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Encyclopedia > Sullivan Expedition
Northern theater after Saratoga, 1778–1781
Rhode IslandWyoming ValleyCarleton's Raid – Cherry Valley – Stony Point – Minisink – Penobscot expedition – Sullivan expedition – Newtown – Springfield – Groton Heights

The Sullivan Expedition, also known as the Sullivan-Clinton Expedition, was a campaign led by Major General John Sullivan and General James Clinton against Loyalists ("Tories") and the four nations of the Iroquois who had sided with the British in the American Revolutionary War. The expedition occurred during the summer of 1779 and only had one major battle, at Newtown along the Chemung River in western New York, in which the Tories and Iroquois were decisively defeated. Sullivan's army then carried out a scorched earth campaign, methodically destroying at least forty Iroquois villages throughout what is now upstate New York, in retaliation for Indian and Tory attacks against American settlements earlier in the war. The devastation created great hardships for the Iroquois that winter, but their raids against the American settlements continued with renewed vigor the following year. Combatants British United States Commanders Robert Pigot John Sullivan Strength 7,139 10,100 Casualties at least 260 at least 211 The Battle of Rhode Island was a battle fought on August 29, 1778 when units of the Continental Army under the command of John Sullivan attempted to recapture Aquidneck... Combatants Britain United States Commanders Colonel John Butler Colonel Zebulon Butler Strength 900 regulars and Native American warriors 360 milita Casualties 3 killed 8 wounded 300+ killed and captured (164+6 known dead) The Wyoming Valley battle and massacre was an encounter during the American Revolutionary War between American Patriots... Combatants United States and Vermont Republic British Commanders Seth Warner Christopher Carleton Strength unknown number of local militia 454 soldiers plus sailors on the ships Casualties 79 captured, unknown killed and wounded 1 killed, 17 missing and 1 wounded On October 24, 1778 with snow already on the ground but... Incident in Cherry Valley - fate of Jane Wells from the original picture by Alonzo Chappel by Thomas Phillibrown, engraver. ... Combatants United States British Commanders Anthony Wayne Henry Johnson Strength 1,350 700 Casualties 95 killed, wounded and missing 63 killed 70 wounded 543 prisoners The Battle of Stony Point was a battle of the American Revolutionary War. ... The Battle of Minisink, which commenced on July 22, 1779 at Minisink Ford in Orange County, New York during the American Revolution was one of the most bloody and decisive battles of the War where Loyalists and Iroquois under the leadership of Joseph Brant, a Mohawk who was a Colonel... Largest American naval expedition of the American Revolutionary War. ... The Battle of Newtown (29 August 1779) was the only major battle of the Sullivan Expedition, an armed offensive led by Gen. ... Combatants United States Great Britain Hessians Commanders Nathanael Greene Wilhelm von Knyphausen Strength 2,050 6,000 Casualties 15 killed, 40 wounded 25–50 or more killed {Note the appendix to The Hessians gives possible casualites estimates as being 25 killed, 75 wounded} The Battle of Springfield was a battle... The Battle of Groton Heights was a battle of the American Revolutionary War. ... General John Sullivan John Sullivan (February 17, 1740 – January 23, 1795) was an American general in the Revolutionary War and a delegate in the Continental Congress. ... James Clinton (August 9, 1733 – September 22, 1812) was a American Revolutionary War soldier who obtained the rank of major general. ... Britannia gives a heros welcome to returning American Loyalists. ... The Iroquois Confederacy (Haudenosaunee, also known as the League of Peace and Power, Five Nations, or Six Nations) is a group of First Nations/Native Americans. ... Combatants American Revolutionaries France The Netherlands Spain Native Americans Great Britain Iroquois Confederacy German mercenaries American Loyalists Native Americans Commanders George Washington Horatio Gates Marquis de Lafayette Friedrich Steuben Comte de Rochambeau Nathanael Greene Bernardo de Gálvez Sir William Howe Thayendanegea Sir Henry Clinton Lord Cornwallis (more commanders) The... 1779 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The Battle of Newtown (29 August 1779) was the only major battle of the Sullivan Expedition, an armed offensive led by Gen. ... The Chemung River (shuh-MUHNG) is a tributary of the Susquehanna River, approximately 45 mi (72 km) long, in south central New York and northern Pennsylvania in the United States. ... Official language(s) English de facto Capital Albany Largest city New York City Area  Ranked 27th  - Total 54,520 sq mi (141,205 km²)  - Width 285 miles (455 km)  - Length 330 miles (530 km)  - % water 13. ... A scorched earth policy is a military tactic which involves destroying anything that might be useful to the enemy while advancing through or withdrawing from an area. ... Upstate New York is the region of New York State outside of the core of the New York metropolitan area. ...

