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Encyclopedia > Sulfur
16 phosphorussulfurchlorine
O

S

Se
General
Name, symbol, number sulfur, S, 16
Chemical series nonmetals
Group, period, block 163, p
Appearance Lemon yellow crystals.
Standard atomic weight 32.065(5) g·mol−1
Electron configuration [Ne] 3s2 3p4
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 6
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) (alpha) 2.07 g·cm−3
Density (near r.t.) (beta) 1.96 g·cm−3
Density (near r.t.) (gamma) 1.92 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 1.819 g·cm−3
Melting point 388.36 K
(115.21 °C, 239.38 °F)
Boiling point 717.8 K
(444.6 °C, 832.3 °F)
Critical point 1314 K, 20.7 MPa
Heat of fusion (mono) 1.727 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization (mono) 45 kJ·mol−1
Heat capacity (25 °C) 22.75 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P/Pa 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T/K 375 408 449 508 591 717
Atomic properties
Crystal structure orthorhombic
Oxidation states −1, ±2, 4, 6
(strongly acidic oxide)
Electronegativity 2.58 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 999.6 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 2252 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 3357 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 100 pm
Atomic radius (calc.) 88 pm
Covalent radius 102 pm
Van der Waals radius 180 pm
Miscellaneous
Magnetic ordering no data
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) (amorphous)
2×1015Ω·m
Thermal conductivity (300 K) (amorphous)
0.205 W·m−1·K−1
Bulk modulus 7.7 GPa
Mohs hardness 2.0
CAS registry number 7704-34-9
Selected isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of sulfur
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
32S 95.02% S is stable with 16 neutrons
33S 0.75% S is stable with 17 neutrons
34S 4.21% S is stable with 18 neutrons
35S syn 87.32 d β- 0.167 35Cl
36S 0.02% S is stable with 20 neutrons
References
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Sulfur or sulphur (pronounced /ˈsʌlfɚ/, see spelling below) is the chemical element that has the symbol S and atomic number 16. It is an abundant, tasteless, multivalent non-metal. Sulfur, in its native form, is a yellow crystalline solid. In nature, it can be found as the pure element or as sulfide and sulfate minerals. It is an essential element for life and is found in two amino acids, cysteine and methionine. Its commercial uses are primarily in fertilizers, but it is also widely used in gunpowder, matches, insecticides and fungicides. Elemental sulfur crystals are commonly sought after by mineral collectors for their brightly colored polyhedron shapes. Look up sulfur, sulphur in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colourless (gas) colourless (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... For other uses, see Selenium (disambiguation). ... Sulphur table image created for Wikipedia by Schnee on June 24, 2003, 23:41 UTC. Licensed under the terms of the GNU FDL. File links The following pages link to this file: Sulfur User:Femto/elements e2 Categories: GFDL images ... This is a standard display of the periodic table of the elements. ... An extended periodic table was suggested by Glenn T. Seaborg in 1969. ... This is a list of chemical elements, sorted by name and color coded according to type of element. ... Categories: Chemical elements ... sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex... Together with the metals and metalloids, a nonmetal is one of three categories of chemical elements as distinguished by ionization and bonding properties. ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... In the periodic table of the elements, a period is a horizontal row of the table. ... A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups. ... The chalcogens are the name for the periodic table group 16 (old-style: VIB or VIA) in the periodic table. ... A period 3 element is one of the chemical elements in the third row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements. ... The p-block of the periodic table of elements consists of the last six groups. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom at rest, most often expressed in unified atomic mass units. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following list describes various mass levels between 10−36 kg and 1053 kg. ... Hydrogen = 1 List of Elements in Atomic Number Order. ... Electron atomic and molecular orbitals In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom, molecule, or other physical structure (, a crystal). ... For other uses, see Neon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... Example of a sodium electron shell model An electron shell, also known as a main energy level, is a group of atomic orbitals with the same value of the principal quantum number n. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... This box:      For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... In physical chemistry, thermodynamics, chemistry and condensed matter physics, a critical point, also called a critical state, specifies the conditions (temperature, pressure) at which the liquid state of the matter ceases to exist. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... Standard enthalpy change of fusion of period three. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... The heat of vaporization is a physical property of substances. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... Not to be confused with oxidation state. ... For other uses, see Acid (disambiguation). ... Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... The ionization energy (IE) of an atom or of a molecule is the energy required to strip it of an electron. ... These tables list the ionization energy in kJ/mol necessary to remove an electron from a neutral atom (first energy), respectively from a singly, doubly, etc. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit Atomic radius, and more generally the size of an atom, is not a precisely defined physical quantity, nor is it constant in all circumstances. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... One picometre is defined as 1x10-12 metres, in standard units. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude this page lists lengths between 10 pm and 100 pm (10-11 m and 10-12 m). ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit The covalent radius, rcov, is a measure of the size of atom which forms part of a covalent bond. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... The van der Waals radius of an atom is the radius of an imaginary hard sphere which can be used to model the atom for many purposes. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... For other senses of this word, see magnetism (disambiguation). ... // Headline text POOP!! Danny Hornsby (also known as Gnome) is a measure indicating how strongly a Gnome can opposes the flow of electric current. ... K value redirects here. ... The bulk modulus (K) of a substance essentially measures the substances resistance to uniform compression. ... The Mohs scale of mineral hardness characterizes the scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of a harder material to scratch a softer material. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... Sulfur (S) Standard atomic mass: 32. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting radiation in the form of particles or electromagnetic waves. ... The decay energy is the energy released by a nuclear decay. ... The electronvolt (symbol eV) is a unit of energy. ... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different times this page lists times between 106 seconds (a megasecond) and 107 seconds (11. ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Recommended values for many properties of the elements, together with various references, are collected on these data pages. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is defined by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... See also: List of elements by atomic number In chemistry and physics, the atomic number (also known as the proton number) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom. ... In chemistry, valency is the power of an atom of an element to combine with other atoms measured by the number of electrons which an atom will give, take, or share to form a chemical bond. ... Together with the metals and metalloids, a nonmetal is one of three categories of chemical elements as distinguished by ionization and bonding properties. ... This article is about the physical universe. ... Formally, sulfide is the dianion, S2−, which exists in strongly alkaline aqueous solutions formed from H2S or alkali metal salts such as Li2S, Na2S, and K2S. Sulfide is exceptionally basic and, with a pKa > 14, it does not exist in appreciable concentrations even in highly alkaline water. ... The sulfate anion, SO42− The structure and bonding of the sulfate ion In inorganic chemistry, a sulfate (IUPAC-recommended spelling; also sulphate in British English) is a salt of sulfuric acid. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... Cysteine is a naturally occurring, sulfur-containing amino acid that is found in most proteins, although only in small quantities. ... Methionine is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2CH2SCH3. ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ... Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as a propellant in firearms and fireworks. ... For other uses, see Match (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that ovicide be merged into this article or section. ... A Fungicide is one of three main methods of pest control- chemical control of fungi in this case. ... For the game magazine, see Polyhedron (magazine). ...

