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Encyclopedia > Sulfur hexafluoride
Sulfur hexafluoride
Structure and dimensions of the sulfur hexafluoride molecule
Ball-and-stick model of sulfur hexafluoride
Space-filling model of sulfur hexafluoride
IUPAC name sulfur(VI) fluoride
Other names sulphur hexafluoride
Identifiers
CAS number [2551-62-4]
RTECS number WS4900000
SMILES FS(F)(F)(F)(F)F
Properties
Molecular formula SF6
Molar mass 146.06 g/mol
Appearance colorless, odorless gas
Density 6.164 g/L, gas phase at 1 bar
(~5.1 times denser than air)
1.329 kg/L, liquid phase at 25 °C
2,510 kg/m3 or 2.510 kg/L, solid phase at −50.8 °C
Melting point

−64 °C (209 K) (Sublimes),
Decomposes at 500 °C (773 K) Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1039x1100, 62 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sulfur hexafluoride ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1091x1100, 244 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sulfur hexafluoride ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x1097, 281 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sulfur hexafluoride User:Benjah-bmm27/Gallery User:Benjah-bmm27/Old gallery User:Ben Mills/Gallery User:Benjah-bmm27... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... RTECS, also known as Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances, is a database of toxicity information compiled from the open scientific literature that is available for charge. ... The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. ... A chemical formula is an easy way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ...

Boiling point

Sublimes at Standard Pressure Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ...

Solubility in water low
Structure
Coordination
geometry
Oh
Dipole moment 0 D
Hazards
MSDS External MSDS
Main hazards Inert gas, simple asphyxiant in high concentrations
Related compounds
Related compounds SF4, CF4
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references

Sulfur hexafluoride is an inorganic compound with the formula SF6. It is a colorless, odorless, non-toxic and non-flammable gas (under standard conditions). SF6 has an octahedral geometry, consisting of six fluorine atoms attached to a central sulfur atom. It is a hypervalent molecule. Typical for a nonpolar gas, it is poorly soluble in water but soluble in nonpolar organic solvents. It is generally transported as a liquified compressed gas. It has a density of 6.13 g/L at sea level conditions. Solubility is a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... The coordination geometry of an atom is the geometrical pattern formed by its neighbors in a molecule or a crystal. ... The Earths magnetic field, which is approximately a dipole. ... The debye (symbol: D) is a non-SI and non-CGS unit of electrical dipole moment. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Sulfur tetrafluoride is the chemical compound with the formula SF4. ... Carbon tetrafluoride, CF4, is a carbon fluoride. ... The plimsoll symbol as used in shipping In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals exactly). ... Traditionally, inorganic compounds are considered to be of mineral, not biological, origin. ... // Toxic and Intoxicated redirect here – toxic has other uses, which can be found at Toxicity (disambiguation); for the state of being intoxicated by alcohol see Drunkenness. ... Flammable or Flammability refers to the ease at which a substance will ignite, causing fire or combustion. ... For other uses, see Gas (disambiguation). ... The octahedral molecular geometry is a part of coordination chemistry and describes a molecular geometry in which atoms or ligands are arranged around a central atom with 4 of them in the same plane as the central atom at the corners of a square (basal positions) and two more at... Distinguished from fluorene and fluorone. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... A hypervalent molecule is a molecule that contains one or more typical elements (group 1, 2, 13-18) formally bearing more than eight electrons in their valence shells. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Solution. ...

Contents

Synthesis and chemistry

SF6 can be prepared from the elements, that is exposure of S8 to F2. This is also the method used by the discoverers Henri Moissan and Paul Lebeau in 1901. Some other sulfur fluorides are cogenerated, but these are removed by heating the mixture to disproportionate any S2F10 and then scrubbing the product with NaOH to destroy remaining SF4. This article is about the chemical element. ... Distinguished from fluorene and fluorone. ... Ferdinand Frederick Henri Moissan (September 28, 1852 – February 20, 1907) was a French chemist who won the 1906 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work in isolating fluorine from its compounds. ... Disproportionation is a concept in chemistry and is a redox reaction where a reactant is both oxidised and reduced in the same chemical reaction. ... Sulfur tetrafluoride is the chemical compound with the formula SF4. ...


There is virtually no reaction chemistry for SF6. It does not react with molten sodium, but reacts exothermically with lithium. For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ... In thermodynamics, the word exothermic outside heating describes a process or reaction that releases energy usually in the form of heat, but it can also release energy in form of light (e. ... This article is about the chemical element. ...


