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Encyclopedia > Sulfuric acid
Sulfuric acid
IUPAC name Sulfuric Acid
Other names oil of vitriol
Identifiers
CAS number [7664-93-9]
RTECS number WS5600000
Properties
Molecular formula H2SO4
Molar mass 98.078 g/mol
Appearance clear, colorless,
odorless liquid
Density 1.84 g cm−3, liquid
Melting point

10 °C, 283 K, 50 °F Image File history File links Sulfuric-acid-2D-dimensions. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1100x866, 168 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sulfuric acid ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... RTECS, also known as Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances, is a database of toxicity information compiled from the open scientific literature that is available for charge. ... A chemical formula is an easy way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ...

Boiling point

290 °C, 563 K, 554 °F (bp of pure acid. 98% solution boils at 338°C) Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ...

Solubility in water fully miscible
(exothermic)
Viscosity 26.7 cP at 20°C
Hazards
MSDS External MSDS
EU classification Highly Corrosive (C)
NFPA 704
0
3
2
COR
R-phrases R35
S-phrases (S1/2), S26, S30, S45
Flash point Non-flammable
Related compounds
Related strong acids Hydrochloric acid
Nitric acid
Related compounds Hydrogen sulfide
Sulfurous acid
Peroxymonosulfuric acid
Sulfur trioxide
Oleum
Supplementary data page
Structure and
properties
n, εr, etc.
Thermodynamic
data
Phase behaviour
Solid, liquid, gas
Spectral data UV, IR, NMR, MS
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references

Sulfuric acid, (also known as sulphuric acid) H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. It is soluble in water at all concentrations. It was once known as oil of vitriol, coined by the 8th-century Muslim alchemist Jabir ibn Hayyan (Geber) after his discovery of the chemical.[1] Sulfuric acid has many applications, and is one of the top products of the chemical industry. World production in 2001 was 165 million tonnes, with an approximate value of US$8 billion. Principal uses include ore processing, fertilizer manufacturing, oil refining, wastewater processing, and chemical synthesis. Solubility is a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... For other uses, see Viscosity (disambiguation). ... The poise (P; IPA: ) is the unit of dynamic viscosity in the centimetre gram second system of units. ... An example MSDS in a US format provides guidance for handling a hazardous substance and information on its composition and properties. ... Thermochemistry ... Council Directive 67/548/EEC of 27 June 1967 on the approximation of laws, regulations and administrative provisions relating to the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous substances (as amended) is the main European Union law concerning chemical safety. ... NFPA 704 is a standard maintained by the U.S. National Fire Protection Association. ... Image File history File links NFPA_704. ... R-phrases are defined in Annex III of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Nature of special risks attributed to dangerous substances and preparations. ... S-phrases are defined in Annex IV of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Safety advice concerning dangerous substances and preparations. ... For other uses, see Flash point (disambiguation). ... Acids and bases: Acid-base extraction Acid-base reaction Acid dissociation constant Acidity function Buffer solutions pH Proton affinity Self-ionization of water Acids: Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Strong acids Superacids Weak acids Bases: Lewis bases Organic bases Strong bases Superbases Non-nucleophilic bases Weak bases edit A... Hydrochloric acid is the aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ... The chemical compound nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen nitrate (anhydrous nitric acid). ... Hydrogen sulfide (hydrogen sulphide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula H2S. This colorless, toxic and flammable gas is responsible for the foul odor of rotten eggs and flatulence. ... Sulfurous acid (or sulphurous acid in British spelling) is a name given to aqueous solutions of sulfur dioxide. ... Peroxymonosulfuric acid, also known as persulfuric acid and as Caros acid, is H2SO5, a colorless solid melting at 45 °C. In this acid, the S(VI) center adopts its characteristic tetrahedral geometry; the connectivity is indicated by the formula HO-O-S(O)2-OH. H2SO5 is sometimes confused... “SO3” redirects here. ... Oleum refers to a solution of sulfur trioxide in sulfuric acid or sometimes more specifically to pyrosulfuric acid, disulfuric acid. ... Thermochemistry ... Thermochemistry ... The refractive index (or index of refraction) of a medium is a measure for how much the speed of light (or other waves such as sound waves) is reduced inside the medium. ... The relative dielectric constant of a material under given conditions is a measure of the extent to which it concentrates electrostatic lines of flux. ... Thermochemistry ... Thermochemistry ... Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy or Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometry (UV/ VIS) involves the spectroscopy of photons (spectrophotometry). ... Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy) is the subset of spectroscopy that deals with the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. ... Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy most commonly known as NMR spectroscopy is the name given to the technique which exploits the magnetic properties of certain nuclei. ... Mass spectrometry (previously called mass spectroscopy (deprecated) or informally, mass-spec and MS) is an analytical technique that measures the mass-to-charge ratio of ions. ... The plimsoll symbol as used in shipping In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals exactly). ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Acids and bases: Acid-base extraction Acid-base reaction Acid dissociation constant Acidity function Buffer solutions pH Proton affinity Self-ionization of water Acids: Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Strong acids Superacids Weak acids Bases: Lewis bases Organic bases Strong bases Superbases Non-nucleophilic bases Weak bases edit A... Headline text Happy Hannukah and a happy new year!! POOP e Butt ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Alchemy in Islam differs from the general alchemy in certain ways, one of which is that Muslim alchemists didnt believe in the creation of life in the laboratory. ... Jabir ibn Hayyan and Geber were also pen names of an anonymous 14th century Spanish alchemist: see Pseudo-Geber. ... The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals. ... This article is about the metric tonne. ... For other uses, see Ore (disambiguation). ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ... View of Shell Oil Refinery in Martinez, California. ... Wastewater is any water that has been adversely affected in quality by anthropogenic influence. ... In chemistry, chemical synthesis is purposeful execution of chemical reactions in order to get a product, or several products. ...


Many proteins are made of sulfur-containing amino acids (such as cysteine and methionine) which produce sulfuric acid when metabolized by the body. A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... For other uses, see acid (disambiguation). ... Cysteine is a naturally occurring, sulfur-containing amino acid that is found in most proteins, although only in small quantities. ... Methionine is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2CH2SCH3. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ...