Contents

History

Sulfur crystal from Agrigento, Sicily.
Sulfur crystal from Agrigento, Sicily.

Sulfur (Sanskrit, sulvari; Latin sulfur or sulpur) was known in ancient times, and is referred to in the Biblical Pentateuch (Genesis). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3008x2000, 4247 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sulfur Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3008x2000, 4247 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sulfur Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Look up Pentateuch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ...


English translations of the Bible commonly refer to sulfur as "brimstone", giving rise to the name of 'Fire and brimstone' sermons, in which listeners are reminded of the fate of eternal damnation that awaits the unbelieving and unrepentant. It is from this part of the Bible that Hell is implied to "smell of sulfur", although as mentioned above sulfur is in fact odorless. The "smell of sulfur" usually refers to the odor of hydrogen sulfide, e.g. from rotten eggs. Burning sulfur produces sulfur dioxide, the smell associated with burnt matches. Fire and brimstone is a motif in Christian preaching that uses vivid descriptions of hell and damnation to encourage the listeners to fear divine wrath and punishment. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A sermon is an oration by... This article is about the theological or philosophical afterlife. ... Hydrogen sulfide (hydrogen sulphide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula H2S. This colorless, toxic and flammable gas is responsible for the foul odor of rotten eggs and flatulence. ... Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ...


Sulfur was known in China since the 6th century BC, in a natural form that the Chinese had called 'brimstone', or shiliuhuang that was found in Hanzhong.[1] By the 3rd century, the Chinese discovered that sulfur could be extracted from pyrite.[1] Chinese Daoists were interested in sulfur's flammability and its reactivity with certain metals, yet its earliest practical uses were found in traditional Chinese medicine.[1] A Song Dynasty military treatise of 1044 AD described different formulas for Chinese gun powder, which is a mixture of potassium nitrate (KNO3), carbon, and sulfur. Early alchemists gave sulfur its own alchemical symbol which was a triangle at the top of a cross. Hanzhong (Simplified Chinese: 汉中; Traditional Chinese: 漢中; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hanchung) is a city in Shaanxi province, in central China. ... The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, is iron sulfide, FeS2. ... Traditional Chinese medicine shop in Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Bianjing (汴京) (960–1127) Linan (臨安) (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960–976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... R-phrases   S-phrases   Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colourless (gas) colourless (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... Alchemical symbols, originally devised as part of the protoscience of alchemy, were used to denote some elements and some compounds until the 18th century. ...


In the late 1770s, Antoine Lavoisier helped convince the scientific community that sulfur was an element and not a compound. In 1867, sulfur was discovered in underground deposits in Louisiana and Texas. The overlying layer of earth was quicksand, prohibiting ordinary mining operations, therefore the Frasch process was used. Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (August 26, 1743 – May 8, 1794), the father of modern chemistry [1], was a French nobleman prominent in the histories of chemistry, finance, biology, and economics. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Elemental sulfur deposits are found in volcanic or sedimentary areas of Italy, USA, Russia and the Ukraine. ...


Spelling

The element has traditionally been spelled sulphur in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Hong Kong, the Commonwealth Caribbean, India and New Zealand, but sulfur in the United States, while both spellings are used in Australia and Canada. IUPAC adopted the spelling “sulfur” in 1990, as did the Royal Society of Chemistry Nomenclature Committee in 1992[2] and the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority for England and Wales recommended its use in 2000.[3] The spelling of the term in non-official texts is gradually becoming uniform as sulfur. The term Anglophone Caribbean is used to refer to the independent English-speaking countries of the Caribbean region. ... The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international non-governmental organization devoted to the advancement of chemistry. ... Royal Society of Chemistry The Royal Society of Chemistry is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of advancing the chemical sciences. ... The Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) is an Executive Non-Departmental Public Body (NDPB) of the Department for Education and Skills in the United Kingdom. ...


In Latin, the word is variously written sulpur, sulphur, and sulfur (the Oxford Latin Dictionary lists the spellings in this order). It is an original Latin name and not a Classical Greek loan, so the ph variant does not denote the Greek letter φ. Sulfur in Greek is theion (θεῖον), whence comes the prefix thio-. The simplification of the Latin word's p or ph to an f appears to have taken place towards the end of the classical period, with the f spelling becoming dominant in the medieval period. [4] The History of Greece extends back to the arrival of the Greeks in Europe some time before 1500 BC, even though there has only been an independent state called Greece since Turkey, Italy and Libya. ... The prefix thio-, when applied to a chemical, such as an ion, denotes that there is at least one extra sulfur atom added to the chemical named in the root word. ...


Isotopes

Main article: Isotopes of sulfur

Sulfur has 18 isotopes, four of which are stable: 32S (95.02%), 33S (0.75%), 34S (4.21%), and 36S (0.02%). Other than 35S, the radioactive isotopes of sulfur are all short lived. 35S is formed from cosmic ray spallation of 40argon in the atmosphere. It has a half-life of 87 days. Sulfur (S) Standard atomic mass: 32. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... A radionuclide is an atom with an unstable nucleus. ... Cosmic rays can loosely be defined as energetic particles originating outside of the Earth. ... In general, spallation is a process in which fragments of material are ejected from a body due to impact or stress. ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... Air redirects here. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ...