Starting from SF4, one can prepare SF5Cl, which is structurally related to SF6. The monochloride is, however, a strong oxidant and readily hydrolyzed to sulfate. The sulfate anion, SO42− The structure and bonding of the sulfate ion In inorganic chemistry, a sulfate (IUPAC-recommended spelling; also sulphate in British English) is a salt of sulfuric acid. ...


Applications

Of the 8000 tonnes produced per year, most of the SF6 goes into three applications: firstly as a gaseous dielectric medium or other use in the electrical industry, which accounts for 6000 tonnes; secondly as an inert gas for the casting of magnesium; and thirdly as an inert filling for windows. For other meanings see gas (disambiguation). ... A dielectric is a nonconducting substance, i. ... For information regarding the 1970s childrens television show, see The Electric Company. ...


Dielectric medium

SF6 is used by the electrical industry as a gaseous dielectric medium for high-voltage (1 kV and above) circuit breakers, switchgear, and other electrical equipment, often replacing oil filled circuit breakers (OCBs) that can contain harmful PCBs. SF6 gas under pressure is used as an insulator in gas insulated switchgear (GIS) because it has a much higher dielectric strength than air or dry nitrogen. This property makes it possible to significantly reduce the size of electrical gear. This makes GIS more suitable for certain purposes such as indoor placement, as opposed to air-insulated electrical gear, which takes up considerably more room. Gas-insulated electrical gear is also more resistant to the effects of pollution and climate, as well as being more reliable in long-term operation because of its controlled operating environment. Vacuum circuit breakers (VCBs) are displacing SF6 breakers in industry as they are safer and require less maintenance. Although most of the decomposition products tend to quickly re-form SF6 , arcing or corona can produce disulfur decafluoride (S2F10), a highly toxic gas, with toxicity similar to phosgene. S2F10 was considered a potential chemical warfare agent in World War II because it does not produce lacrimation or skin irritation, thus providing little warning of exposure. For information regarding the 1970s childrens television show, see The Electric Company. ... For other meanings see gas (disambiguation). ... A dielectric is a nonconducting substance, i. ... For other uses, see Circuit breaker (disambiguation). ... A section of a large switchgear panel, in this case, used to control on-board casino boat power generation. ... Electricity (from New Latin ēlectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ... Labelling transformers containing PCBs Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic compounds with 1 to 10 chlorine atoms are attached to biphenyl and a general structure of C12H10-xClx. ... This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ... In physics, the term dielectric strength has the following meanings: Of an insulating material, the maximum electric field strength that it can withstand intrinsically without breaking down, , without experiencing failure of its insulating properties. ... An electric arc can melt calcium oxide. ... In electricity, a corona discharge is an electrical discharge brought on by the ionization of a fluid surrounding a conductor, which occurs when the potential gradient exceeds a certain value, in situations where sparking (also known as arcing) is not favoured. ... Disulfur Decafluoride, or S2F10, is a gas discovered in 1934 by Denbigh and Whytlaw-Gray. ... Disulfur Decafluoride, or S2F10, is a gas discovered in 1934 by Denbigh and Whytlaw-Gray. ... Toxic redirects here, but this is also the name of a song by Britney Spears; see Toxic (song) Look up toxic and toxicity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Phosgene is a highly toxic chemical compound with the formula COCl2. ... Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Tears trickling down the cheeks Lacrimation is the bodys process of producing tears, which are a liquid to clean and lubricate the eyes. ...


SF6 is also commonly encountered as a high voltage dielectric in the high voltage supplies of particle accelerators, such as Van de Graaff generators and Pelletrons and high voltage transmission electron microscopes. Atom Smasher redirects here. ... Van de Graf generator. ... Pelletron is an electrostatic particle accelerator similar to a Van de Graaff generator, which is able to reach several million electron-volts (MeV) of kinetic energy. ... An electron microscope is a type of microscope that uses electrons as a way to illuminate and create an image of a specimen. ...


Medical use

Because SF6 is relatively slowly absorbed by the bloodstream, it is used to provide a long-term tamponade or plug of a retinal hole in retinal detachment repair operations. Tamponade is a condition of blood flow stoppage either by insertion of a tampon (a wadded cotton plug) into a blood vessel or by a constriction of the vessel by an outside force. ... Retinal detachment is a disorder of the eye in which the retina peels away from its underlying layer of support tissue. ...


