Japanese occupation 1942-1946   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 14... State anthem: Pahang State Anthem Capital Kuantan Royal capital Pekan Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Sultan Sultan Ahmad Shah  - Menteri Besar Adnan Yaakob History    - Federated into FMS 1895   - Japanese occupation 1942   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 35,964 km² Population  - 2005 estimate 1,372,500  - Density 38. ... For other uses, see Perak (disambiguation). ... State motto: Dipelihara Allah State anthem: Duli Yang Maha Mulia Capital Shah Alam Royal capital Klang Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Sultan Sultan Sharafuddin  - Menteri Besar Dr Mohd Khir Toyo History    - Federated into FMS 1895   - Japanese occupation 1942   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 7,956 km² Population  - 2005... State motto: Islam Hadhari Terengganu Bestari State anthem: Terengganu State Anthem Capital (and royal capital) Kuala Terengganu Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Sultan Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin1  - Menteri Besar Idris Jusoh History    - British control 1909   - Japanese occupation 1942   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 12,955 km² Population  - 2005... The Rulers of the Malay States in Malaysia are the seven Sultans of Kedah, Perak, Kelantan, Terengganu, Pahang, Selangor and Johor, the Yang di-Pertuan Besar of Negeri Sembilan and the Raja of Perlis. ... The Malay states are a group of nine states of Malaysia (all located in West Malaysia) which have hereditary Rulers. ... Flag of the Supreme Head of Malaysia Yang di-Pertuan Agong is a Malay title usually translated as Supreme Ruler or Paramount Ruler, is the official title of the constitutional head of state of the federation of Malaysia. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... The Malay language has a complex system of titles and honorifics which is still extensively used in Malaysia and Brunei. ... Muscat and Oman (Arabic:مسقط وعمان) was a country that encompassed the present day Sultanate of Oman and parts of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). ...

Princely and aristocratic titles

In the Ottoman dynastic system, male descendants of the ruling Padishah (in the West also known as Great Sultan), enjoyed a style including Sultan, so this normally Monarchic title is used equivalent to a western prince of the blood: Daulatlu Najabatlu Shahzada Sultan (given name) Hazretleri Effendi; for the Heir Apparent however, the style was Daulatlu Najabatlu Vali Ahad-i-Sultanat' (given name) Effendi Hazlatlari, i.e. Crown Prince of the sultanate. Padishah, Padshah, Padeshah, Badishah or Badshah (Persian پادشاه Pādishāh) is a very prestigious title, which is composed from the Persian words Pati master and the better-known title Shāh King, which was adopted by several Islamic monarchies claiming the highest rank, roughly equivalent to Christian Emperors or the... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A Crown Prince or Crown Princess is the heir or heiress apparent to the throne in a royal or imperial monarchy. ...

  • The sons of Imperial Princesses, excluded from the Ottoman imperial succession, were only styled Sultanzada (given name) Bey-Effendi, i.e. Son of a Prince[ss] of the dynasty.

In certain Muslim states, Sultan was also an aristocratic title, as in the Tartar Astrakhan Khanate Bey is originally a Turkish[1][2] word for chieftain, traditionally applied to the leaders of small tribal groups. ... The Khanate of Astrakhan (Xacitarxan Khanate) was a Tatar feudal state that appeared after the collapse of the Golden Horde. ...


Military rank

In a number of post-caliphal states under Mongol or Turkic rule, there was a feudal type of military hierarchy, often decimal (mainly in larger empires), using originally princely titles (Khan, Malik, Amir) as mere rank denominations. Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... This article is about the title. ... Malik (Arabic: ملك ) is an Arabic word meaning king. It has been adopted in various other, mainly Asian languages, and it is sometimes used in derived meanings. ... Emir (also sometimes rendered as Amir or Ameer, Arabic commander) is a title of nobility historically used in Islamic nations of the Middle East and North Africa. ...


In the Persian empire, the rank of Sultan was roughly equivalent to a western Captain, socially in the fifth rank class, styled 'Ali Jah Persia redirects here. ... Captain is a rank or title with various meanings. ...


Use in Western Popular Culture

The term Sultan is also used in modern pop vernacular to describe someone who has reached the peak of their profession, the elite of their class.