Contents

Occurrence

Pure undiluted sulfuric acid is not encountered on Earth, due to sulfuric acid's great affinity for water. Apart from that, sulfuric acid is a constituent of acid rain, which is formed by atmospheric oxidation of sulfur dioxide in the presence of water, i.e., oxidation of sulfurous acid. Sulfur dioxide is the main byproduct produced when sulfur-containing fuels such as coal or oil are burned. The term acid rain is commonly used to mean the deposition of acidic components in rain, snow, fog, dew, or dry particles. ... ed|other uses|reduction}} Illustration of a redox reaction Redox (shorthand for reduction/oxidation reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ... Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ... H2O and HOH redirect here. ... Sulfurous acid (or sulphurous acid in British spelling) is a name given to aqueous solutions of sulfur dioxide. ...


Sulfuric acid is formed naturally by the oxidation of sulfide minerals, such as iron sulfide. The resulting water can be highly acidic and is called Acid Mine Drainage (AMD). This acidic water is capable of dissolving metals present in sulfide ores, which results in brightly-colored, toxic streams. The oxidation of iron sulfide pyrite (FeS2) by molecular oxygen produces iron(II), or Fe2+: Acid mine drainage (AMD), or acid rock drainage (ARD), refers to the outflow of acidic water from (usually) abandoned metal mines or coal mines. ... The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, is iron sulfide, FeS2. ...

2 FeS2 + 7 O2 + 2 H2O → 2 Fe2+ + 4 SO42− + 4 H+

The Fe2+ can be further oxidized to Fe3+, according to:

4 Fe2+ + O2 + 4 H+ → 4 Fe3+ + 2 H2O

and the Fe3+ produced can be precipitated as the hydroxide or hydrous oxide. The equation for the formation of the hydroxide is Hydroxide is a polyatomic ion consisting of oxygen and hydrogen: OH− It has a charge of −1. ...

Fe3+ + 3 H2O → Fe(OH)3 + 3 H+

The iron(III) ion ("ferric iron", in casual nomenclature) can also oxidize pyrite. When iron(III) oxidation of pyrite occurs, the process can become rapid. pH values below zero have been measured in AMD produced by this process.


AMD can also produce sulfuric acid at a slower rate, so that the Acid Neutralization Capacity (ANC) of the aquifer can neutralize the produced acid. In such cases, the Total Dissolved solids (TDS) concentration of the water can be increased form the dissolution of minerals from the acid-neutralization reaction with the minerals.


Extraterrestrial sulfuric acid

Sulfuric acid is produced in the upper atmosphere of Venus by the sun's photochemical action on carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and water vapor. Ultraviolet photons of wavelengths less than 169 nm can photodissociate carbon dioxide into carbon monoxide and atomic oxygen. Atomic oxygen is highly reactive. When it reacts with sulfur dioxide, a trace component of the Venerian atmosphere, the result is sulfur trioxide, which can combine with water vapor, another trace component of Venus's atmosphere, to yield sulfuric acid. For other uses, see Venus (disambiguation). ... Photochemistry is the study of the interaction of light and chemicals. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ... In modern physics the photon is the elementary particle responsible for electromagnetic phenomena. ... A nanometre (American spelling: nanometer) is 1. ... Photodissociation is the breakup of molecules caused by exposure to photons. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... “SO3” redirects here. ...

CO2 → CO + O
SO2 + O → SO3
SO3 + H2O → H2SO4

In the upper, cooler portions of Venus's atmosphere, sulfuric acid exists as a liquid, and thick sulfuric acid clouds completely obscure the planet's surface when viewed from above. The main cloud layer extends from 45–70 km above the planet's surface, with thinner hazes extending as low as 30 and as high as 90 km above the surface. For other uses, see Cloud (disambiguation). ... A kilometer (Commonwealth spelling: kilometre), symbol: km is a unit of length in the metric system equal to 1,000 metres (from the Greek words χίλια (khilia) = thousand and μέτρο (metro) = count/measure). ...


Infrared spectra from NASA's Galileo mission show distinct absorptions on Jupiter's moon Europa that have been attributed to one or more sulfuric acid hydrates. The interpretation of the spectra is somewhat controversial. Some planetary scientists prefer to assign the spectral features to the sulfate ion, perhaps as part of one or more minerals on Europa's surface.[2] For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... Galileo is prepared for mating with the IUS booster Galileo and Inertial Upper Stage being deployed after being launched by the Space Shuttle Atlantis on the STS-34 mission Galileo was an unmanned spacecraft sent by NASA to study the planet Jupiter and its moons. ... For other uses, see Jupiter (disambiguation). ... Apparent magnitude: 5. ...


Manufacture

Main article: Contact process

Sulfuric acid is produced from sulfur, oxygen and water via the contact process. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


In the first step, sulfur is burned to produce sulfur dioxide. This article is about the chemical element. ... Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ...

(1) S(s) + O2(g) → SO2(g)

This is then oxidised to sulfur trioxide using oxygen in the presence of a vanadium(V) oxide catalyst. This box:      For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Gas (disambiguation). ... “SO3” redirects here. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Vanadium(V) oxide (V2O5), commonly known as vanadium pentoxide, is the most important compound of vanadium. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ...

(2) 2 SO2 + O2(g) → 2 SO3(g)     (in presence of V2O5)

Finally the sulfur trioxide is treated with water (usually as 97-98% H2SO4 containing 2-3% water) to produce 98-99% sulfuric acid. Vanadium(V) oxide (V2O5), commonly known as vanadium pentoxide, is the most important compound of vanadium. ... “SO3” redirects here. ...

(3) SO3(g) + H2O(l) → H2SO4(l)

Note that directly dissolving SO3 in water is not practical due to the highly exothermic nature of the reaction, forming a corrosive mist instead of a liquid. Alternatively, SO3 can be absorbed into H2SO4 to produce oleum (H2S2O7), which may then be mixed with water to form sulfuric acid. For other uses, see Liquid (disambiguation). ... In chemistry, an exothermic reaction is one that releases heat. ... For other uses, see Chemical reaction (disambiguation). ... Oleum refers to a solution of sulfur trioxide in sulfuric acid or sometimes more specifically to pyrosulfuric acid, disulfuric acid. ...