In a further medical application, SF6 is employed as a contrast agent for ultrasound imaging. Sulfur hexafluoride microbubbles are administered in solution through injection into a peripheral vein. These microbubbles enhance their visibility of blood vessels, to ultrasound. This application has been utilized to examine the vascularity of tumours amongst other things. For other uses, see Ultrasound (disambiguation). ...


Tracer compound

Gaseous SF6 is still a commonly used tracer gas for use in short-term experiments of ventilation efficiency in buildings and indoor enclosures, and for determining infiltration rates. Several factors recommend its use: Its concentration can be measured with satisfactory accuracy at very low concentrations, and the Earth's atmosphere has a negligible concentration of SF6. Return inlet (left)Supply outlet (right). ... Infiltration is the unintentional or accidential introduction of outside air into a building, typically through cracks in the building envelope and through use of doors for passage. ... Air redirects here. ...


Sulfur hexafluoride was used as a harmless test gas in an experiment at St John's Wood tube station in London, England on 25 March 2007.[1] The gas was released throughout the station, and monitored as it drifted around. The purpose of the experiment, which had been announced earlier in March by the Secretary of State for Transport Douglas Alexander, was to investigate how toxic gas might spread throughout London Underground stations and buildings during a terrorist attack. St Johns Wood tube station is a London Underground station at St Johns Wood. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The Secretary of State for Transport is the member of the cabinet responsible for the British Department for Transport. ... Douglas Garven Alexander (born October 26, 1967) is a British politician who is Secretary of State for International Development. ... The London Underground is a rapid transit system that serves a large part of Greater London and some neighbouring areas of Essex, Hertfordshire and Buckinghamshire. ...


It has been used successfully as a tracer in oceanography to study diapycnal mixing and air-sea gas exchange. Thermohaline circulation Oceanographic frontal systems on the southern hemisphere Oceanography (from the greek words Ωκεανός meaning Ocean and γράφω meaning to write), also called oceanology or marine science, is the branch of Earth Sciences that studies the Earths oceans and seas. ...


Other uses

Sulfur hexafluoride is also used as a reagent for creating thrust in a closed Rankine cycle propulsion system, reacting with solid lithium as used in the United States Navy's Mark 50 torpedo. A reactant or reagent is a substance consumed during a chemical reaction. ... The Rankine cycle is a thermodynamic cycle. ... This box:      For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... USN redirects here. ... Mark 50 torpedo being fired The Mark 50 torpedo is a U.S. Navy advanced lightweight torpedo for use against the faster, deeper-diving and more sophisticated submarines. ...


SF6 plasma is also used in the semiconductor industry as an etchant. For other uses, see Plasma. ... A semiconductor is a solid material that has electrical conductivity in between that of a conductor and that of an insulator; it can vary over that wide range either permanently or dynamically. ... Etching is used in microfabrication to chemically remove layers from the surface of a wafer during manufacturing. ...


The magnesium industry uses large amounts of SF6 as inert gas to fill casting forms. General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ...


Due to its high density, sulfur hexafluoride is often used in public "magic" tricks where it is renowned for being "invisible water". One video shows a small 'boat' made from aluminium foil being carefully placed in a container of SF6, where it floats almost exactly as if the container was filled with water. A beaker is then used to scoop up the gas from the container and into the foil boat, making it heavier and heavier, until finally, it sinks to the bottom of the tank. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Illustration of a Beaker A beaker is a type of laboratory glassware which consists of a cylindrical cup with a notch on the top to allow for the pouring of liquids. ...


Greenhouse gas

According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, SF6 is the most potent greenhouse gas that it has evaluated, with a global warming potential of 22,200 times that of CO2 when compared over a 100 year period--SF6 is very stable (for countries reporting their emissions to the UNFCCC, a GWP of 23,900 for SF6 was suggested at the third Conference of the Parties: GWP used in Kyoto protocol).[2] Its mixing ratio in the atmosphere is lower than that of CO2 about 6.5 parts per trillion (ppt) in 2008 versus 380 ppm of carbon dioxide, but has steadily increased (from a figure of 4.0 parts per trillion in the late 1990s)[3]. IPCC is the science authority for the UNFCCC The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established in 1988 by two United Nations organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), to evaluate the risk of climate change brought on by humans, based mainly on... Top: Increasing atmospheric levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... Global warming potential (GWP) is a measure of how much a given mass of greenhouse gas is estimated to contribute to global warming. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Global warming potential (GWP) is a measure of how much a given mass of greenhouse gas is estimated to contribute to global warming. ... Atmospheres redirects here. ... Parts-per notation is a measure of concentration that is used where low levels of concentration are significant. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...