When sulfide minerals are precipitated, isotopic equilibration among solids and liquid may cause small differences in the δS-34 values of co-genetic minerals. The differences between minerals can be used to estimate the temperature of equilibration. The δC-13 and δS-34 of coexisting carbonates and sulfides can be used to determine the pH and oxygen fugacity of the ore-bearing fluid during ore formation. For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... Ball-and-stick model of the carbonate ion, CO32− For other meanings, see Carbonate (disambiguation) In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt or ester of carbonic acid. ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colourless (gas) colourless (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Fugacity is a measure of the tendency of a substance to prefer one phase (liquid, solid, gas) over another. ...


In most forest ecosystems, sulfate is derived mostly from the atmosphere; weathering of ore minerals and evaporites also contribute some sulfur. Sulfur with a distinctive isotopic composition has been used to identify pollution sources, and enriched sulfur has been added as a tracer in hydrologic studies. Differences in the natural abundances can also be used in systems where there is sufficient variation in the 34S of ecosystem components. Rocky Mountain lakes thought to be dominated by atmospheric sources of sulfate have been found to have different δS-34 values from lakes believed to be dominated by watershed sources of sulfate. This article is about a community of trees. ... Water covers 70% of the Earths surface. ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... Rocky Mountain National Park (photo courtesy of NPS) View of Colorado Rockies. ...


Allotropes

Main article: Allotropes of sulfur

Sulfur forms more than 30 solid allotropes, more than than any other element.[5] Besides S8, several other rings are known.[6] Removing one atom from the crown gives S7, which is more deeply yellow than S8. HPLC analysis of "elemental sulfur" reveals an equilibrium mixture of mainly S8, but also S7 and small amounts of S6.[7] Larger rings have been prepared, including S12 and S18.[8][9] By contrast, sulfur's lighter neighbor oxygen only exists in two states of allotropic significance: O2 and O3. Selenium, the heavier analogue of sulfur can form rings but is more often found as a polymer chain. There are a number of allotropes of sulfur. ... Diamond and graphite are two allotropes of carbon: pure forms of the same element that differ in structure. ... Chromatography is a family of analytical chemistry techniques for the separation of mixtures. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colourless (gas) colourless (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... For other uses, see Selenium (disambiguation). ...


Occurrence

Sulfur crystalites at Waiotapu hot springs, New Zealand
Sulfur crystalites at Waiotapu hot springs, New Zealand
Sulfur recovered from hydrocarbons in Alberta, stockpiled for shipment at Vancouver, B. C.
Sulfur recovered from hydrocarbons in Alberta, stockpiled for shipment at Vancouver, B. C.

Elemental sulfur can be found near hot springs and volcanic regions in many parts of the world, especially along the Pacific Ring of Fire. Such volcanic deposits are currently mined in Indonesia, Chile, and Japan. Sicily is also famous for its sulfur mines. Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 2227 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 2227 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Green Dragon Spring at Norris Geyser A hot spring is a place where warm or hot groundwater issues from the ground on a regular basis for at least a predictable part of the year, and is significantly above the ambient ground temperature (which is usually around 55~57°F or... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1350x750, 205 KB)Large sulfur pile at North Vancouver, B.C., Canada. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1350x750, 205 KB)Large sulfur pile at North Vancouver, B.C., Canada. ... For other uses, see Alberta (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Vancouver (disambiguation). ... Green Dragon Spring at Norris Geyser A hot spring is a place where warm or hot groundwater issues from the ground on a regular basis for at least a predictable part of the year, and is significantly above the ambient ground temperature (which is usually around 55~57 F or... This article is about volcanoes in geology. ... “The Ring of Fire” redirects here. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ...


Significant deposits of elemental sulfur also exist in salt domes along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico, and in evaporites in eastern Europe and western Asia. The sulfur in these deposits is believed to come from the action of anaerobic bacteria on sulfate minerals, especially gypsum, although apparently native sulfur may be produced by geological processes alone, without the aid of living organisms (see below). However, fossil-based sulfur deposits from salt domes are the basis for commercial production in the United States, Poland, Russia, Turkmenistan, and Ukraine. A salt dome is formed when a thick bed of evaporite minerals (mainly salt, or halite) found at depth intrudes vertically into surrounding rock strata, forming a diapir. ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... A sample of evaporite material Evaporites (IPA: ) are water-soluble, mineral sediments that result from the evaporation of bodies of surficial water. ... An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism that does not require oxygen. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Selenite be merged into this article or section. ...


Sulfur production through hydrodesulfurization of oil, gas, and the Athabasca Oil Sands has produced a surplus - huge stockpiles of sulfur now exist throughout Alberta, Canada. Hydrodesulfurization is one means of lowering the sulfur content of liquids from oil/coal. ... The Athabasca Oil Sands in Alberta, Canada. ...


Common naturally occurring sulfur compounds include the sulfide minerals, such as pyrite (iron sulfide), cinnabar (mercury sulfide), galena (lead sulfide), sphalerite (zinc sulfide) and stibnite (antimony sulfide); and the sulfates, such as gypsum (calcium sulfate), alunite (potassium aluminium sulfate), and barite (barium sulfate). It occurs naturally in volcanic emissions, such as from hydrothermal vents, and from bacterial action on decaying sulfur-containing organic matter. For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, is iron sulfide, FeS2. ... Cinnabar, sometimes written cinnabarite, is a name applied to red mercury(II) sulfide (HgS), or native vermilion, the common ore of mercury. ... For other uses, see Galena (disambiguation). ... Sphalerite sample Another sphalerite sample The unit cell of sphalerite Sphalerite (ZnS) is a gay mineral that is the chief ore of zinc. ... Stibnite, sometimes also called antimonite, is a sulfide mineral with the chemical composition Sb2S3. ... Alunite, or alumstone, is a mineral that was first observed in the 15th century at Tolfa, near Rome, where it was mined for the manufacture of alum. ... Baryte with Cerussite from Morocco Baryte with Galena and Hematite from Poland Barite (BaSO4) is a mineral consisting of barium sulfate. ... A hydrothermal vent A hydrothermal vent is a fissure in a planets surface from which geothermally heated water issues. ...