(3) H2SO4(l) + SO3 → H2S2O7(l)

Oleum is reacted with water to form concentrated H2SO4.

(4) H2S2O7(l) + H2O(l) → 2 H2SO4(l)

Physical properties

Forms of sulfuric acid

Although nearly 100% sulfuric acid can be made, this loses SO3 at the boiling point to produce 98.3% acid. The 98% grade (18M) is more stable in storage, and is the usual form of what is described as concentrated sulfuric acid. Other concentrations are used for different purposes. Some common concentrations are “SO3” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Concentration (disambiguation). ...

  • 10%, dilute sulfuric acid for laboratory use,
  • 33.5%, battery acid (used in lead-acid batteries),
  • 62.18%, chamber or fertilizer acid,
  • 77.67%, tower or Glover acid,
  • 98%, concentrated acid.

Different purities are also available. Technical grade H2SO4 is impure and often colored, but is suitable for making fertilizer. Pure grades such as United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) grade are used for making pharmaceuticals and dyestuffs. A valve-regulated, sometimes called sealed, lead acid battery Lead-acid batteries, invented in 1859 by French physicist Gaston Planté, are the oldest type of rechargeable battery. ... The United States Pharmacopoeia is a compendium of drugs published every five years by the United States Pharmacopoeial Convention. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ... Look up dye in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


When high concentrations of SO3(g) are added to sulfuric acid, H2S2O7, called pyrosulfuric acid, fuming sulfuric acid or oleum or, less commonly, Nordhausen acid, is formed. Concentrations of oleum are either expressed in terms of% SO3 (called% oleum) or as% H2SO4 (the amount made if H2O were added); common concentrations are 40% oleum (109% H2SO4) and 65% oleum (114.6% H2SO4). Pure H2S2O7 is a solid with melting point 36°C. For other uses, see Gas (disambiguation). ... See oleum ... Oleum refers to a solution of sulfur trioxide in sulfuric acid or sometimes more specifically to pyrosulfuric acid, disulfuric acid. ...


Polarity and conductivity

Anhydrous H2SO4 is a very polar liquid, having a dielectric constant of around 100. It has a high electrical conductivity, caused by dissociation through protonating itself, a process known as autoprotolysis, or autoionization.[3] As a general term, a substance is said to be anhydrous if it contains no water. ... A commonly-used example of a polar compound is water (H2O). ... The relative dielectric constant of a material under given conditions is a measure of the extent to which it concentrates electrostatic lines of flux. ... Protonation is the addition of a proton (H+) to an atom, molecule, or ion. ... Autoionization is a process by which atoms or molecules spontaneously transition from an electrically neutral state to a lower-energy ionized state. ...

2 H2SO4 H3SO4+ + HSO4

The equilibrium constant for the autoprotolysis is[3] In chemistry, the equilibrium constant is a quantity characterizing a chemical equilibrium in a chemical reaction. ...

Kap(25°C)= [H3SO4+][HSO4] = 2.7 × 10−4.

The comparable equilibrium constant for water, Kw is 10−14, a factor of 1010 (10 billion) smaller. The self-ionization of water is the chemical reaction in which two water molecules react to produce a hydronium (H3O+) and a hydroxide ion (OH-): The reaction is also known as the autoionization or autodissociation of water. ...


In spite of the viscosity of the acid, the effective conductivities of the H3SO4+ and HSO4 ions are high due to an intra-molecular proton-switch mechanism (analogous to the Grotthuss mechanism in water), making sulfuric acid a good conductor. It is also an excellent solvent for many reactions. Molar conductivity is defined as the conductivity of a solution divided by the molar concentration of charge-carrying species (ions). ... The protonic defect migrates through the hydrogen bond network through a series of covalent bond cleavage/formation. ...


The equilibrium is actually more complex than shown above; 100% H2SO4 contains the following species at equilibrium (figures shown as millimol per kg solvent): HSO4 (15.0), H3SO4+ (11.3), H3O+ (8.0), HS2O7 (4.4), H2S2O7 (3.6), H2O (0.1).[3] A burette, an apparatus for carrying out acid-base titration, is an important part of equilibrium chemistry. ... Oleum refers to a solution of sulfur trioxide in sulfuric acid or sometimes more specifically to pyrosulfuric acid, disulfuric acid. ...


Chemical properties

Reaction with water

The hydration reaction of sulfuric acid is highly exothermic. If water is added to the concentrated sulfuric acid, it can react, boil and spit dangerously. One should always add the acid to the water rather than the water to the acid. The necessity for this safety precaution is due to the relative densities of these two liquids. Water is less dense than sulfuric acid, meaning water will tend to float on top of this acid. The reaction is best thought of as forming hydronium ions, by In organic chemistry, a hydration reaction is a chemical reaction in which a hydroxyl group (OH-) and a hydrogen cation (an acidic proton) are added to the two carbon atoms bonded together in the carbon-carbon double bond which makes up an alkene functional group. ... In chemistry, an exothermic reaction is one that releases heat. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... In chemistry, hydronium is the common name for the cation H3O+ derived from protonation of water. ...

H2SO4 + H2O → H3O+ + HSO4,

and then

HSO4 + H2O → H3O+ + SO42−.

Because the hydration of sulfuric acid is thermodynamically favorable, sulfuric acid is an excellent dehydrating agent. The affinity of sulfuric acid for water is sufficiently strong that it will remove hydrogen and oxygen atoms from other compounds; for example, mixing starch (C6H12O6)n and concentrated sulfuric acid will give elemental carbon and water which is absorbed by the sulfuric acid (which becomes slightly diluted): (C6H12O6)n → 6C + 6H2O. The effect of this can be seen when concentrated sulfuric acid is spilled on paper; the cellulose reacts to give a burned appearance, the carbon appears much as soot would in a fire. A more dramatic reaction occurs when sulfuric acid is added to a tablespoon of white sugar; a rigid column of black, porous carbon will quickly emerge. The carbon will smell strongly of caramel. Thermodynamics (Greek: thermos = heat and dynamic = change) is the physics of energy, heat, work, entropy and the spontaneity of processes. ... H2O and HOH redirect here. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8, chemical formula (C6H10O5)n,[1]) is a mixture of amylose and amylopectin (usually in 20:80 or 30:70 ratios). ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical reaction combustion. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ... Caramel candy For other uses, see Caramel (disambiguation). ...