Notable characteristics

Because the gas has a high density (over five times denser than air), SF6 can be poured into open containers, like beakers and fishtanks. Moreover, light objects, e.g. ship-like vessels made out of light wood or aluminium foil containing air inside, can float on the gas.[4]


Physiological effects and precautions

Another effect is the gas's ability to alter vocal sound waves. The gas can be inhaled in a small, safe amount and cause the breather's voice to sound very deep. This, too, is due to the gas density. Unlike helium, which is much less dense than air, SF6 is approximately 5 times more dense than air, and the velocity of sound through the gas is 0.44 times the speed of sound in air. Unlike a gas such as helium, the speed of sound in which is greater than the speed of sound in air, the result of inhaling SF6 is the opposite of inhaling helium, a reduction in the pitch of the voice.[5] General Name, symbol, number helium, He, 2 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 1, s Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 4. ... Pitch is the perceived fundamental frequency of a sound. ...


Although inhaling SF6 can be a novel amusement, the practice can be dangerous because, like all gases other than oxygen, it displaces the oxygen needed for breathing. In general, dense, odourless gases in confined areas present the hazard of suffocation. A myth exists that SF6 is too heavy for the lungs to expel unassisted, and that after inhaling SF6, it is necessary to bend over completely at the waist to allow the excess gas to "spill" out of the body. In fact, the lungs mix gases very effectively and rapidly, such that SF6 would be purged from the lungs within a breath or two.[6]


References

  1. ^ 'Poison gas' test on Underground. BBC News (25 March 2007). Retrieved on 2007-03-31.
  2. ^ Climate Change 2001: Working Group I: The Scientific Basis. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2001). Retrieved on 2007-03-31.
  3. ^ NOAA ESRL GMD Carbon Cycle - Interactive Atmospheric Data Visualisation. US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (21 April 2008). Retrieved on 2008-4-21.
  4. ^ TheTvelvethMonkey (6 January 2007). Ship floating on nothing! :: Physikshow Uni Bonn. YouTube. Retrieved on 2007-03-31.
  5. ^ Steve Spangler. Anti-Helium - Sulfur Hexafluoride. Steve Spangler Science. Retrieved on 2007-06-29.
  6. ^ Steven B. Harris (6 June 1995). helium inhalation. Usenet Archives. Retrieved on 2007-03-31.

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • (1991) Gaseous Dielectrics VI. Plenum Press. ISBN 0-306-43894-1. 
  • Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. "Inorganic Chemistry" Academic Press: San Diego, 2001. ISBN 0-12-352651-5.
  • Khalifa, from Maller and Naidu (1981)
  • SF6 Reduction Partnership for Electric Power Systems

See also

Tellurium hexafluoride is the oldest known fluoride of tellurium. ... A hypervalent molecule is a molecule that contains one or more typical elements (group 1, 2, 13-18) formally bearing more than eight electrons in their valence shells. ... Paschens Law, named after Friedrich Paschen, was first stated in 1889. ... For delivered electrical power, see Electrical power industry. ... Isidor Sauers, a naturalized American citizen born in Austria in 1948, is a physicist at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee. ...

External links

A video about a boat floating on sulfur hexafluoride is mentioned in the text via a reference.

EPA redirects here. ... EPA redirects here. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Sulfur - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2153 words)
Sulfur is also used in batteries, detergents, the vulcanization of rubber, fungicides, and in the manufacture of phosphate fertilizers.
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Sulfur mined in Alberta, prepared for shipment at Vancouver, B. Common naturally-occurring sulfur compounds include the metal sulfides, such as pyrite (iron sulfide), cinnabar (mercury sulfide), galena (lead sulfide), sphalerite (zinc sulfide) and stibnite (antimony sulfide); and the metal sulfates, such as gypsum (calcium sulfate), alunite (potassium aluminium sulfate), and barite (barium sulfate).
Sulfur - definition of Sulfur in Encyclopedia (1813 words)
Sulfur (see spelling) is the chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol S and atomic number 16.
Sulfur is used as a fungicide, and in the manufacture of phosphate fertilizers.
Although sulfur dioxide is sufficiently safe to be used as a food additive in small amounts, in higher atmospheric concentration it reacts with water in the lungs to form sulfurous acid there; this causes immediate bleeding, the lungs fill up with blood and suffocation results.
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