See also

Other Islamic titles

Further Entrance to the emirs palace in Bukhara. ... Atabeg is a title of nobility of Turkic origin, indicating a governor of a nation or province who was subordinate to a king or Emperor but senior to a Khan. ... Bey is originally a Turkish[1][2] word for chieftain, traditionally applied to the leaders of small tribal groups. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... Datu or datto is the title for ancient tribal chieftains and monarchs in pre-Hispanic Philippines. ... The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... This article is about the title. ... Khagan alternatively spelled Chagan, Qaqan, Khakhan, Khaghan, Kagan, Khaqan etc. ... Malik (Arabic: ملك ) is an Arabic word meaning king. It has been adopted in various other, mainly Asian languages, and it is sometimes used in derived meanings. ... Mir, a Persian word (مير), derived from the Arabic title Emir or Amir (Arabic: أمير ), was adopted in many languages under Islamic influence, such as Urdu, and means leader of a group or tribe in Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan. ... Padishah, Padshah, Padeshah, Badishah or Badshah (Persian پادشاه Pādishāh) is a very prestigious title, which is composed from the Persian words Pati master and the better-known title Shāh King, which was adopted by several Islamic monarchies claiming the highest rank, roughly equivalent to Christian Emperors or the... Shah or Shahzad is a Persian term for a monarch (ruler) that has been adopted in many other languages. ...

HMS Sultan is a shore base of the Royal Navy in Gosport, Hampshire, UK. It is the head quarters of the Defence College of Electro-Mechanical Engineering (DCEME) and has overall control of teaching engineering to all three branches of the UK Armed Forces. ... Iron Duke class engines waiting scrapping The Great Western Railway Iron Duke Class 4-2-2 broad gauge steam locomotives for express passenger train work. ... Sultanism is a form of authoritarian government characterized by the extreme personal presence of the ruler in all elements of governance. ... Sultans of Swing was the first single release of the British rock band Dire Straits. ...

Sources and references

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Sultans
  • RoyalArk - see each modern nation, e.g. here the former Persian Empire
  • WorldStatesmen - see each present nation
Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... A form of government (also referred to as a system of government or a political system) is a system composed of various people, institutions and their relations in regard to the governance of a state. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An autocracy is a form of government in which the political power is held by a single self appointed ruler. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article applies to political and organizational ideologies. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Absolute monarchy is a monarchical form of government where the monarch has the power to rule his or her land or country and its citizens freely, with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition in force. ... A Despotate is a State ruled under a Despot/Despoina (in this context it should not be confused with Despotism). ... Etymologically an emirate or amirate (Arabic: إمارة Imarah, plural: إمارات Imarat) is the quality, dignity, office or territorial competence of any Emir (prince, governor etc. ... This article is about the political and historical term. ... For the Star Trek character see Khan Noonien Singh. ... A sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic monarch ruling under the terms of shariah. ... For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... Enlightened absolutism (also known as benevolent or enlightened despotism) is a form of despotism in which rulers were influenced by the Enlightenment. ... A military dictatorship is a form of government wherein the political power resides with the military; it is similar but not identical to a stratocracy, a state ruled directly by the military. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Oligarchy (Greek , Oligarkhía) is a form of government where political power effectively rests with a small elite segment of society (whether distinguished by wealth, family or military powers). ... States in which the constitution mandates power to a sole party are colored brown. ... This article is about a form of government in which the state operates under the control of a Communist Party. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests subordinate to the interests of the state. ... Technically speaking, an illiberal democracy could be any democracy that is not a liberal democracy. ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... In Iran, the Velayat-e faqih refers to the controversial concept of guardianship of the jurist. ... Totalitarian democracy is a term coined by Israeli historian J. L. Talmon to refer to a system of government in which lawfully elected representatives maintain the integrity of a nation state whose citizens, while granted the right to vote, have little or no participation in the decision-making process of...

  Results from FactBites:
 
MySpace.com - Sultan - Montreal, CA - House - www.myspace.com/sultansoultan (575 words)
In the past four years Sultan has established himself as one of the most innovative and respectable djs and producers in the electronic dance scene.
The two, alongside Ned Shepard, spent the month of January co-writing and co-producing songs for her forthcoming solo Album to be released later this year.
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Sultan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1049 words)
In the later stages Sultan was used mostly for the wive of the emperor.
Indonesia — Sultan of Yogyakarta is governor of that province
Note: Sultan is the title of seven (Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Pahang, Perak, Selangor and Terengganu) of the nine rulers of the Malay states.
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