Contents

Background

When the American Revolutionary War began, British officials as well as the colonial Continental Congress sought the allegiance (or at least the neutrality) of the influential Iroquois Confederacy. The Six Nations divided over what course to pursue. Most Mohawks, Cayugas, Onondagas, and Senecas chose to ally themselves with the British. But the Oneidas and Tuscaroras, thanks in part to the influence of Presbyterian missionary Samuel Kirkland, joined the American revolutionaries. For the Iroquois, the American Revolution became a civil war. The Continental Congress is the label given to two successive bodies of representatives of the inhabitants of the Thirteen Colonies in 18th century British North America: The First Continental Congress met from September 5, 1774, to October 26, 1774. ... The Iroquois Confederacy (also known as the League of Peace and Power) is a group of First Nations/Native Americans. ... The Mohawk (Kanienkeh or Kanienkehaka meaning People of the Flint) are an indigenous people of North America who live around Lake Ontario and the St. ... The Cayuga nation (Guyohkohnyo or the People of the Great Swamp) was one of the five original constituents of the Iroquois, a confederacy of Indians in New York. ... Sketch by Samuel de Champlain of his attack on an Onondaga village The Onondaga (Onundagaono or the People of the Hills) are one of the original five constituent tribes of the League of the Iroquois (Hodenosaunee). ... The Seneca are a Native American people, one of the Six Nations of the Iroquois League. ... The Oneida (Onyotaa:ka or Onayotekaono, meaning the People of the Upright Stone) are a Native American/First Nations people and comprise one of the five founding nations of the Iroquois Confederacy. ... The Tuscarora are an American Indian tribe originally in North Carolina, which moved north to New York, and then partially into Canada. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... A missionary is a propagator of religion, often an evangelist or other representative of a religious community who works among those outside of that community. ... Rev. ... This article is the current Esperanza Collaboration of the Month. ... A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight for political power or control of an area. ...


The Iroquois homeland lay on the frontier between British Canada and the American colonies. After a British army surrendered at Saratoga in upstate New York in 1777, Loyalists and their Iroquois allies raided American Patriot settlements in the region, as well as the villages of American-allied Iroquois. Working out of Fort Niagara, men such as Tory commander Colonel John Butler, Mohawk Captain Joseph Brant, and Seneca Chief Cornplanter led the Tory-Indian raids. Combatants British 9th/Hill, 20th/Lynd, 21st/ Hamilton, 62nd/Ansthruter, Simon Fraser Brunswick Major Generals V. Riedesel, 1st Brigade (Brunswickers) Brig. ... 1777 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Patriots (also known as Partisans, or Rebels) were British North American colonists who rebelled against the British monarchy during the American Revolution and established the independent states that became the United States of America. ... Historical recreation actors at Old Fort Niagara Fort Niagara is a three hundred-year-old fortification originally built to protect the interests of New France in northern North America. ... John Butler (1728-1796) was a Loyalist who led an irregular unit known as Butlers Rangers on the northern frontier in the American Revolutionary War. ... Joseph Brant, painted in London by leading court painter George Romney in 1776 Thayendanegea or Joseph Brant (sometimes spelled Brandt or Brand) (c. ... Chief Cornplanter portrait by F. Bertoli, 1796 Gaiäntwakê (c. ...


On July 3, 1778, Colonel Butler led his Rangers with a force of Senecas (led by Cornplanter) and Cayugas in a surprise attack on Pennsylvania's Wyoming Valley (along the Susquehanna River near present Wilkes-Barre), practically annihilating the 360 armed Patriot defenders of Forty Fort. July 3 is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 181 days remaining. ... 1778 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Butlers Rangers (1777–1784) was a Loyalist (or Tory) irregular militia regiment in the British Army during the American Revolutionary War. ... Official language(s) None Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 160 miles (255 km)  - Length 280 miles (455 km)  - % water 2. ... Combatants Britain United States Commanders Colonel John Butler Colonel Zebulon Butler Strength 900 regulars and Native American warriors 360 milita Casualties 3 killed 8 wounded 300+ killed and captured (164+6 known dead) The Wyoming Valley battle and massacre was an encounter during the American Revolutionary War between American Patriots... The Susquehanna River is a river in the northeastern United States. ... Wilkes-Barre (pronounced wilkes-berry or wilkes-bear, and most often by non-natives as wilkes-bar) is a city located in Luzerne County, Pennsylvania. ... Forty Fort is a borough located in Luzerne County, Pennsylvania. ...


On November 11, 1778, Loyalist Captain Walter Butler (the son of John Butler) led two companies of Butler's Rangers along with about 320 Iroquois led by Cornplanter, including 30 Mohawks led by Brant, on an assault at Cherry Valley in New York. While the fort was surrounded, Indians began to attack civilians in the village, killing and scalping about 33 people, including women and children. In vain, Brant and Butler tried to stop the rampage. The town was plundered and destroyed. November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... 1778 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... for other men named Walter Butler, see Walter Butler Walter Butler ( 1752 – 30 October 1781 ) was a British Loyalist officer during the American Revolution. ... Cherry Valley is a town located in Otsego County, New York. ...