The distinctive colors of Jupiter's volcanic moon, Io, are from various forms of molten, solid and gaseous sulfur. There is also a dark area near the Lunar crater Aristarchus that may be a sulfur deposit. Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 70 kPa Hydrogen ~86% Helium ~14% Methane 0. ... Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... Atmosphere Surface pressure: trace Composition: 90% sulfur dioxide Io (eye-oe, IPA: , Greek Ῑώ) is the innermost of the four Galilean moons of Jupiter and, with a diameter of 3,642 kilometers, is the fourth largest moon in the Solar System. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... Tycho crater on Earths moon. ... Aristarchus is a prominent lunar impact crater that lies in the northwest part of the Moons near side. ...


Sulfur is present in many types of meteorites. Ordinary chondrites contain on average 2.1% sulfur, and carbonaceous chondrites may contain as much as 6.6%. Sulfur in meteorites is normally present entirely as troilite (FeS), but other sulfides are found in some meteorites, and carbonaceous chondrites contain free sulfur, sulfates, and possibly other sulfur compounds.[10] Willamette Meteorite A meteorite is a natural object originating in outer space that survives an impact with the Earths surface without being destroyed. ...


Notable characteristics

Sulfur melts to a blood-red liquid. When burned, it emits a blue flame.
Sulfur melts to a blood-red liquid. When burned, it emits a blue flame.

At room temperature, sulfur is a soft bright yellow solid. Elemental sulfur has only a faint odor, similar to that of matches. The odor associated with rotten eggs is due to hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and organic sulfur compounds rather than elemental sulfur. Sulfur burns with a blue flame that emits sulfur dioxide, notable for its peculiar suffocating odor. Sulfur is insoluble in water but soluble in carbon disulfide and to a lesser extent in other non-polar organic solvents such as benzene and toluene. Common oxidation states of sulfur include −2, +2, +4 and +6. Sulfur forms stable compounds with all elements except the noble gases. Sulfur in the solid state ordinarily exists as cyclic crown-shaped S8 molecules. Image File history File links Description: A piece of sulfur burning (daytime / nighttime comparison). ... Image File history File links Description: A piece of sulfur burning (daytime / nighttime comparison). ... Household safety matches burning match A match is a simple and convenient means of producing fire under controlled circumstances and on demand. ... Hydrogen sulfide (hydrogen sulphide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula H2S. This colorless, toxic and flammable gas is responsible for the foul odor of rotten eggs and flatulence. ... Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ... Solubility is a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... CS2 redirects here. ... For benzine, see petroleum ether. ... Toluene, also known as methylbenzene or phenylmethane is a clear, water-insoluble liquid with the typical smell of paint thinners, redolent of the sweet smell of the related compound benzene. ... In chemistry, the oxidation state is an indicator of the degree of oxidation of an atom in a chemical compound. ... This article is about the chemical series. ...

The structure of the cyclooctasulfur molecule, S8.
The structure of the cyclooctasulfur molecule, S8.

The crystallography of sulfur is complex. Depending on the specific conditions, the sulfur allotropes form several distinct crystal structures, with rhombic and monoclinic S8 best known. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x804, 137 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sulfur ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x804, 137 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sulfur ... Crystallography (from the Greek words crystallon = cold drop / frozen drop, with its meaning extending to all solids with some degree of transparency, and graphein = write) is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in solids. ... Allotropy (Gr. ... Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... This shape is a Rhombus In geometry, a rhombus (also known as a rhomb) is a parallelogram in which all of the sides are of equal length. ... In crystallography, the monoclinic crystal system is one of the 7 lattice point groups. ...


A noteworthy property of sulfur is that its viscosity in its molten state, unlike most other liquids, increases above temperatures of 200 °C due to the formation of polymers. The molten sulfur assumes a dark red color above this temperature. At higher temperatures, however, the viscosity is decreased as depolymerization occurs. For other uses, see Viscosity (disambiguation). ... A polymer (from Greek: πολυ, polu, many; and μέρος, meros, part) is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ...


Amorphous or "plastic" sulfur can be produced through the rapid cooling of molten sulfur. X-ray crystallography studies show that the amorphous form may have a helical structure with eight atoms per turn. This form is metastable at room temperature and gradually reverts back to crystalline form. This process happens within a matter of hours to days but can be rapidly catalyzed. An amorphous solid is a solid in which there is no long-range order of the positions of the atoms. ... X-ray crystallography, also known as single-crystal X-ray diffraction, is the oldest and most common crystallographic method for determining the structure of molecules. ... A helix (pl: helices), from the Greek word έλικας/έλιξ, is a twisted shape like a spring, screw or a spiral (correctly termed helical) staircase. ... Metastability in molecules is the ability of a non-equilibrium chemical state to persist for a long period of time. ...


Extraction

Sulfur is extracted by mainly two processes: the Sicilian process and the Frasch process. The Sicilian process, which was first used in Sicily, was used in ancient times to get sulfur from rocks present in volcanic regions. In this process, the sulfur deposits are piled and stacked in brick kilns built on sloping hillsides, and with airspaces between them. Then powdered sulfur is put on top of the sulfur deposit and ignited. As the sulfur burns, the heat melts the sulfur deposits, causing the molten sulfur to flow down the sloping hillside. The molten sulfur can then be collected in wooden buckets. Elemental sulfur deposits are found in volcanic or sedimentary areas of Italy, USA, Russia and the Ukraine. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ...


The second process used to obtain sulfur is the Frasch process. In this method, three concentric pipes are used: the outermost pipe contains superheated water, which melts the sulfur, and the innermost pipe is filled with hot compressed air, which serves to create foam and pressure. The resulting sulfur foam is then expelled through the middle pipe.


The Frasch process produces sulfur with a 99.5% purity content, and which needs no further purification. The sulfur produced by the Sicilian process must be purified by distillation.


The Claus process is used to extract elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide produced in hydrodesulfurization of petroleum or from natural gas. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Hydrogen sulfide (hydrogen sulphide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula H2S. This colorless, toxic and flammable gas is responsible for the foul odor of rotten eggs and flatulence. ... Hydrodesulfurization is one means of lowering the sulfur content of liquids from oil/coal. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ...


Compounds

Sulfur powder.
Sulfur powder.