Other reactions

As an acid, sulfuric acid reacts with most bases to give the corresponding sulfate. For example, copper(II) sulfate. This blue salt of copper, commonly used for electroplating and as a fungicide, is prepared by the reaction of copper(II) oxide (CuO) with sulfuric acid: Acids and bases: Acid-base extraction Acid-base reaction Acid dissociation constant Acidity function Buffer solutions pH Proton affinity Self-ionization of water Acids: Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Strong acids Superacids Weak acids Bases: Lewis bases Organic bases Strong bases Superbases Non-nucleophilic bases Weak bases edit In... The sulfate anion, SO42− The structure and bonding of the sulfate ion In inorganic chemistry, a sulfate (IUPAC-recommended spelling; also sulphate in British English) is a salt of sulfuric acid. ... Flash point non flammable Related Compounds Other cations Nickel(II) sulfate Zinc sulfate Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Copper(II) sulfate (sulphate in most Commonwealth nations) is the chemical compound with the formula... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... Electroplating is the process of using Davd lloyd current to coat an electrically conductive object with a relatively thin layer of metal. ... A Fungicide is one of three main methods of pest control- chemical control of fungi in this case. ... Copper(II) oxide or cupric oxide (CuO) is the higher oxide of copper. ...

CuO + H2SO4 → CuSO4+ H2O

Sulfuric acid can also be used to displace weaker acids from their salts. Reaction with sodium acetate, for example, displaces acetic acid: Sodium acetate, (also rarely, sodium ethanoate) is the sodium salt of acetic acid. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , Flash point 43 °C Related Compounds Related carboxylic; acids Formic acid; Propionic acid; Butyric acid Related compounds acetamide; ethyl acetate; acetyl chloride; acetic anhydride; acetonitrile; acetaldehyde; ethanol; thioacetic acid; acetylcholine; acetylcholinesterase Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ...

H2SO4 + CH3COONa → NaHSO4 + CH3COOH

Similarly, reacting sulfuric acid with potassium nitrate can be used to produce nitric acid and a precipitate of potassium bisulfate. When combined with nitric acid, sulfuric acid acts both as an acid and a dehydrating agent, forming the nitronium ion NO2+, which is important in nitration reactions involving electrophilic aromatic substitution. This type of reaction, where protonation occurs on an oxygen atom, is important in many organic chemistry reactions, such as Fischer esterification and dehydration of alcohols. R-phrases   S-phrases   Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... The chemical compound nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen nitrate (anhydrous nitric acid). ... Potassium hydrogen sulfate, also potassium bisulfate, has formula KHSO4. ... The chemical compound nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen nitrate (anhydrous nitric acid). ... The nitronium ion, NO2+, is not stable enough to exist in normal conditions, but it is used extensively in the nitration of other substances. ... Nitration is a general chemical process for the introduction of a nitro group in a chemical compound by means of a chemical reaction. ... Electrophilic aromatic substitution or EAS is an organic reaction in which an atom, usually hydrogen, appended to an aromatic system is replaced by an electrophile. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, the halogens as... Fischer esterification is the process of forming an ester by refluxing a carboxylic acid and an alcohol in the presence of an acid (catalyst). ...


Sulfuric acid reacts with most metals via a single displacement reaction to produce hydrogen gas and the metal sulfate. Dilute H2SO4 attacks iron, aluminium, zinc, manganese, magnesium and nickel, but reactions with tin and copper require the acid to be hot and concentrated. Lead and tungsten, however, are resistant to sulfuric acid. The reaction with iron (shown) is typical for most of these metals, but the reaction with tin is unusual in that it produces sulfur dioxide rather than hydrogen. This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... Aluminum redirects here. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... For other uses, see Tungsten (disambiguation). ... Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ...

Fe(s) + H2SO4(aq) → H2(g) + FeSO4(aq)
Sn(s) + 2 H2SO4(aq) → SnSO4(aq) + 2 H2O(l) + SO2(g)

Sulfuric acid undergoes electrophilic aromatic substitution with aromatic compounds to give the corresponding sulfonic acids:[4] Electrophilic aromatic substitution or EAS is an organic reaction in which an atom, usually hydrogen, appended to an aromatic system is replaced by an electrophile. ... The term aromatic compound may also refer to: any organic compound possessing a strong olfactory aroma aromatic hydrocarbons (originally named as a subset of the above; however, aromatic hydrocarbons do not necessarily possess any smell whatsoever) ...

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Uses

Sulfuric acid production in 2000
Sulfuric acid production in 2000
Production trend in some countries
Production trend in some countries

Sulfuric acid is a very important commodity chemical, and indeed, a nation's sulfuric acid production is a good indicator of its industrial strength.[5] The major use (60% of total production worldwide) for sulfuric acid is in the "wet method" for the production of phosphoric acid, used for manufacture of phosphate fertilizers as well as trisodium phosphate for detergents. In this method, phosphate rock is used, and more than 100 million tonnes are processed annually. This raw material is shown below as fluorapatite, though the exact composition may vary. This is treated with 93% sulfuric acid to produce calcium sulfate, hydrogen fluoride (HF) and phosphoric acid. The HF is removed as hydrofluoric acid. The overall process can be represented as: Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 59 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of sulphuric acid output in 2000 as a percentage of the top producer (China - 24,270,000 tonnes). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 59 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of sulphuric acid output in 2000 as a percentage of the top producer (China - 24,270,000 tonnes). ... This article is about orthophosphoric acid. ... A phosphate, in inorganic chemistry, is a salt of phosphoric acid. ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ... Trisodium phosphate (TSP), available at most hardware stores in white powder form, is a cleaning agent and degreaser, commonly used to prepare household surfaces for painting. ... Apatite is a group of minerals, usually referring to: hydroxylapatite, fluorapatite, and chlorapatite, named for high concentrations of OH-, F-, or Cl- ions, respectively, in the crystal lattice. ... Calcium sulphate is a common laboratory and industrial chemical. ... Hydrogen fluoride is a chemical compound with the formula HF. Together with hydrofluoric acid, it is the principal industrial source of fluorine and hence the precursor to many important compounds including pharmaceuticals and polymers (e. ... This article is about orthophosphoric acid. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , Flash point nonflammable Related Compounds Other anions Hydrochloric acid Hydrobromic acid Hydroiodic acid Related compounds Hydrogen fluoride fluorosilicic acid Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ...