The Cherry Valley Massacre made it clear to the American revolutionaries that something needed to be done on the New York frontier. Previously, commander-in-chief General George Washington did not have the manpower to adequately fortify the frontier, but when the British began to concentrate their military efforts on the southern colonies in 1779, Washington used the opportunity to launch an offensive towards Fort Niagara. Washington first offered command of the expedition to Horatio Gates, the "Hero of Saratoga," but Gates turned down the offer. Major General Sullivan, who had Washington's confidence despite a mixed war record, was then given command. Washington's orders to Sullivan made it clear that he wanted the Iroquois threat completely eliminated: Incident in Cherry Valley - fate of Jane Wells from the original picture by Alonzo Chappel by Thomas Phillibrown, engraver. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732–December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and was later elected the first President of the United States. ... Horatio Gates Horatio Gates (Full name: Horatio Lloyd Gates) (1726 – 1806) was an American general during the Revolutionary War. ...

Orders of George Washington to General John Sullivan, at Head-Quarters May 31, 1779
The Expedition you are appointed to command is to be directed against the hostile tribes of the Six Nations of Indians, with their associates and adherents. The immediate objects are the total destruction and devastation of their settlements, and the capture of as many prisoners of every age and sex as possible. It will be essential to ruin their crops now in the ground and prevent their planting more.
I would recommend, that some post in the center of the Indian Country, should be occupied with all expedition, with a sufficient quantity of provisions whence parties should be detached to lay waste all the settlements around, with instructions to do it in the most effectual manner, that the country may not be merely overrun, but destroyed.
But you will not by any means listen to any overture of peace before the total ruinment of their settlements is effected. Our future security will be in their inability to injure us and in the terror with which the severity of the chastisement they receive will inspire them.

Battles

Washington instructed Sullivan and his men to cross from Easton, Pennsylvania to the Susquehanna River in central Pennsylvania and to follow the river upstream to Tioga Point, now known as Athens, Pennsylvania. He ordered Clinton and his men to travel from Albany, westward up the Mohawk River to Canajoharie, New York, to cross overland to Otsego Lake, and then travel down the Susquehanna to meet Sullivan at Tioga Point. Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Northampton Mayor Philip B. Mitman Area    - City 12. ... The Susquehanna River is a river in the northeastern United States. ... Official language(s) None Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 160 miles (255 km)  - Length 280 miles (455 km)  - % water 2. ... Athens is a borough located in Bradford County, Pennsylvania. ... Location in Albany County and the State of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York County Albany Founded 1614 Incorporated 1686 Mayor Gerald D. Jennings Area    - City 56. ... For other uses, see Mohawk River (disambiguation) The Mohawk River is a major waterway in north-central New York. ... Canajoharie, New York may refer to either: The Town of Canajoharie or The Village of Canajoharie. ... Otsego Lake is a small lake located in Otsego County, New York in the USA and is a source of the Susquehanna River. ...


Forty of the Iroquois villages were destroyed, including Catherine's Town, Goiogouen, Chonodote, and Kanadaseaga, along with all the crops and orchards of the Iroquis. The campaign had only one major battle, the Battle of Newtown, fought on August 29, 1779. It was a complete victory for the Continental Army. There is disagreement by historians as to if an Iroquois nickname for Washington, "Town Destroyer", originates from this expedition. Catherines Town was a Iroquois town named for the Seneca leader Catherine Montour. ... Goiogouen, or Cayuga Castle, was a major village of the Cayuga people. ... Chonodote was an 18th-century Cayuga village, located about four and a half miles from Goiogouen. ... Kanadaseaga, or Seneca Castle, was a major village of the Seneca nation of the Iroquois Confederacy in west-central New York State. ... The Battle of Newtown (29 August 1779) was the only major battle of the Sullivan Expedition, an armed offensive led by Gen. ... August 29 is the 241st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (242nd in leap years), with 124 days remaining. ... 1779 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Illustration depicting uniforms and weapons used during the 1779 to 1783 period of the American Revolution by showing four soldiers standing in an informal group General George Washington, was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army on June 15, 1775. ... Town Destroyer was the nickname given to George Washington by certain Iroquois after the Sullivan Expedition in the American Revolutionary War destroyed at least 40 American Indian villages. ...