Hydrogen sulfide has the characteristic smell of rotten eggs. Dissolved in water, hydrogen sulfide is acidic and will react with metals to form a series of metal sulfides. Natural metal sulfides are common, especially those of iron. Iron sulfide is called pyrite, the so-called fool's gold. Pyrite can show semiconductor properties.[11] Galena, a naturally occurring lead sulfide, was the first semiconductor discovered, and found a use as a signal rectifier in the "cat's whiskers" of early crystal radios. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 644 KB) Description: Sulfur powder (solution: 2272x1704) Photographer: Serpens, Julian Waldner Source: shot by myself Date: February 5, 2005; 14:46 License: public domain (no copyright), for publishing it is only necessary to publish also the authors name. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 644 KB) Description: Sulfur powder (solution: 2272x1704) Photographer: Serpens, Julian Waldner Source: shot by myself Date: February 5, 2005; 14:46 License: public domain (no copyright), for publishing it is only necessary to publish also the authors name. ... Hydrogen sulfide (hydrogen sulphide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula H2S. This colorless, toxic and flammable gas is responsible for the foul odor of rotten eggs and flatulence. ... The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, is iron sulfide, FeS2. ... For other uses, see Galena (disambiguation). ... A semiconductor is a solid whose electrical conductivity is in between that of a conductor and that of an insulator, and can be controlled over a wide range, either permanently or dynamically. ... AC, half-wave and full wave rectified signals A rectifier is an electrical device, comprising one or more semiconductive devices (such as diodes) or vacuum tubes arranged for converting alternating current to direct current. ... An example of a modern set created by VE6AB The crystal radio receiver (also known as a crystal set) is a very simple kind of radio receiver. ...


Many of the unpleasant odors of organic matter are based on sulfur-containing compounds such as methyl and ethyl mercaptan, also used to scent natural gas so that leaks are easily detectable. The odor of garlic and "skunk stink" are also caused by sulfur-containing organic compounds. Not all organic sulfur compounds smell unpleasant; for example, grapefruit mercaptan, a sulfur-containing monoterpenoid is responsible for the characteristic scent of grapefruit. Methanethiol (also known as methyl mercaptan) is a colorless gas with a smell like rotten cabbage. ... Ethanethiol, also known as ethyl mercaptan, is an organic compound used as an odorant in propane. ... Binomial name L. Allium sativum L., commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. ... Polecat redirects here. ... Grapefruit mercaptan is the common name for a natural organic compound found in grapefruit. ... Many terpenes are derived from conifer resins, here a pine. ... Binomial name Macfad. ...


Polymeric sulfur nitride has metallic properties even though it does not contain any metal atoms. This compound also has unusual electrical and optical properties. This polymer can be made from tetrasulfur tetranitride S4N4. This article is about metallic materials. ... Tetrasulfur tetranitride is an inorganic compound with the formula S4N4. ...


Phosphorus sulfides are useful in synthesis. For example, P4S10 and its derivatives Lawesson's reagent and naphthalen-1,8-diyl 1,3,2,4-dithiadiphosphetane 2,4-disulfide are used to replace oxygen from some organic molecules with sulfur. Lawessons reagent or LR is a chemical compound used in organic synthesis as a thiation agent. ... A compound related to Lawessons reagent named NpP2S4 has been formed by the reaction of 1-bromonaphthalene with P4S10, this is a 1,3,2,4-dithiadiphosphetane 2,4-disulfide which has a naphth-1,8-diyl group holding the two phosphorus atoms together. ...


Inorganic sulfur compounds:

The sulfate anion, SO42−
The sulfate anion, SO42−
  • Sulfides (S2−), a complex family of compounds usually derived from S2−. Cadmium sulfide (CdS) is an example.
  • Sulfites (SO32−), the salts of sulfurous acid (H2SO3) which is generated by dissolving SO2 in water. Sulfurous acid and the corresponding sulfites are fairly strong reducing agents. Other compounds derived from SO2 include the pyrosulfite or metabisulfite ion (S2O52−).
  • Sulfates (SO42−), the salts of sulfuric acid. Sulfuric acid also reacts with SO3 in equimolar ratios to form pyrosulfuric acid (H2S2O7).
  • Thiosulfates (sometimes referred to as thiosulfites or "hyposulfites") (S2O32−). Thiosulfates are used in photographic fixing (HYPO) as reducing agents. Ammonium thiosulfate is being investigated as a cyanide replacement in leaching gold.[1]
  • Sodium dithionite, Na2S2O4, is the highly reducing dianion derived from hyposulfurous/dithionous acid.
  • Sodium dithionate (Na2S2O6).
  • Polythionic acids (H2SnO6), where n can range from 3 to 80.
  • Peroxymonosulfuric acid (H2SO5) and peroxydisulfuric acids (H2S2O8), made from the action of SO3 on concentrated H2O2, and H2SO4 on concentrated H2O2 respectively.
  • Sodium polysulfides (Na2Sx)
  • Sulfur hexafluoride, SF6, a dense gas at ambient conditions, is used as nonreactive and nontoxic propellant
  • Sulfur nitrides are chain and cyclic compounds containing only S and N. Tetrasulfur tetranitride S4N4 is an example.
  • Thiocyanates contain the SCN group. Oxidation of thiocyanoate gives thiocyanogen, (SCN)2 with the connectivity NCS-SCN.