Ca5F(PO4)3 + 5 H2SO4 + 10 H2O → 5 CaSO4•2 H2O + HF + 3 H3PO4.

Sulfuric acid is used in large quantities by the iron and steelmaking industry to remove oxidation, rust and scale from rolled sheet and billets prior to sale to the automobile and white-goods industry. Used acid is often recycled using a Spent Acid Regeneration (SAR) plant. These plants combust spent acid with natural gas, refinery gas, fuel oil or other fuel sources. This combustion process produces gaseous sulfur dioxide (SO2) and sulfur trioxide (SO3) which are then used to manufacture "new" sulfuric acid. SAR plants are common additions to metal smelting plants, oil refineries, and other industries where sulfuric acid is consumed in bulk, as operating a SAR plant is much cheaper than the recurring costs of spent acid disposal and new acid purchases. Apatite is a group of minerals, usually referring to: hydroxylapatite, fluorapatite, and chlorapatite, named for high concentrations of OH-, F-, or Cl- ions, respectively, in the crystal lattice. ... H2O and HOH redirect here. ... Calcium sulphate is a common laboratory and industrial chemical. ... Hydrogen fluoride is a chemical compound with the formula HF. Together with hydrofluoric acid, it is the principal industrial source of fluorine and hence the precursor to many important compounds including pharmaceuticals and polymers (e. ... This article is about orthophosphoric acid. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rust (disambiguation). ... Car redirects here. ...


Ammonium sulfate, an important nitrogen fertilizer, is most commonly produced as a byproduct from coking plants supplying the iron and steel making plants. Reacting the ammonia produced in the thermal decomposition of coal with waste sulfuric acid allows the ammonia to be crystallized out as a salt (often brown because of iron contamination) and sold into the agro-chemicals industry. Ammonium sulphate, [NH4]2[SO4] contains 21% nitrogen as ammonia and 24% sulfur as sulfate. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ...


Another important use for sulfuric acid is for the manufacture of aluminium sulfate, also known as paper maker's alum. This can react with small amounts of soap on paper pulp fibers to give gelatinous aluminium carboxylates, which help to coagulate the pulp fibers into a hard paper surface. It is also used for making aluminium hydroxide, which is used at water treatment plants to filter out impurities, as well as to improve the taste of the water. Aluminum sulfate is made by reacting bauxite with sulfuric acid: Aluminium sulfate is a widely used industrial chemical. ... Pulpwood refers to timber stocks that are cut for paper production. ... Structure of a carboxylic acid Carboxylic acids, also known as alkanoic acids, are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group and have the general chemical formula R-C(=O)-OH, also written as R-COOH, where R is a hydrogen or an alkyl group. ... Aluminium hydroxide, Al(OH)3, is the most stable form of aluminium in normal conditions. ... A water treatment plant in northern Portugal. ... An industrial water filter with geared motor A water filter is a device which removes impurities from water by means of a fine physical barrier, chemical processes and/or biological process. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... This article is about the ore. ...

Al2O3 + 3 H2SO4Al2(SO4)3 + 3 H2O.

Sulfuric acid is used for a variety of other purposes in the chemical industry. For example, it is the usual acid catalyst for the conversion of cyclohexanoneoxime to caprolactam, used for making nylon. It is used for making hydrochloric acid from salt via the Mannheim process. Much H2SO4 is used in petroleum refining, for example as a catalyst for the reaction of isobutane with isobutylene to give isooctane, a compound that raises the octane rating of gasoline (petrol). Sulfuric acid is also important in the manufacture of dyestuffs solutions and is the "acid" in lead-acid (car) batteries. Alumina redirects here. ... Aluminium sulfate is a widely used industrial chemical. ... H2O and HOH redirect here. ... Caprolactam (C6H11ON) is the monomer used in the production of nylon 6. ... For other uses of this word, see nylon (disambiguation). ... Hydrochloric acid is the aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ... This article is about common table salt. ... The Mannheim process is an important method for the manufacture of hydrochloric acid and sodium sulfate from sodium chloride (salt) and sulfuric acid in which case the Na2SO4 is known as salt cake: 2 NaCl + H2SO4 → Na2SO4 + 2 HCl Categories: | ... Petro redirects here. ... Butane is an alkane hydrocarbon with the molecular formula C4H10. ... 1-butene cis-2-butene trans-2-butene methylpropene There are four alkenes which have four carbon atoms and one double bond in their chemical structure. ... Octane is an alkane hydrocarbon with the chemical formula CH3(CH2)6CH3. ... A gas station pump offering five different octane ratings. ... Petrol redirects here. ... Look up dye in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Sulfuric acid is also used as a general dehydrating agent in its concentrated form. See Reaction with water. Sulfuric acid, (also known as sulphuric acid) H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ...


Sulfur-iodine cycle

The sulfur-iodine cycle is a series of thermo-chemical processes used to obtain hydrogen. It consists of three chemical reactions whose net reactant is water and whose net products are hydrogen and oxygen. The sulfur-iodine cycle is a series of thermochemical processes used to produce hydrogen. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ...