Brodhead's expedition

Further west, a concurrent expedition was undertaken by Colonel Daniel Brodhead. Brodhead left Fort Pitt on August 14, 1779, with a contingent of 600 regulars and militia, marching up the Allegheny River into the Seneca and Munsee country of northwestern Pennsylvania and South Western New York. Since most native warriors were away to confront Sullivan's army, Brodhead met little resistance and destroyed about 10 villages, including Connewango (Warren, Pennsylvania). The plan was to eventually link up with Sullivan at the Seneca village of Geneseo for an attack on Fort Niagara, but Brodhead turned back after destroying villages near modern day Salamanca, New York, never linking up with the main force. Daniel Brodhead IV (1736-1809) was an American military and political leader during the American Revolutionary War and early days of the republic. ... A Plan of the New Fort at Pitts-Burgh, drawn by cartographer John Rocque and published in 1765. ... August 14 is the 226th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (227th in leap years), with 139 days remaining. ... 1779 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The Allegheny River (historically, especially in New York state, also spelled Allegany River) is a principal tributary of the Ohio River, which it forms with the Monongahela River at the downtown Pittsburghs Golden Triangle point. The river is approximately 325 mi (523 km) long, in the U.S. states... The Seneca Tribe, or Onodowohgah (People of the Hill Top), traditionally lived in New York State between the Genesee River and Canandaigua Lake. ... The Lenape or Lenni-Lenape (later named Delaware Indians by Europeans) were, in the 1600s, loosely organized bands of Native American people practicing small-scale agriculture to augment a largely mobile hunter-gatherer society in the region around the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, and western Long Island Sound. ... SUCKS ... Geneseo is a town located in Livingston County in upstate New York, USA. Its population is approximately 9,600. ... Salamanca, New York is the name of two locations in Cattaraugus County, New York. ...


Aftermath

Although the Sullivan Expedition devastated the Iroquois crops and towns and left them at the mercy of the British for the harsh winter of 1779-80, one officer noted "The nests are destroyed, but the birds are still on the wing." Washington was underwhelmed by the lack of a decisive battle and the failure to capture Fort Niagara. Sullivan soon resigned his commission. The Iroquois continued their devastating raids throughout the war (Burning of the Valleys campaign of 1780). 1780 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


But longer term, it became clear that the expedition forever broke the Iroquois Confederacy's power. Following the war, much of the Iroquois lands would be absorbed by the United States and the State of New York, and much of its native population would move to Canada. European-Americans began settling the newly vacant area in relative safety.


See also

  • History of New York

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

References

  • Boatner, Mark Mayo. Encyclopedia of the American Revolution. New York: McKay, 1966; revised 1974. ISBN 0-8117-0578-1.
  • Calloway, Colin G. The American Revolution in Indian Country: Crisis and Diversity in Native American Communities. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1995. ISBN 0-521-47149-4 (hardback).
  • Graymont, Barbara. The Iroquois in the American Revolution. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press, 1972. ISBN 0-8156-0083-6; ISBN 081560116(paperback).
  • Mintz, Max M. Seeds of Empire: The American Revolutionary Conquest of the Iroquois. New York: New York University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-8147-5622-0 (hardcover).
  • Williams, Glenn F. Year of the Hangman: George Washington's Campaign Against the Iroquois. Yardley: Westholme Publishing, 2005. ISBN 1-59416-013-9.

External links

  • "The 1779 Sullivan Campaign" by Stanley J. Adamiak
  • Brief 1880 account of the Brodhead expedition
  • Sullivan/Clinton Campaign by Robert Spiegelman
  • Map of Sullivan/Clinton Campaign by Robert Spiegelman (non-shockwave map)
  • Retracing the Route of the Sullivan Expedition through Pennsylvania

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Ultimate Sullivan Expedition - American History Information Guide and Reference (998 words)
The Sullivan Expedition, also known as the Sullivan-Clinton Expedition, was a campaign led by Major General John Sullivan and General James Clinton against Loyalists ("Tories") and the four nations of the Iroquois who had sided with the British in the American Revolutionary War.
The expedition occurred during the summer of 1779 and only had one major battle, at Newtown along the Chemung River in western New York, in which the Tories and Iroquois were decisively defeated.
Sullivan's army then carried out a scorched earth campaign, methodically destroying at least forty Iroquois villages throughout what is now upstate New York, in retaliation for Indian and Tory attacks against American settlements earlier in the war.
Sullivan Expedition - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1092 words)
The Sullivan Expedition, also known as the Sullivan-Clinton Expedition, was a campaign led by Major General John Sullivan and General James Clinton against Loyalists ("Tories") and the four nations of the Iroquois who had sided with the British in the American Revolutionary War.
The expedition occurred during the summer of 1779 and only had one major battle, at Newtown along the Chemung River in western New York, in which the Tories and Iroquois were decisively defeated.
Sullivan's army then carried out a scorched earth campaign, methodically destroying at least forty Iroquois villages throughout what is now upstate New York, in retaliation for Iroquois and Tory attacks against American settlements earlier in the war.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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