Organic sulfur compounds (where R, R', and R are organic groups such as CH3): Image File history File links Size of this preview: 604 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1100 × 1091 pixel, file size: 144 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 604 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1100 × 1091 pixel, file size: 144 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Formally, sulfide is the dianion, S2−, which exists in strongly alkaline aqueous solutions formed from H2S or alkali metal salts such as Li2S, Na2S, and K2S. Sulfide is exceptionally basic and, with a pKa > 14, it does not exist in appreciable concentrations even in highly alkaline water. ... Cadmium sulfide (UK English sulphide), the mineral greenockite, is an hexagonal, yellowish crystal with specific gravity of 4. ... Sulfites are sulfur-based compounds often used as preservatives in wines (to prevent spoilage and oxidation,) dried fruits, and dried potato products. ... Sulfurous acid (or sulphurous acid in British spelling) is a name given to aqueous solutions of sulfur dioxide. ... The sulfate anion, SO42− The structure and bonding of the sulfate ion In inorganic chemistry, a sulfate (IUPAC-recommended spelling; also sulphate in British English) is a salt of sulfuric acid. ... R-phrases S-phrases , , , Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Related strong acids Selenic acid Hydrochloric acid Nitric acid Related compounds Hydrogen sulfide Sulfurous acid Peroxymonosulfuric acid Sulfur trioxide Oleum Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... See oleum ... R-phrases R35 S-phrases Flash point Non flammable Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3) (sometimes spelled thiosulphate) is a colorless crystalline compound that is more familiar as the pentahydrate, Na2S2O3... This article is about the chemical compound. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... Sodium dithionite (aka Sodium hydrosulfite) is a toxic, white crystalline powder with a weak sulforous odor. ... Important Compound for organic chemistry. ... Peroxymonosulfuric acid, also known as persulfuric acid and as Caros acid, is H2SO5, a colorless solid melting at 45 °C. In this acid, the S(VI) center adopts its characteristic tetrahedral geometry; the connectivity is indicated by the formula HO-O-S(O)2-OH. H2SO5 is sometimes confused... Potassium persulfate (K2S2O8) is a chemical compound. ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , , , , , , Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Related compounds Water Ozone Hydrazine Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a very pale blue liquid which appears colorless in... R-phrases S-phrases , , , Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Related strong acids Selenic acid Hydrochloric acid Nitric acid Related compounds Hydrogen sulfide Sulfurous acid Peroxymonosulfuric acid Sulfur trioxide Oleum Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Sulfur hexafluoride is an inorganic compound with the formula SF6. ... Tetrasulfur tetranitride is an inorganic compound with the formula S4N4. ... The structure and bonding of the thiocyanate ion Thiocyanate (also known as sulphocyanate or thiocyanide) is the anion, [SCN]−. Common compounds include the colourless salts potassium thiocyanate and sodium thiocyanate. ... Thiocyanogen, C2N2S2, is a pseudohalogen. ...

An organic sulfur compound, dithiane.
An organic sulfur compound, dithiane.
  • Thioethers have the form R-S-R′. These compounds are the sulfur equivalents of ethers.
  • Sulfonium ions have the formula RR'S-'R'", i.e. where three groups are attached to the cationic sulfur center. Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP; (CH3)2S+CH2CH2COO) is a sulfonium ion, which is important in the marine organic sulfur cycle.
  • Thiols (also known as mercaptans) have the form R-SH. These are the sulfur equivalents of alcohols.
  • Thiolates ions have the form R-S-. Such anions arise upon treatment of thiols with base.
  • Sulfoxides have the form R-S(=O)-R′. A common sulfoxide is DMSO.
  • Sulfones have the form R-S(=O)2-R′. A common sulfone is sulfolane C4H8SO2.

See also Category: sulfur compounds and organosulfur chemistry Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A dithiane is a heterocyclic compound comprised of a cyclohexane core structure with two methylene units replaced by sulfur. ... A thioether (similar to sulfide) is a functional group in organic chemistry that has the structure R1-S-R2 as shown on right. ... This article is about a general class of chemical compounds. ... A sulfonium ion, also known as sulfonium compound, is a positively charged sulfur atom carrying three alkyl groups as substituents (S+R3). ... Dimethylsulfoniopropionate ((CH3 )2S+CH2CH2COO−; more frequently abbreviated to DMSP), is a metabolite found in marine phytoplankton and some species of terrestrial plants. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Sulphydryl // In organic chemistry, a thiol is a compound that contains the functional group composed of a sulfur atom and a hydrogen atom (-SH). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In organic chemistry, a thiol is a compound that contains the functional group composed of a sulfur atom and a hydrogen atom (-SH). ... Sulphydryl // In organic chemistry, a thiol is a compound that contains the functional group composed of a sulfur atom and a hydrogen atom (-SH). ... A sulfoxide is a chemical compound containing a sulfinyl functional group with a sulfur oxygen double bond attached to two carbon atoms. ... Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is the chemical compound with the formula (CH3)2SO. This colorless liquid is an important polar aprotic solvent that dissolves both polar and nonpolar compounds and is miscible in a wide range of organic solvents as well as water. ... A sulfone is a chemical compound containing a sulfonyl functional group attached to two carbon atoms. ... ...


Applications

One of the direct uses of sulfur is in vulcanization of rubber, where polysulfides crosslink organic polymers. Sulfur is a component of gunpowder. It reacts directly with methane to give carbon disulfide, which is used to manufacture cellophane and rayon.[12] Vulcanization refers to a specific curing process of rubber involving high heat and the addition of sulfur. ... Polysulfides are a class of chemical compounds containing chains of sulfur atoms. ... Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as a propellant in firearms and fireworks. ... CS2 redirects here. ... Cellophane is a thin, transparent sheet made of processed cellulose. ... Rayon is a manufactured regenerated cellulosic fiber. ...


Elemental sulfur is mainly used as a precursor to other chemicals. Approximately 85% (1989) is converted to sulfuric acid (H2SO4), which is of such prime importance to the world's economies that the production and consumption of sulfuric acid is an indicator of a nation's industrial development.[2]. For example, more sulfuric acid is produced in the United States every year than any other industrial chemical. The principal use for the acid is the extraction of phosphate ores for the production of fertilizer manufacturing. Other applications of sulfuric acid include oil refining, wastewater processing, and mineral extraction.[12] R-phrases S-phrases , , , Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Related strong acids Selenic acid Hydrochloric acid Nitric acid Related compounds Hydrogen sulfide Sulfurous acid Peroxymonosulfuric acid Sulfur trioxide Oleum Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colourless (gas) colourless (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... The world economy can be evaluated in various ways, depending on the model used, and this valuation can then be represented in various ways (for example, in 2006 US dollars). ...


Sulfur compounds are also used in detergents, fungicides, dyestuffs, and agrichemicals. In silver-based photography sodium and ammonium thiosulfate are used as "fixing agents." A detergent is a compound, or a mixture of compounds, intended to assist cleaning. ... A Fungicide is one of three main methods of pest control- chemical control of fungi in this case. ... Yarn drying after being dyed in the early American tradition, at Conner Prairie living history museum. ... Photography [fÓ™tÉ‘grÓ™fi:],[foÊŠtÉ‘grÓ™fi:] is the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, such as a film or electronic sensor. ... R-phrases R35 S-phrases Flash point Non flammable Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3) (sometimes spelled thiosulphate) is a colorless crystalline compound that is more familiar as the pentahydrate, Na2S2O3...