2 H2SO4 → 2 SO2 + 2 H2O + O2     (830°C)
I2 + SO2 + 2 H2O → 2 HI + H2SO4     (120°C)
2 HII2 + H2     (320°C)

The sulfur and iodine compounds are recovered and reused, hence the consideration of the process as a cycle. This process is endothermic and must occur at high temperatures, so energy in the form of heat has to be supplied. This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ... This article is about the physical effect. ...


The sulfur-iodine cycle has been proposed as a way to supply hydrogen for a hydrogen-based economy. It does not require hydrocarbons like current methods of steam reforming. A hydrogen economy is a hypothetical economy in which the energy needed for motive power (for automobiles or other vehicle types) or electricity (for stationary applications) is derived from reacting hydrogen (H2) with oxygen. ... In chemistry, a hydrocarbon is a cleaning solution consisting only of carbon (C) and hydrogen (H). ... Steam reforming, hydrogen reforming or catalytic oxidation, is a method of producing hydrogen from hydrocarbons. ...


The sulfur-iodine cycle is currently being researched as a feasible method of obtaining hydrogen, but the concentrated, corrosive acid at high temperatures poses currently insurmountable safety hazards if the process were built on large-scale.


History

John Dalton's 1808 sulfuric acid molecule shows a central sulfur atom bonded to three oxygen atoms.

The discovery of sulfuric acid is credited to the 8th century Arabian chemist and alchemist, Jabir ibn Hayyan (Geber). The acid was later studied by 9th century Persian physician and alchemist Ibn Zakariya al-Razi (Rhazes), who obtained the substance by dry distillation of minerals including iron(II) sulfate heptahydrate, FeSO4 • 7H2O, and copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate, CuSO4 • 5H2O. When heated, these compounds decompose to iron(II) oxide and copper(II) oxide, respectively, giving off water and sulfur trioxide, which combine to produce a dilute solution of sulfuric acid. This method was popularized in Europe through translations of Arabic and Persian treatises, as well as books by European alchemists, such as the 13th-century German Albertus Magnus. Image File history File links Dalton's-sulphuric-acid. ... Image File history File links Dalton's-sulphuric-acid. ... John Dalton John Dalton (September 6, 1766 – July 27, 1844) was an English chemist and physicist, born at Eaglesfield, near Cockermouth in Cumberland. ... Alchemy in Islam differs from the general alchemy in certain ways, one of which is that Muslim alchemists didnt believe in the creation of life in the laboratory. ... Jabir ibn Hayyan and Geber were also pen names of an anonymous 14th century Spanish alchemist: see Pseudo-Geber. ... In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine or Arabic medicine refers to medicine developed in the medieval Islamic civilisation and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of the Islamic civilization. ... For other uses, see Razi. ... Dry distillation is the heating of solid materials to produce liquid or gaseous products (which may condense into solids). ... Iron(II) sulfate is the chemical compound with the formula (FeSO4). ... Flash point non flammable Related Compounds Other cations Nickel(II) sulfate Zinc sulfate Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Copper(II) sulfate (sulphate in most Commonwealth nations) is the chemical compound with the formula... Iron(II) oxide, also called ferrous oxide, is a black-colored powder with the chemical formula FeO. It consists of the element iron in the oxidation state of 2 bonded to oxygen. ... Copper(II) oxide or cupric oxide (CuO) is the higher oxide of copper. ... H2O and HOH redirect here. ... “SO3” redirects here. ... Albertus Magnus (b. ...


Sulfuric acid was known to medieval European alchemists as oil of vitriol, spirit of vitriol, or simply vitriol, among other names. The word vitriol derives from the Latin vitreus, 'glass', referring to the glassy appearance of the sulfate salts, which also carried the name vitriol. Salts called by this name included copper(II) sulfate (blue vitriol, or rarely Roman vitriol), zinc sulfate (white vitriol), iron(II) sulfate (green vitriol), iron(III) sulfate (vitriol of Mars), and cobalt(II) sulfate (red vitriol). Flash point non flammable Related Compounds Other cations Nickel(II) sulfate Zinc sulfate Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Copper(II) sulfate (sulphate in most Commonwealth nations) is the chemical compound with the formula... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) is a colorless crystalline, water-soluble chemical compound. ... Iron(II) sulfate is the chemical compound with the formula (FeSO4). ... Iron(III) sulfate, is a compund of Iron and sulfate (made of sulfur and oxygen atoms). ...


Vitriol was widely considered the most important alchemical substance, intended to be used as a philosopher's stone. Highly purified vitriol was used as a medium for reacting other substances. This was largely because the acid does not react with gold, production of which was often the final goal of alchemical processes. The importance of vitriol to alchemy is highlighted in the alchemical motto, Visita Interiora Terrae Rectificando Invenies Occultum Lapidem which is a backronym meaning ('Visit the interior of the earth and rectifying (i.e. purifying) you will find the hidden/secret stone'), found in L'Azoth des Philosophes by the 15th Century alchemist Basilius Valentinus, . For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Philosophers stone (disambiguation). ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... A backronym (or bacronym) is a phrase that is constructed after the fact from a previously existing abbreviation, the abbreviation being an initialism or an acronym. ... 18th century illustration to 3rd key, in Duodecim Claves Basilius Valentinus, also known under his Anglisized name of Basil Valentine was a 15th-century alchemist. ...


In the 17th century, the German-Dutch chemist Johann Glauber prepared sulfuric acid by burning sulfur together with saltpeter (potassium nitrate, KNO3), in the presence of steam. As saltpeter decomposes, it oxidizes the sulfur to SO3, which combines with water to produce sulfuric acid. In 1736, Joshua Ward, a London pharmacist, used this method to begin the first large-scale production of sulfuric acid. Johann Rudolf Glauber (1604 - March 10, 1670), a German-Dutch alchemist and chemist. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... R-phrases   S-phrases   Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... R-phrases   S-phrases   Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


In 1746 in Birmingham, John Roebuck adapted this method to produce sulfuric acid in lead-lined chambers, which were stronger, less expensive, and could be made larger than the previously used glass containers. This lead chamber process allowed the effective industrialization of sulfuric acid production. After several refinements, this method remained the standard for sulfuric acid production for almost two centuries. This article is about the British city. ... This article is about the English inventor. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... The Lead Chamber Process was an industrial process used to produce relatively strong concentrations of sulfuric acid in large quantities. ...