Sulfites, derived from burning sulfur, is heavily used to bleach paper. It is also a preservative in dried fruit. Sulfites (also sulphite) are compounds that contain the sulfite ion SO32−. They are often used as preservatives in wines (to prevent spoilage and oxidation), dried fruits, and dried potato products. ... In chemistry, to bleach something generally means to whiten it or oxidize it. ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ...


Magnesium sulfate, better known as Epsom salts, can be used as a laxative, a bath additive, an exfoliant, a magnesium supplement for plants, or a desiccant. Magnesium sulfate (or sulphate) is a chemical compound containing magnesium and sulfate, with the formula MgSO4. ... Magnesium sulfate (commonly called Epsom salts in hydrated form) is a chemical compound with the formula MgSO4·7H2O. Origin Epsom salt was originally prepared by boiling down mineral waters at Epsom, England and afterwards prepared from sea water. ... Laxatives (or purgatives are foods, compounds, or drugs taken to induce bowel movements, most often taken to treat constipation. ... Something that is typically abrasive that assists in the removal of dead skin cells and particles. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... A dessicant is a hygroscopic substance that induces or sustains a state of dryness (desiccation) in its local vicinity in a moderately-well sealed container. ...


Specialized applications

Sulfur is used as a light-generating medium in the rare lighting fixtures known as sulfur lamps. LBNL researcher examines prototype sulfur lamp. ...


Historical applications

In the late 18th century, furniture makers used molten sulfur to produce decorative inlays in their craft. Because of the sulfur dioxide produced during the process of melting sulfur, the craft of sulfur inlays was soon abandoned. Molten sulfur is sometimes still used for setting steel bolts into drilled concrete holes where high shock resistance is desired for floor-mounted equipment attachment points. Pure powdered sulfur was also used as a medicinal tonic and laxative. For the UK band, see Furniture (band). ... Inlay: Decorative technique of inserting pieces of coloured materials to form patterns or pictures. ... Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ...


Biological role

Sulfur is an essential component of all living cells. Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the...


Sulfur may also serve as chemical food source for some primitive organisms: some forms of bacteria use hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the place of water as the electron donor in a primitive photosynthesis-like process. Inorganic sulfur forms a part of iron-sulfur clusters, and sulfur is the bridging ligand in the CuA site of cytochrome c oxidase, a basic substance involved in utilization of oxygen by all aerobic life. Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Hydrogen sulfide (hydrogen sulphide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula H2S. This colorless, toxic and flammable gas is responsible for the foul odor of rotten eggs and flatulence. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... An iron-sulfur cluster is a structural motif found in certain metalloproteins, such as the ferredoxins, as well as NADH dehydrogenase and Coenzyme Q - cytochrome c reductase of the electron transfer system. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... Cytochrome c oxidase The enzyme cytochrome c oxidase (PDB 2OCC, EC 1. ...


Sulfur is absorbed by plants via the roots from soil as the sulfate ion and reduced to sulfide before it is incorporated into cysteine and other organic sulfur compounds (sulfur assimilation). For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Root (disambiguation). ... The sulfate anion, SO42− The structure and bonding of the sulfate ion In inorganic chemistry, a sulfate (IUPAC-recommended spelling; also sulphate in British English) is a salt of sulfuric acid. ... This article is about the electrically charged particle. ... Cysteine is a naturally occurring, sulfur-containing amino acid that is found in most proteins, although only in small quantities. ... Sulfate reduction and assimilation in plants (APS, adenosine 5-phosphosulfate; Fdred, Fdox, reduced and oxidized ferredoxin; RSH, RSSR, reduced and oxidized glutathione). ...


In plants and animals the amino acids cysteine and methionine contain sulfur, as do all polypeptides, proteins, and enzymes which contain these amino acids. Homocysteine and taurine are other sulfur-containing acids which are similar in structure, but which are not coded for by DNA, and are not part of the primary structure of proteins. Glutathione is an important sulfur-containing tripeptide which plays a role in cells as a source of chemical reduction potential in the cell, through its sulfhydryl (-SH) moiety. Many important cellular enzymes use prosthetic groups ending with -SH moieties to handle reactions involving acyl-containing biochemicals: two common examples from basic metabolism are coenzyme A and alpha-lipoic acid. u fuck in ua ... The word Animals when used alone has several possible meanings in the English language. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... Cysteine is a naturally occurring, sulfur-containing amino acid that is found in most proteins, although only in small quantities. ... Methionine is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2CH2SCH3. ... Peptides are the family of molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various amino acids. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Homocysteine is a chemical compound with the formula HSCH2CH2CH(NH2)CO2H. It is a homologue of the naturally-occurring amino acid cysteine, differing in that its side-chain contains an additional methylene (-CH2-) group before the thiol (-SH) group. ... Taurine, or 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid, is an organic acid. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... A protein primary structure is a chain of amino acids. ... Glutathione (GSH) is a tripeptide. ... Coenzyme A (CoA, CoASH, or HSCoA) is a coenzyme, notable for its role in the synthesis and oxidization of fatty acids, and the oxidation of pyruvate in the citric acid cycle. ... Lipoic acid or α-lipoic acid has formula C8H14S2O2 and systematic name 5-(1,2-dithiolan-3-yl)pentanoic acid. ...


Disulfide bonds (S-S bonds) formed between cysteine residues in peptide chains are very important in protein assembly and structure. These strong covalent bonds between peptide chains give proteins a great deal of extra toughness and resiliency. For example, the high strength of feathers and hair is in part due to their high content of S-S bonds and their high content of cysteine and sulfur (eggs are high in sulfur because large amounts of the element are necessary for feather formation). The high disulfide content of hair and feathers contributes to their indigestibility, and also their odor when burned. In chemistry, a disulfide bond is a single covalent bond derived from the coupling of thiol groups. ...


Traditional medical role for elemental sulfur

In traditional medical skin treatment which predates modern era of scientific medicine, elmental sulfur has been used mainly as part of cremes to alleviate various conditions such as psoriasis, eczema & acne. The mechanism of action is not known, although elemental sulfur does oxidize slowly to sulfurous acid, which in turn (though the action of sulfite) acts as a mild reducing and antibacterial agent. Sulfites (also sulphite) are compounds that contain the sulfite ion SO32−. They are often used as preservatives in wines (to prevent spoilage and oxidation), dried fruits, and dried potato products. ...