Sulfuric acid created by John Roebuck's process only approached a 35–40% concentration. Later refinements to the lead-chamber process by French chemist Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac and British chemist John Glover improved the yield to 78%. However, the manufacture of some dyes and other chemical processes require a more concentrated product. Throughout the 18th century, this could only be made by dry distilling minerals in a technique similar to the original alchemical processes. Pyrite (iron disulfide, FeS2) was heated in air to yield iron (II) sulfate, FeSO4, which was oxidized by further heating in air to form iron(III) sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3, which, when heated to 480 °C, decomposed to iron(III) oxide and sulfur trioxide, which could be passed through water to yield sulfuric acid in any concentration. However, the expense of this process prevented the large-scale use of concentrated sulfuric acid. Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac (December 6, 1778–May 10, 1850) was a French chemist and physicist. ... For others with the same name, see: John Glover (disambiguation). ... Look up dye in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Dry distillation is the heating of solid materials to produce liquid or gaseous products (which may condense into solids). ... For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, is iron sulfide, FeS2. ... The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, is iron disulfide, FeS2. ... Iron(II) sulfate (FeSO4) is an example of an ionic compound. ... Iron(III) sulfate, is a compund of Iron and sulfate (made of sulfur and oxygen atoms). ... Iron(III) oxide — also known as ferric oxide, Hematite, red iron oxide, synthetic maghemite, colcothar, or simply rust — is one of the several oxide compounds of iron, and has paramagnetic properties. ... “SO3” redirects here. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ...


In 1831, British vinegar merchant Peregrine Phillips patented the contact process, which was a far more economical process for producing sulfur trioxide and concentrated sulfuric acid. Today, nearly all of the world's sulfuric acid is produced using this method. Vinegar is sometimes infused with spices or herbs—as here, with oregano. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Safety

Laboratory hazards

Drops of 98 % sulfuric acid burn a piece of tissue paper instantly
Drops of 98 % sulfuric acid burn a piece of tissue paper instantly

The corrosive properties of sulfuric acid are accentuated by its highly exothermic reaction with water. Hence burns from sulfuric acid are potentially more serious than those of comparable strong acids (e.g. hydrochloric acid), as there is additional tissue damage due to dehydration and particularly due to the heat liberated by the reaction with water; i.e. secondary thermal damage. The danger is obviously greater with more concentrated preparations of sulfuric acid, but it should be remembered that even the normal laboratory "dilute" grade (approx. 1 M, 10%) will char paper by dehydration if left in contact for a sufficient while. Solutions equal to or stronger than 1.5 M should be labeled CORROSIVE, while solutions greater than 0.5 M but less than 1.5 M should be labeled IRRITANT. Fuming sulfuric acid (oleum) is not recommended for use in schools due to it being quite hazardous. The standard first aid treatment for acid spills on the skin is, as for other corrosive agents, irrigation with large quantities of water: Washing should be continued for at least ten to fifteen minutes in order to cool the tissue surrounding the acid burn and to prevent secondary damage. Contaminated clothing must be removed immediately and the underlying skin washed thoroughly. In chemistry, an exothermic reaction is one that releases heat. ... H2O and HOH redirect here. ... Hydrochloric acid is the aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ... For the hazard, see corrosive. ...


Preparation of the diluted acid can also be dangerous due to the heat released in the dilution process. It is essential that the concentrated acid is added to water and not the other way round, to take advantage of the relatively high heat capacity of water. Addition of water to concentrated sulfuric acid leads at best to the dispersal of a sulfuric acid aerosol, at worst to an explosion. Preparation of solutions greater than 6 M (35%) in concentration is the most dangerous, as the heat produced can be sufficient to boil the diluted acid: efficient mechanical stirring and external cooling (e.g. an ice bath) are essential. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM), aerosols or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas. ...


Industrial hazards

Although sulfuric acid is non-flammable, contact with metals in the event of a spillage can lead to the liberation of hydrogen gas. The dispersal of acid aerosols and gaseous sulfur dioxide is an additional hazard of fires involving sulfuric acid. This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ...


Sulfuric acid is not considered toxic besides its obvious corrosive hazard, and the main occupational risks are skin contact leading to burns (see above) and the inhalation of aerosols.[6] Exposure to aerosols at high concentrations leads to immediate and severe irritation of the eyes, respiratory tract and mucous membranes: this ceases rapidly after exposure, although there is a risk of subsequent pulmonary edema if tissue damage has been more severe. At lower concentrations, the most commonly reported symptom of chronic exposure to sulfuric acid aerosols is erosion of the teeth, found in virtually all studies: indications of possible chronic damage to the respiratory tract are inconclusive as of 1997. In the United States, the permissible exposure limit (PEL) for sulfuric acid is fixed at 1 mg/m³: limits in other countries are similar. Interestingly there have been reports of sulfuric acid ingestion leading to vitamin B12 deficiency with subacute combined degeneration. The spinal cord is most often affected in such cases, but the optic nerves may show demyelination, loss of axons and gliosis. Pulmonary edema is swelling and/or fluid accumulation in the lungs. ... In humans the respiratory tract is the part of the anatomy that has to do with the process of respiration or breathing. ... The Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL or OSHA PEL) is a legal limit in the United States for personal exposure to a substance, usually expressed in parts per million (ppm). ... B12 deficiency can potentially cause severe and irreversible damage, especially to the brain and nervous system. ... In neuroscience, myelin is an electrically insulating fatty layer that surrounds the axons of many neurons, especially those in the peripheral nervous system. ... An axon or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that conducts electrical impulses away from the neurons cell body or soma. ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ...


Legal restrictions

International commerce of sulfuric acid is controlled under the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, 1988, which lists sulfuric acid under Table II of the convention as a chemical frequently used in the illicit manufacture of narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances.[7] United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Opened for signature December 20, 1988[1] at Vienna Entered into force November 11, 1990[2] Conditions for entry into force 20 ratifications Parties 170[3] The 1988 United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and...