Environmental impact

The burning of coal and/or petroleum by industry and power plants generates sulfur dioxide (SO2), which reacts with atmospheric water and oxygen to produce sulfuric acid (H2SO4). This sulfuric acid is a component of acid rain, which lowers the pH of soil and freshwater bodies, sometimes resulting in substantial damage to the natural environment and chemical weathering of statues and structures. Fuel standards increasingly require sulfur to be extracted from fossil fuels to prevent the formation of acid rain. This extracted sulfur is then refined and represents a large portion of sulfur production. In coal fired power plants, the flue gases are sometimes purified. In more modern power plants that use syngas the sulfur is extracted before the gas is burned. Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal (pronounced ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... Petro redirects here. ... A power station (also power plant) is a facility for the generation of electric power. ... Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colourless (gas) colourless (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... R-phrases S-phrases , , , Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Related strong acids Selenic acid Hydrochloric acid Nitric acid Related compounds Hydrogen sulfide Sulfurous acid Peroxymonosulfuric acid Sulfur trioxide Oleum Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... The term acid rain is commonly used to mean the deposition of acidic components in rain, snow, fog, dew, or dry particles. ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland For the American hard rock band, see SOiL. For the System of a Down song, see Soil (song). ... This article is about the natural environment. ... This is a drainage basin developed in response to a steady rate of lowering of the local base level, which is the lower boundary. ... Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are fossil source fuels, this is, hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the earth’s crust. ... Syngas (from synthesis gas) is the name given to gasses of varying composition that are generated in coal gasification and some types of waste-to-energy facilities. ...


Precautions

Carbon disulfide, carbon oxysulfide, hydrogen sulfide, and sulfur dioxide should all be handled with care.


Although sulfur dioxide is sufficiently safe to be used as a food additive in small amounts, at high concentrations it reacts with moisture to form sulfurous acid which in sufficient quantities may harm the lungs, eyes or other tissues. In organisms without lungs such as insects or plants, it otherwise prevents respiration. Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ... Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or improve its taste and appearance. ... Sulfurous acid (or sulphurous acid in British spelling) is a name given to aqueous solutions of sulfur dioxide. ... The heart and lungs (from an older edition of Grays Anatomy) The lung is an organ belonging to the respiratory system and interfacing to the circulatory system of air-breathing vertebrates. ... This article refers to the sight organ. ... Biological tissue is a collection of interconnected cells that perform a similar function within an organism. ... In animal physiology, respiration is the transport of oxygen from the ambient air to the tissue cells and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction. ...


Hydrogen sulfide is toxic. Although very pungent at first, it quickly deadens the sense of smell, so potential victims may be unaware of its presence until death or other symptoms occur. Hydrogen sulfide (hydrogen sulphide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula H2S. This colorless, toxic and flammable gas is responsible for the foul odor of rotten eggs and flatulence. ... Toxic redirects here, but this is also the name of a song by Britney Spears; see Toxic (song) Look up toxic and toxicity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


See also

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... In chemistry, a disulfide bond is a single covalent bond derived from the coupling of thiol groups. ... A sulfonium ion, also known as sulfonium compound, is a positively charged sulfur atom carrying three alkyl groups as substituents (S+R3). ... Ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) describes a new EPA standard for the sulfur content in on-road diesel fuel sold in the United States, beginning October 15th, 2006, except for California which must be selling it by September 1st, 2006. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c Zhang Yunming (1986). "The History of Science Society: Ancient Chinese Sulfur Manufacturing Processes". Isis 77. doi:10.1086/354207. 
  2. ^ Spelling of Sulfur (PDF)
  3. ^ Worldwidewords, 9 December 2000
  4. ^ Vanderkrogt.net
  5. ^ Ralf Steudel, Bodo Eckert (2003). "Solid Sulfur Allotropes Sulfur Allotropes". Topics in Current Chemistry 230: 1-80. doi:10.1007/b12110. 
  6. ^ Steudel, R. (1982). "Homocyclic Sulfur Molecules". Topics Curr. Chem. 102: 149. 
  7. ^ Tebbe, F. N.; Wasserman, E.; Peet, W. G.; Vatvars, A. and Hayman, A. C. (1982). "Composition of Elemental Sulfur in Solution: Equilibrium of S6, S7, and S8 at Ambient Temperatures". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 104: 4971. doi:10.1021/ja00382a050. 
  8. ^ Beat Meyer (1964). "Solid Allotropes of Sulfur". Chem. Rev. 64 (4): 429-451. doi:10.1021/cr60230a004. 
  9. ^ Beat Meyer (1976). "Elemental sulfur". Chem. Rev. 76: 367-388. doi:10.1021/cr60301a003. 
  10. ^ B. Mason, Meteorites, (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1962), p. 160.
  11. ^ Nyle Steiner (22 Feb 01). Iron Pyrites Negative Resistance Oscillator. Retrieved on 2007-08-15.
  12. ^ a b Wolfgang Nehb, Karel Vydra "Sulfur" Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry Wiley-VCH Verlag: 2006. DOI: 10.1002/14356007.a25_507.pub2
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External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
sulfur. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (649 words)
Sulfur was known to the ancients; it is the brimstone of the Bible.
Sulfur is a chemically active element and forms many compounds, both by itself (sulfides) and in combination with other elements.
Elemental sulfur is used in fl gunpowder, matches, and fireworks; in the vulcanization of rubber; as a fungicide, insecticide, and fumigant; in the manufacture of phosphate fertilizers; and in the treatment of certain skin diseases.
It's Elemental - The Element Sulfur (315 words)
The majority of the sulfur produced today is obtained from underground deposits, usually found in conjunction with salt deposits, with a process known as the Frasch process.
Smaller amounts of sulfur are used to vulcanize natural rubbers, as an insecticide (the Greek poet Homer mentioned "pest-averting sulphur" nearly 2,800 years ago!), in the manufacture of gunpowder and as a dying agent.
Sulfur dioxide (SO), formed by burning sulfur in air, is used as a bleaching agent, solvent, disinfectant and as a refrigerant.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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