In the United States of America, sulfuric acid is included in List II of the list of essential or precursor chemicals established pursuant to the Chemical Diversion and Trafficking Act. Accordingly, transactions of sulfuric acid—such as sales, transfers, exports from and imports to the United States—are subject to regulation and monitoring by the Drug Enforcement Administration.[8][9][10] Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... The United States Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) maintains lists regarding not only the classification of illicit drugs (see DEA Schedules). ... The United States Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) maintains lists regarding not only the classification of illicit drugs (see DEA Schedules). ... The Chemical Diversion and Trafficking Act of 1988 was an amendment to the Controlled Substances Act to regulate precursor chemicals, essential chemicals, tableting machines, and encapsulating machines by imposing record keeping and import/export reporting requirements on transactions involving these materials. ... The DEAs enforcement activities may take agents anywhere from distant countries to suburban U.S. homes. ...


In fiction

In several films, cartoons and TV shows, especially Science-Fiction shows and films, sulfuric acid is sometimes depicted as a bubbling green steaming liquid, sometimes capable of dissolving almost anything in an instant. This is purely for visual appeal, since boiling green acid is more dangerous-looking than the actual clear and syrupy form of sulfuric acid. The use of sulfuric acid as a weapon in crimes of assault, known as "vitriol throwing", has at times been sufficiently common (if sensational) to make its way into novels and short stories. Examples include The Adventure of the Illustrious Client by Arthur Conan Doyle, The Love of Long Ago by Guy de Maupassant, Nineteen Eighty-Four by George Orwell and Brighton Rock by Graham Greene. The novel Veronika Decides to Die by Paulo Coelho talks of a girl who has attempted to commit suicide and ends up with vitriol poisoning. The recently released movie, Untraceable, uses sulfuric acid to slowly and torturously publicly kill a man while streaming on the internet. For the song from The Rocky Horror Show, see Science Fiction/Double Feature. ... Vitriolage is the deliberate splashing of a person or object with acid, also known as vitriol, in order to deface or kill. ... The Adventure of the Illustrious Client, one of the 56 Sherlock Holmes short stories written by British author Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, is one of 12 stories in the cycle collected as The Case Book of Sherlock Holmes. ... Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle, DL (22 May 1859 – 7 July 1930) was a British author most noted for his stories about the detective Sherlock Holmes, which are generally considered a major innovation in the field of crime fiction, and for the adventures of Professor Challenger. ... Guy de Maupassant. ... This article is about the Orwell novel. ... George Orwell is the pen name of Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903[1][2] – 21 January 1950) who was an English writer and journalist well-noted as a novelist, critic, and commentator on politics and culture. ... Brighton Rock is a novel by Graham Greene, published in 1938, and later made into a 1947 film. ... This article is about the writer. ... Veronika Decides to Die (Portuguese Veronika decide morrer) is a novel by Paulo Coelho; it tells the story of 24 year old Veronika, who appears to have everything in life going for her, but who decides to kill herself. ... Paulo Coelho (IPA: ) (born August 24, 1947) is a Brazilian lyricist and novelist. ... Untraceable is an upcoming 2008 thriller which stars Diane Lane, Joseph Cross, Billy Burke, and Colin Hanks. ...


References

  1. ^ Khairallah, Amin A. Outline of Arabic Contributions to Medicine, chapter 10. Beirut, 1946.
  2. ^ T.M. Orlando, T.B. McCord, G.A Grieves, Icarus 177 (2005) 528–533
  3. ^ a b c Greenwood, N. N.; Earnshaw, A. (1997). Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd Edition, Oxford:Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0-7506-3365-4. 
  4. ^ F. A. Carey. Reactions of Arenes. Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution. On-Line Learning Center for Organic Chemistry. University of Calgary. Retrieved on 2008-01-27.
  5. ^ Chenier, Philip J. Survey of Industrial Chemistry, pp 45-57. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1987. ISBN.
  6. ^ International Labour Organization. (February 2000). Sulfuric Acid. International Labour Organization. Retrieved March 25, 2008. From http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/cis/products/icsc/dtasht/_icsc03/icsc0362.htm.
  7. ^ Annex to Form D ("Red List"), 11th Edition, January 2007 (pg. 4). International Narcotics Control Board. Vienna, Austria; 2007.
  8. ^ 66 FR 52670—52675. 17 October 2001.
  9. ^ 21 CFR 1309
  10. ^ 21 USC, Chapter 13 (Controlled Substances Act)
  • Institut National de Recherche et de Sécurité. (1997). "Acide sulfurique". Fiche toxicologique n°30, Paris: INRS, 5 pp.
  • Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 71st edition, CRC Press, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1990.
  • Agamanolis DP. Metabolic and toxic disorders. In: Prayson R, editor. Neuropathology: a volume in the foundations in diagnostic pathology series. Philadelphia: Elsevier/Churchill Livingstone, 2005; 413-315.

Arch marking south entrance to campus during the winter. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Mr. ... This article is about the city and federal state in Austria. ...

External links

  • International Chemical Safety Card 0362
  • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards
  • External Material Safety Data Sheet
  • Sulfuric acid analysis - titration freeware
  • - Sulfuric Acid density and pH-value at t=20°C


  Results from FactBites:
 
ATSDR - ToxFAQs™: Sulfur Trioxide and Sulfuric Acid (1066 words)
Sulfuric acid dissolves in the water in air and can remain suspended in air for varying periods of time.
Sulfuric acid is removed from the air in rain.
Sulfuric acid contributes to the formation of acid rain.
Sulfuric Acid - MSN Encarta (879 words)
In 1740 the acid was produced successfully on a commercial scale by burning sulfur and potassium nitrate in a ladle suspended in a large glass globe partially filled with water.
When concentrated sulfuric acid is heated, it behaves also as an oxidizing agent, capable, for example, of dissolving such relatively unreactive metals as copper, mercury, and lead to produce metal sulfate, sulfur dioxide, and water.
The trioxide is dissolved in concentrated sulfuric acid, and at the same time a regulated influx of water maintains the concentration at a selected level usually about 95 percent.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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